Article

The impact of alcohol-specific rules, parental norms about early drinking and parental alcohol use on adolescents’ drinking behavior

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  • Trimbos Institute / Utrecht University
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Abstract

The present study explores the role of having rules about alcohol, parental norms about early alcohol use, and parental alcohol use in the development of adolescents' drinking behavior. It is assumed that parental norms and alcohol use affect the rules parents have about alcohol, which in turn prevents alcohol use by adolescent children. Longitudinal data collected from 416 families consisting of both parents and two adolescents (aged 13 to 16 years) were used for the analyses. Results of structural equation modeling show that having clear rules decreases the likelihood of drinking in adolescence. However, longitudinally alcohol-specific rules have only an indirect effect on adolescents' alcohol use, namely through earlier drinking. Analyses focusing on explaining the onset of drinking revealed that having strict rules was related to the postponement of drinking initiation of older and younger adolescents. Further, parental norms about adolescents' early drinking and parental alcohol use were associated with having alcohol-specific rules. Parental norms were also related to adolescents' alcohol use. The current study is one of the first using a full family design to provide insight into the role of alcohol-specific rules on adolescents' drinking. It was shown that having strict rules is related to postponement of drinking, and that having alcohol-specific rules depends on other factors, thus underlining the complexity of the influence of parenting on the development of adolescents' alcohol use.

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... In recent years, research has linked substance use to parenting. For example, studies have shown that parents play a key role in the prevention of substance use (Calafat, García, Juan, Becoña, & Fernández-Hermida, 2014;Kuntsche & Kuntsche, 2016;Van Der Vorst, Engels, Meeus, & Dekovi , 2006;Wood et al., 2010). In addition, academic performance and feelings of academic self-efficacy can help prevent substance use (Sheikh & Bashir, 2004). ...
... Some researchers have shown that an indulgent parenting style (low imposition and high warmth) can have positive effects in horizontal-collectivist societies such as Southern European and Latin American societies, sometimes even exceeding the positive effects of a more authoritative parenting style (Fuentes, Alarcón, García, & Gracia, 2015;Fuentes, García, Gracia, & Lila, 2011;García & Gracia, 2009García, López-Fernández, & Serra, 2018;Gracia et al., 2012). In contrast, other scholars have observed a lack of rules with respect to substance use and permissiveness toward substance use in indulgent parenting, which increases the risk of substance use (Van Der Vorst et al., 2006;Varvil-Weld, Crowley, Turrisi, Greenberg, & Mallett, 2014). Thus, scholars show that acceptance of alcoholic drink consumption in a family setting (at meals and with friends) increases use in late adolescence and young adulthood (Livingston, Testa, Hoffman, & Windle, 2010). ...
... Thus, scholars show that acceptance of alcoholic drink consumption in a family setting (at meals and with friends) increases use in late adolescence and young adulthood (Livingston, Testa, Hoffman, & Windle, 2010). In a longitudinal study, Van Der Vorst et al. (2006) showed that having stricter rules about substance use put off consumption, although banning substance (alcohol) use did not predict use one year later. ...
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This study examines (i) the relationships between substance use and parenting style and between substance use and perceived academic self-efficacy in early and middle adolescence, (ii) the importance of these factors in predicting adolescent substance use, and (iii) the role of academic self-efficacy in the relationship between parenting styles and adolescent substance use. The sample comprised 762 adolescents (53% boys) aged 12 to 16 years (M = 13.66, SD = 1.34). The sample was selected using probabilistic cluster sampling according to type of school (secondary, public vs. semi-private) and school location in different areas of the city of Valencia (Spain). This approach accounted for different social strata of families. The results show that substance use and parents’ neglect are greater in middle adolescence than in early adolescence. Support and family communication and perceived academic self-efficacy are lower. Substance use is positively related to parents’ neglect, psychological control, and rejection. The relationships between neglect and psychological control and substance use are moderated by academic self-efficacy, and the relationship between psychological control and substance use is mediated by academic self-efficacy.
... Characteristics of the 23 included studies represented in 29 articles are shown in Table 2. Twelve studies were longitudinal [27,[42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54], six cross-sectional [21,[55][56][57][58][59], three randomized controlled trials [28,[60][61][62][63] and two quasiexperimental [64,65]. More than half (14) of the studies were carried out in the United States [27,28,[42][43][44][45][46][48][49][50]52,53,55,58,59,66], with the other nine in Europe: four in Sweden [47,60,64,65], two in the Netherlands [17,51,54,[61][62][63] and one in each of the following: Denmark [56], Ireland [57] and Norway [21]. ...
... Characteristics of the 23 included studies represented in 29 articles are shown in Table 2. Twelve studies were longitudinal [27,[42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54], six cross-sectional [21,[55][56][57][58][59], three randomized controlled trials [28,[60][61][62][63] and two quasiexperimental [64,65]. More than half (14) of the studies were carried out in the United States [27,28,[42][43][44][45][46][48][49][50]52,53,55,58,59,66], with the other nine in Europe: four in Sweden [47,60,64,65], two in the Netherlands [17,51,54,[61][62][63] and one in each of the following: Denmark [56], Ireland [57] and Norway [21]. The sample size of the included studies varied between 118 [50] and 2599 [17]. ...
... The sample size of the included studies varied between 118 [50] and 2599 [17]. Seven studies [21,27,42,44,46,51,54,57,58,66] collected data from both parents, two studies only from mothers [49,55], and the rest did not specify parents by gender [17,28,43,45,47,48,50,52,53,56,[59][60][61][62][63][64][65]. ...
Article
Aims The main aim of this study was to assess the relationship between parental attitudes towards children's alcohol use and their child's alcohol use. Secondary aims included assessing the relationship between attitudes reported by parents and those perceived by children, and between perceived parental attitudes and children's alcohol use. Methods Meta‐analysis of studies reporting on the associations between parental attitudes towards children's alcohol use and children's self‐reported alcohol use. Published, peer‐reviewed cross‐sectional and longitudinal studies were identified from the following databases up to April 2018: Medline, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Scopus and Web of Science. Quality assessment was performed by using guidelines developed by Hayden, Cote & Bombardier. Pooled effect sizes were calculated by using random‐effects meta‐analyses, if there were at least two studies that could be included per analysis. Of 7471 articles screened, 29 were included comprising data from 16 477 children and 15 229 parents. Results Less restrictive parental attitudes towards children's alcohol use were related to higher rates of alcohol use initiation [odds ratio (OR) = 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.17–1.80], alcohol use frequency (OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.24–1.86) and drunkenness (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.35–1.85) among children. Less perceived restrictive parental attitudes were related to higher alcohol use frequency (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.29–2.40). Perceived parental attitudes were not clearly related to alcohol use initiation. Parent‐reported attitudes and perceived parental attitudes were weakly positively correlated (r = 0.27, P = ≤ 0.001). The strength of the relationship between parental attitudes and children's alcohol use frequency attenuated with children's age. Study design, sample size, study location and levels of alcohol use frequency did not have a detectable effect on the relationship. Conclusions Less restrictive parental attitudes towards children's alcohol use are associated with increases in children's alcohol use onset, alcohol use frequency and drunkenness. Children's perception of less restrictive parental attitudes is associated with children's alcohol use.
... In addition, parent disapproval of children drinking has been found to be protective for both boys and girls, with the association being stronger for boys. 20,25 However, these studies did not examine whether gender differences were associated with parent approval of children drinking in supervised or unsupervised contexts. ...
... Studies of Dutch parents show that the more parents (both fathers and mothers) themselves drink, the less strict they are likely to be in relation to their children's drinking. 25,28 However, a study of a US cohort 29 showed that alcohol-specific rules were associated with mothers' drinking, but not with fathers' drinking. These studies also did not adjust for important potential confounders (e.g. ...
... Finally, in relation to hypothesis 5, parents who drank alcohol were more approving of their children drinking per se, and their approval of their children drinking with friends at parties increased over time. Parents who are frequent drinkers may consider themselves less credible in setting alcohol rules 25 and as a consequence be more lenient. ...
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Objective: We investigated parent sociodemographic and drinking characteristics in relation to whether they approved of their children drinking at ages 13, 14, 15 and 16 years. Methods: We collected data annually from 2010–2014, in which 1,927 parent–child dyads, comprising school students (mean age 12.9 years at baseline) and one of their parents, participated. Our operational definition of parental approval of children drinking was based on the behaviour of parents in pre‐specified contexts, reported by children. We measured parents’ drinking with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test‐Consumption (AUDIT‐C) scale and performed logistic regression to estimate associations between exposures and each wave of outcomes. Results: Parents’ approval of their children's drinking increased from 4.6% at age 13 years to 13% at age 16 years and was more common in parents of daughters than parents of sons (OR 1.62; 95%CI: 1.23 to 2.12). Parents in low‐income families (OR 2.67; 1.73 to 4.12), single parents (OR 1.62; 1.17 to 2.25), parents with less than a higher school certificate (OR 1.54; 1.07 to 2.22), and parents who drank more heavily (OR 1.17; 1.09 to 1.25) were more likely to approve of their child drinking. Conclusions: Socially disadvantaged parents were more likely to approve of their children drinking alcohol. Implications for public health: The findings identify high‐risk groups in the population and may help explain the socioeconomic gradients in alcohol‐related morbidity and mortality seen in many countries.
... Increasing evidence also suggests that parental provision of alcohol may be associated with more harmful drinking by youth Kaynak et al., 2014;Komro, Maldonado-Molina, Tobler, Bonds, & Muller, 2007;McMorris et al., 2011;Ryan, Jorm, & Lubman, 2010;Shortt, Hutchinson, Chapman, & Toumbourou, 2007). For example, parental provision of alcohol has been found to predict significant increases in heavy episodic use and drunkenness Livingston, Testa, Hoffman, & Windle, 2010); adult-supervised youth alcohol consumption has been associated with more frequent consumption of alcohol and higher levels of alcoholrelated harms (McMorris et al., 2011;van der Vorst, Rutger, Meeus, & Dekovic, 2006); and parental provision of alcohol for consumption in unsupervised settings has been associated with substantially increased odds of engagement in risky drinking . ...
... In addition, youth who perceive their parents to be permissive of underage alcohol use report more frequent episodes of heavy episodic drinking and occurrences of alcohol-related negative consequences (Stafström, 2014;Wood, Read, Mitchell, & Brand, 2004). By contrast, parental attitudes and norms in opposition of underage alcohol use (e.g., perceived parental disapproval) have been associated with lower levels of alcohol use among youth (Ary, Tildesley, Hops, & Andrews, 1993;Ryan et al., 2010;van der Vorst et al., 2006;Wood et al., 2004). ...
... Despite the aforementioned large body of evidence suggesting that parental provision, even in supervised settings, is not an effective harm minimization strategy Komro et al., 2007;Livingston et al., 2010;Lundborg, 2007;McMorris et al., 2011;van der Vorst et al., 2006), a substantial minority of parents report believing in several myths associated with underage alcohol consumption and therefore consider it appropriate for young people to be introduced to alcohol prior to the legal minimum purchase age Roberts, Beckwith, & Watts, 2010;Smyth, Darker, Donnelly-Swift, Barry, & Allwright, 2010). For example, many parents incorrectly believe that providing alcohol to their underage child teaches their child to drink responsibly (Jones, 2016), allows parents to control the quantity and type of alcohol consumed (Lundborg, 2007), and reduces perceived social or physical harms to their child Jackson, Ennett, Dickinson, & Bowling, 2012). ...
Article
Background: Parental provision of alcohol to their underage child has been associated with risky adolescent drinking. While parents' belief in the appropriateness of providing their child with alcohol may influence their provision behaviors, research into the factors associated with this belief is lacking. Objectives: This study sought to identify the factors associated with parents' belief in the appropriateness of providing alcohol to their underage child. Methods: Western Australian parents of 12-17 year olds (n = 443) completed an online survey assessing their drinking habits, alcohol provision behaviors, alcohol-related beliefs and attitudes, their child's alcohol consumption, and demographics. Results: Nearly half (44%) the parents surveyed reported providing their underage child with alcohol. Parents of older children and parents who (i) did not believe in the harms and recommendations associated with alcohol use in youth, (ii) agreed with youth-related drinking myths, and (iii) reported more occasions of alcohol consumption by their child were more likely to believe that it was appropriate to provide alcohol to their underage child. Those who believed providing alcohol to their underage child was appropriate were in turn more likely to provide alcohol. Conclusions: Interventions aiming to reduce parental provision of alcohol to children should focus on changing parents' beliefs that this is an appropriate harm minimization behavior. Belief change may be facilitated by the implementation of public education campaigns that increase parents' belief in the alcohol-related harms associated with youth drinking and debunk youth-related drinking myths.
... Parents' rules toward adolescent drinking are one strategy that can attenuate these risks (Koning et al., 2012;Sharmin et al., 2017;Verdurmen et al., 2014;Yap et al., 2017). Much of our knowledge on the effects of parental rules during adolescence can be attributed to the parental rules toward drinking questionnaire (PRQ; Van der Vorst et al., 2005;van der Vorst et al., 2006). The PRQ is a 10-item measure that was designed to assess the strictness of parents toward adolescent drinking situations ( Van der Vorst et al., 2005). ...
... Participants were asked to complete the 10-item measure on parental rules toward alcohol use (PRQ; Van der Vorst et al., 2005;van der Vorst et al., 2006). Adolescent reports were used, since the way they experience parenting is a better predictor of their behavior than are parent reports on their own parenting (e.g., Chassin et al., 2005;Koning et al., 2010). ...
Article
The parental rules toward drinking questionnaire (PRQ; Van der Vorst et al., 2005) assesses strictness toward adolescent drinking situations. The aim of the current study was to address a gap in the literature on the psychometric testing and evaluation of the factor structure of the PRQ. The current sample consisted of Dutch adolescents (N = 2922) who participated in a randomized control trial with three intervention groups (parent, student, and parent + student) and a control. PRQ and frequency of alcohol use (past month and year) were measured at baseline (T1) and 12 months later (T2). Results from Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses revealed two reliable factors: (a) rules about normative drinking situations and (b) rules about non-normative drinking situations (both αs ≥ 0.88). Regression analyses conducted to examine the prospective effects of the interventions revealed that both parent conditions predicted increases in strictness toward normative drinking situations relative to the control condition, while only the parent + student condition affected the original PRQ (single factor). Further, the normative subscale predicted increases in drinking (past month and year), as did the original PRQ. Significant effects with the normative subscale indicate that rules toward these drinking situations are ones that account for the effects in the original PRQ, and that the original PRQ can mask effects. The results illustrate that the PRQ is multidimensional. The effects of the normative subscale suggest that intervention efforts should focus on preventing drinking situations that parents normally permit their adolescents to engage in.
... The reason for this may be that education can influence the perception of health and related health behaviors [13]. The higher the paternal education level, the more inclined they are to have good living habits and health care awareness, pay more attention to the cultivation of good health habits of their children, and help them defend themselves against bad health behaviors, such as active exercise and control of tobacco and alcohol intake [14]. Obesity incidence rates are gradually increasing and are high worldwide because of unhealthy eating habits and an inactivity lifestyle [15]. ...
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Article
Based on the sixth round of the 2018 Chinese Household Income Project family income survey (CHIP) data, this study made use of the OLS estimation and transfer matrix method to measure and test the problem of obesity intergenerational transmission, analyze whether there is obesity intergenerational transmission as well as between urban and rural areas, gender, and the parental education level and income level on the suppression of the obesity intergenerational transmission effect. The empirical results draw the following main conclusions: obesity intergenerational transmission in Chinese families, the degree of parental obesity has a significant positive impact on the degree of offspring obesity; the higher the degree of parental obesity, the more it can promote the degree of obesity in the offspring. Moreover, the degree of obesity intergenerational transmission is heterogeneous in urban and rural areas and gender. At the same time, the degree of rural obesity intergenerational transmission is higher than that of urban areas, and the degree of male obesity intergenerational transmission is higher than that of women.
... As expected, more optimal caregiveradolescent quality of attachment was associated with fewer adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms and lesser likelihood of lifetime substance use. These findings align with prior research showing that poor parental attachment is associated with increased adolescent health risk behaviors (van der Vorst et al., 2006). Strong parental attachment has also been found to be associated with improvement in psychiatric symptoms (Buist et al., 2004). ...
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Article
behavioral health needs. We examined the family as well as promotive and inhibitive environments (i.e., neighborhood and school) and their associations on behavioral health among 181 first-time justice-involved Latinx adolescents. Results showed that more optimal caregiver–adolescent attachment was associated with fewer behavioral health needs; more negative caregiver–adolescent communication with greater behavioral health needs. Increased neighborhood disadvantage and negative school interactions served as inhibitive environments and were associated with greater behavioral health needs. Moderation analyses indicated that negative communication was associated with greater behavioral health needs among dyads with large acculturation differences but not for dyads close in acculturation. Findings underscore the need to assess the family relationships and communication, promotive/inhibitive environments, and acculturation differences when determining how to meet behavioral health needs among justiceinvolved Latinx adolescents.
... Intergenerational transmission, which is the transfer of individual traits, abilities and behaviours from parents to their children, is described to be one of the factors that can impact children's outcomes and health behaviour (31) . Previous studies found strong correlations between a large range of parents' and offspring's outcomes, such as self-assessed health (32) , obesity and anthropometric measures (33,34) , mental health (35) , chronic health conditions (36) and health-related behaviours (8,(37)(38)(39)(40) . For example, parental smoking experience is significantly associated with their offspring's initiation and lifetime smoking (38,39) . ...
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Article
Objective To investigate the influence of parental physical activity on offspring’s nutritional status in the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort. Design Birth cohort study. Setting The main outcomes were overweight and obesity status of children. The main exposure was parental physical activity over time, measured during the 11-, 15-, and 18-years of age follow-ups. The exposure was operationalized as cumulative, and the most recent measure before the birth of child. We adjusted Poisson regression models with robust variance to evaluate crude and adjusted associations between parental physical activity and offspring’s nutritional status. All analyses were stratified according to the sex of the parent. Participants A total of 874 members from the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort followed-up at 22-years of age with their first-born child were analysed. Results Children were, on average, 3.1 years old. Crude analyses showed that the mother’s cumulative physical activity measure had an indirect association with the prevalence of children’s obesity. The most recent maternal physical activity measure before the birth of the child was associated with 41% lower prevalence of obesity in children, even after adjustment for confounders. Conclusions The most recent maternal physical activity measure was indirectly associated with the prevalence of obesity of children. No associations were found for fathers, reinforcing the hypothesis of a biological effect of maternal physical activity on offspring’s nutritional status.
... Participants were asked to what degree they thought it is acceptable for a person of the same age to drink alcohol in various situations (1 = 'not acceptable at all', to 5 = 'very acceptable'). The instrument is based on a Dutch translation of the 'Alcohol Use Norms Scale' [33], which was used in earlier research in the Netherlands [34]. Originally it contained seven items; in this study, we used five items. ...
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Article
This study explores the impact of the ‘pre-intervention effects’ of a community-based intervention. This refers to participatory research processes and parallel publicity in the media on changes in alcohol use and relevant mechanisms (rules and norms about alcohol, accessibility of alcohol in a formal setting) among adolescents before any intervention is implemented. The aim was to investigate the contribution of these processes (i.e., pre-intervention effects) to changes in intervention-targeted factors before any actual intervention was implemented. In a quasi-experimental study, data were collected twice by means of self-report among adolescents living in two municipalities (control and experimental condition). A regression analysis showed negative pre-intervention main effects on adolescents’ perceived accessibility of alcohol in a formal setting. Moreover, among adolescents aged 15 years and older, the normative decline in strictness of rules and norms was less steep in the experimental condition compared to the control condition. Additionally, adolescents aged 14 years and younger in the experimental condition reported more weekly drinking compared to their peers in the control condition. No differential effects across gender were found. To conclude, applying a co-creational approach in the development of an intervention not only contributes to more effective interventions in the end, but the involvement of and discussions in the community when planning the intervention contribute to changes in targeted factors. This implies that public discussions about the development of intervention strategies should be considered as an essential feature of co-creation in community-based interventions.
... Our findings provide support for a joint role of AUD and other psychiatric conditions on risk of suicide attempt, although we did not directly test whether the effect of early onset AUD was especially strongly mediated by other psychiatric conditions. Prior studies indicate that early initiation of alcohol use is associated with greater risk of subsequent AUD [38] and suicidal behavior [39][40][41]; this group may be an important target for intervention/prevention. Family-based and community-wide efforts have shown promise in this area [42][43][44], although parental rules regarding alcohol use are not always effective [45]. ...
Article
Background and Aims Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is associated with increased risk of non-fatal suicide attempt. We aimed to measure the strength and mechanistic nature of the association between AUD and increased suicide attempt and determine any causal pathways and/or shared risk factors. Design We employed Cox proportional hazards models in population-level and co-relative analyses to evaluate the risk of first non-fatal suicide attempt as a function of previous AUD. Setting and Participants We used continuously updated longitudinal nationwide Swedish registry data on native Swedes born 1950-1970 (N=2,229,619) and followed from age 15 until 2012. Measurements AUD and suicide attempt were identified using ICD-8, ICD-9, and ICD-10 codes. AUD was also identified using pharmacy and criminal records. Genetic and family environmental risks were derived based on relatedness via the Multi-Generation Register and shared residency via the Population and Housing Census and the Total Population Register. Findings AUD was robustly associated with suicide attempt in crude models (hazard ratio [HR]=15.24 [95% confidence intervals: 14.92, 15.56]). In models adjusted for sociodemographic factors and psychiatric comorbidity, the association was attenuated: For women, HRs declined gradually across time, ranging from 5.55 (3.72, 8.29) during the observation period that ranged from age 15-19 years to 1.77 (1.65, 1.90) at age 40 or older. For men, the corresponding figures were 6.12 (4.07, 9.19) and 1.83 (1.72, 1.94); in contrast to women, risk of suicide attempt among men increased from age 15-29 before declining. In co-relative models, a residual association remained, consistent with a causal path from AUD to suicide attempt. Conclusions In Sweden, alcohol use disorder (AUD) appears to be an important predictor of suicide attempt even in the context of other psychiatric disorders. The observed association is likely the result of features that jointly impact risk of AUD and suicide attempts (genetic liability, psychiatric illness, childhood stressors) and a potentially causal pathway, acting independently or in conjunction with one another.
... Although there is evidence to suggest that parenting practices are associated with the likelihood that adolescents engage in risky drinking, 14 the long-term impact is unclear because of limitations of existing longitudinal research (eg, biases in sample selection, lack of adjustment for confounders, limitations in follow-up periods and retention). 15,16 Likewise, existing studies examining peer influences on the development of alcohol use behaviors have often lacked adjustment for covariates that influence alcohol use [17][18][19] (eg, household composition 20 and alcoholrelated parenting factors [21][22][23]. Given that the effect of early adolescent behaviors on alcohol problems in adulthood are attenuated (and in some cases, eliminated) when accounting for such confounders, 9 the role of parent, child, and peer factors in predicting trajectories of alcohol consumption requires further clarification. ...
Article
Objectives: Adolescents often display heterogenous trajectories of alcohol use. Initiation and escalation of drinking may be important predictors of later harms, including alcohol use disorder (AUD). Previous conceptualizations of these trajectories lacked adjustment for known confounders of adolescent drinking, which we aimed to address by modeling dynamic changes in drinking throughout adolescence while adjusting for covariates. Methods: Survey data from a longitudinal cohort of Australian adolescents (n = 1813) were used to model latent class alcohol use trajectories over 5 annual follow-ups (mean age = 13.9 until 17.8 years). Regression models were used to determine whether child, parent, and peer factors at baseline (mean age = 12.9 years) predicted trajectory membership and whether trajectories predicted self-reported symptoms of AUD at the final follow-up (mean age = 18.8 years). Results: We identified 4 classes: abstaining (n = 352); late-onset moderate drinking (n = 503); early-onset moderate drinking (n = 663); and early-onset heavy drinking (n = 295). Having more alcohol-specific household rules reduced risk of early-onset heavy drinking compared with late-onset moderate drinking (relative risk ratio: 0.31; 99.5% confidence interval [CI]: 0.11-0.83), whereas having more substance-using peers increased this risk (relative risk ratio: 3.43; 99.5% CI: 2.10-5.62). Early-onset heavy drinking increased odds of meeting criteria for AUD in early adulthood (odds ratio: 7.68; 99.5% CI: 2.41-24.47). Conclusions: Our study provides evidence that parenting factors and peer influences in early adolescence should be considered to reduce risk of later alcohol-related harm. Early initiation and heavy alcohol use throughout adolescence are associated with increased risk of alcohol-related harm compared with recommended maximum levels of consumption (late-onset, moderate drinking).
... In this category (13), parental alcohol provision is sometimes described by parents as appropriate in order that children consume alcohol for the first time in a safe way, and some parents allow some drugs but not others (Van Der Vorst et al., 2006). Kaynak et al. (2014) found that most alcohol in this age (13) group was often parentally supervised, and these results support this. ...
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Purpose There are identified problems facing law enforcement in the correct approach to childhood drug and alcohol use at street level which can cause aggression, developmental, psychological problems and family conflict (Maher and Dixon, 1999). Childhood exposure to drugs and alcohol can encourage criminal activity, anti-social conduct and increased child-to-parent conflict (Brook et al. , 1992; Reinherz et al. , 2000; Coogan, 2011; McElhone, 2017). Design/methodology/approach The purpose of this study is to explore middle-childhood (11-15 years) experiences of drugs and alcohol through a survey to determine the earliest opportunity for the involvement of services based on the experiences of children. Findings The key findings are alcohol consumption in middle childhood is supported by parental alcohol provision; those in middle childhood are most likely to consume alcohol at home and drugs at street level (any place away from home including school, young clubs, open public space and parks); children in middle childhood use mainly cannabis to experience euphoria, minimize childhood problems and to fulfill acquisitive desire; and late childhood shows movement away from street-level drug use to drug use in private spaces with friends and increased levels of experiential or social drinking, within spaces shared by larger social groups. Practical implications The authors propose that a health-orientated early help model in middle childhood should be adopted, with support such as community- and school-based child and parental drug education; wider information sharing between schools, policing and health authorities at an early stage to support a contextual safeguarding approach; and recognition and recording practices around middle childhood which is an acute phase for children to become involved in drug and alcohol consumption. Originality/value Children’s drug use in middle childhood is often not recorded, and the problem can be associated with simple ill-parenting approaches. The authors believe that little was known about the spaces and occurrence of drug and alcohol use in middle childhood.
... Táto kontrola spočíva zvyčajne v stanovovaní konkrétnych, vývinovo primeraných pravidiel ohľadom fajčenia a užívania alkoholu, ako i v komunikácií o možných rizikách takéhoto správania a negatívnych dôsledkoch, ktoré so sebou prináša. Rodičmi stanovené striktné pravidlá ohľadom rizikového správania súvisí s nižšou pravdepodobnosťou užívania alkoholu dospievajúcimi a neskorším nástupom experimentovania s alkoholom (Janssen et al., 2014;van der Vorst et al., 2006) a s nižšou pravdepodobnosťou fajčenia (Hiemstra et al., 2017). Podobne i na alkohol zameraná komunikácia súvisí s nižšou mierou nárazového pitia alkoholu a s alkoholom spojených problémov (Spijkerman, van den Eijnden & Huiberts, 2008). ...
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V období ranej adolescencie patria rodičia a ich správanie k významným faktorom, ktoré môžu napomôcť predchádzaniu rizikovému správaniu dospievajúcich. K najčastejším formám rizikového správania v tomto období patrí fajčenie a konzumácia alkoholu. Prvým cieľom štúdie je sledovať rozdiely v percepcii s rizikovým správaním súvisiacich faktorov medzi adolescentmi a ich matkami/ otcami. Druhým cieľom je sledovať vzťah medzi premennými súvisiacimi so správaním rodičov (percipované adolescentom) a fajčením a užívaním alkoholu u dospievajúcich. Výskumnú vzorku tvorilo 580 dospievajúcich (priemerný vek 12,51; SD = 0,59; 51,1 % dievčat), 217 matiek a 150 otcov. Vo všetkých sledovaných premenných, s výnimkou trávenia spoločného času, boli identifikované významné rozdiely medzi percepciou dospievajúcich a rodičov. Výsledky logistickej regresie ukazujú, že najvýznamnejším faktorom súvisiacim s pravdepodobnosťou fajčenia a pitia alkoholu je percipované schvaľovanie takéhoto správania zo strany rodičov. Zdá sa, že bez ohľadu na to, akým spôsobom sa rodičia snažia ovplyvňovať rizikové správanie dospievajúcich, najdôležitejšie je zabezpečiť, aby adolescenti skutočne vnímali postoj rodičov voči alkoholu/cigaretám ako nesúhlasný. Získané výsledky by mohli byť aplikovateľné aj pre učiteľov a iných významných dospelých, ktorí sú v pravidelnom kontakte s dospievajúcimi. Kľúčové slová: percepcia rizikového správania, diskrepancie rodičia-adolescenti, fajčenie, konzumácia alkoholu, prevencia PARENTS IN PREVENTION OF RISK BEHAVIOUR OF ADOLESCENTS Abstract During the early adolescence period the parental behaviour belongs to one of the most important factors that may help to avoid adolescent risk behaviour. Among the most prevalent forms of risk behaviour in early adolescence are smoking and alcohol consumption. The first aim of this study is to explore discrepancies between parental and adolescent perceptions of several factors related to risk behaviour. The second aim of the study is to explore relationship between parental behaviour (as perceived by adolescents) and adolescents smoking and alcohol consumption. Research sample consisted of 580 adolescents (mean age 12.51, SD=0.59; 51.1% girls), 217 mothers and 150 fathers. In all studied all variables but spending free time, showed, significant differences between the perception of adolescents and their mothers /fathers were found with an exception of parental companionship. Results of logistic regression show that the most important factor that is associated with probability of smoking and drinking in early adolescence is perceived parental approval of such behaviour. It seems to be, that regardless of the way how parents try to prevent adolescents risk behaviour, the most important is to show clear and consistent disapproval of such behaviour. Our results may be applied also for teachers and significant others that are in contact with adolescents.
... Belirtilen olumsuzluklar ise ebeveynlerin, çocuklarını risklere karşı korumada ve bu süreçte yaşayacakları zorlukların üstesinden gelmede desteklenmeye ihtiyaçları olduğuna işaret etmektedir (Benson, 2007;Hawkins, Catalano ve Miller, 1992). Bununla birlikte gevşek bir aile yapısının ergenlerin bağımlı olmasının güçlü yordayıcılarından olduğunu ortaya koyan çalışmalar da bulunmaktadır (Van der Vorst, Engels, Meeus ve Dekovic, 2006). Bilindiği üzere madde kullanmaya teşvik eden akranların olması risk faktörleri için-de tanımlanmaktadır. ...
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Drug addiction plays an important role in the problems experienced by children and adolescents in developmental risk groups. The programs developed to prevent drug addiction seem to be more on knowledge level. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between drug addiction and life skills in adolescents. In this context, a qualitative research has been conducted in order to demonstrate the attitudes of young people and their families towards substance use/dependence, the motivations of considering and starting narratives, the reasons of starting to drug, the consequences of drug use and the importance of life skills in preventing drug addiction. The data were gathered from 10 separate interviews with a total of 87 people, consisting of parents (45) and young people (42) with the focus group interviews. The data were analyzed with qualitative data analysis technique using MAXQDA program. As a result of the research, it is found that young people who use drugs have problems with their families, do not have good relations with their families and friends, and they have low school achievement and school loyalty. Among the life skills that young people believe to be effective in preventing drug use are social skills, communication and nurturing relationships in affective domain; , problem solving, resistance to substance and goal setting, health in the field of managing emotions and self-discipline are the most important ones in cognitive domain.
... Research demonstrates that children of parents who drink more alcohol tend to have lower beliefs about the harm of alcohol use (Hawkins et al., 1997). Additionally, parental alcohol use is thought to be associated with having alcohol-specific rules about adolescent alcohol-related behavior, and to adolescents' motivation to adhere to these rules (Van Der Vorst et al., 2006). No studies have examined the role of caregiver alcohol use for underage drinking among adolescents involved with child welfare services. ...
... For example, parental alcohol rules may mediate the association. 40 Rossow et al. 12 reported that three studies tested hypothetical mediating mechanisms and concluded that the association was partly mediated by either parental monitoring and discipline, 38 and/or by alcohol-specific communication, 37 and not by poor inhibitory control in children. 39 In recent times, the research on alcohol's 'harm to others' has advanced considerably, 41 (Supplementary file: Additional references) including investigation of harms to children from parental alcohol use. ...
Article
Background: Why adolescents' drinking is associated with their parents' drinking remains unclear. We examined associations in a prospective cohort study, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics and family factors. Methods: We recruited 1927 children from grade 7 classes (mean age 13 years), and one of their parents, in three Australian states, contacted participants annually from 2010 to 2014, and analysed data from assessments at ages 13, 14, 15 and 16 years. We used the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) subscale to identify hazardous drinking in parents (score ≥5) and children (score ≥3) and constructed mixed-effect logistic regression models, accounting for clustering within school and adjusting for likely confounders. We evaluated the sensitivity of estimates by imputing missing values assuming the data were missing at random vs. missing not at random. Results: Parent hazardous drinking predicted mid-adolescent hazardous drinking, e.g. 15 years olds whose parents [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.00; 95% confidence interval 1.51-2.64] or parents' partners (aOR 1.94; 1.48-2.55) were hazardous drinkers had higher odds of being hazardous drinkers at age 16. The magnitude of univariate associations changed little after adjusting for covariates, and sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the association, across a wide range of assumptions about the missing data. Conclusions: The associations between parents' and their adolescent children's hazardous drinking are unlikely to be due to confounding by socio-demographic and family factors. Parents should be encouraged, and supported by public policy, to reduce their own alcohol consumption in order to reduce their children's risk of becoming hazardous drinkers.
... Drinking also seemed to be affected by parental attitudes, permissiveness and provision of safety. Other literature suggests that parental alcohol use can affect adolescent's alcohol use with greater parental alcohol use being associated with subsequent heavy drinking (Zucker et al., 2008;Newbury-Birch et al., 2009;Van der Vorst et al., 2006). Parental attitudes towards adolescent drinking can also influence onset, with parental rules delaying drinking onset (Blobaum and Anderson, 2006), although an authoritarian parenting style may not be as effective (Foxcroft and Lowe, 1991). ...
Article
Purpose A continuing challenge in the design of effective interventions to prevent adolescents’ alcohol misuse is understanding adolescent drinking behaviour. Although previous research has indicated a number of factors that might predict drinking behaviour, there has been less qualitative exploration of adolescents’ own views. The purpose of this paper is to gain a further understanding of adolescents’ views towards alcohol use and the types of environment in which adolescents drink alcohol. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative design was employed with eight focus groups conducted in groups of 3–5 with 27 adolescents (12 girls and 15 boys) aged between 12 and 14. Findings Thematic analysis identified overarching themes evident across groups suggesting key influences on adolescent drinking behaviour are “social norms”, “enjoyment of alcohol”, “images” and “creation of drinking spaces”. Research limitations/implications This research highlights the importance of environments, parents, friends and peers in understanding adolescent’s alcohol use. Practical implications The implications of this research suggest that interventions should consider targeting peer groups. Social implications These themes highlight the importance of more socially based interventions. Originality/value This paper explores adolescents’ own views of their drinking behaviours.
... Results of this study corroborate previous evidence regarding the importance of setting rules about drinking to reduce adolescent alcohol use (Koning, Engels, Verdurmen, & Vollebergh, 2010;Mares et al., 2012;van der Vorst et al., 2006van der Vorst et al., , 2007. Having strict rules about drinking consistently decreased the odds of alcohol involvement. ...
Article
Introduction: While alcohol-specific parenting practices have demonstrated unique effects on adolescent substance use, their efficacy in the context of parental drinking levels has not been studied. This study assessed the influence of three alcohol-specific parenting practices (rules, punishment, communication) on adolescent alcohol use, and the degree to which those associations varied by parents' own drinking. Methods: We conducted logistic regression analyses among US adolescents (N = 1023; 52% female; 12% Hispanic; 76% Caucasian, 5% Black, 8% mixed race, 11% other race/ethnicity; mean age at enrollment = 12.2 years) to examine the relationship between alcohol-specific parenting practices and the odds of ever having experienced two drinking milestones, having a full drink of alcohol and a heavy drinking episode, and whether parental drinking levels moderated those associations. Results: Strict rules for drinking, higher levels of cautionary communication messages, and punishment for drinking were associated with lower odds of alcohol use. Witnessing parent drinking increased the risk for both alcohol outcomes. Furthermore, parental drinking modified the influence of parental cautionary messages on alcohol use such that the effect was particularly salient for those youth who witnessed and whose parents reported higher levels of alcohol use. Conclusions: Family-based preventive interventions should include skills training in alcohol-specific parenting practices with emphasis on reducing parental alcohol use particularly when children are present.
... Besides, peer relationship plays a key role in ATOD accessibility and consumption. Similarly, other studies reported parenting practices and family members' ATOD use behavior as a predictor of adolescents' attitudes and consumption of ATOD (Pape et al., 2015;Van der Vorst et al., 2006). Indeed, this underscores the relevance of simultaneously intervening family risk factors and predisposing factors for ATOD use that arise from peer relationships. ...
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Alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use form a risk factor for health and social problems during adolescence. From a socio-ecological model, perceptions of 85 young people and 10 stakeholders on the types of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs used and the predisposing and protective factors were explored; among adolescents at the Kenyan Coast in the Kilifi County. We found that the consumption of home-brewed alcohol, tobacco and marijuana smoking, and khat chewing was common and requires multi-component and community-centered intervention. Countering alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use needs enforcement of strong measures to regulate access to alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs for minors; addressing social and cultural norms; strategies for poverty alleviation; and community empowerment.
... Alcohol rules were assessed using a 10-item scale to measure the degree to which parents/ carers permitted their children to consume alcohol in various situations, such as 'in the absence of parents at home' or 'at a friend's party' (α=0.86-0.90). 34 Parental alcohol self-efficacy was assessed using a three-item scale assessing the level of confidence the parent/carer had in their own ability to prevent their child from drinking (α=0.67). 35 These data were collected to inform future mediation analysis and are not reported here. ...
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Objectives To assess the effectiveness of a combined classroom curriculum and parental intervention (the Steps Towards Alcohol Misuse Prevention Programme (STAMPP)), compared with alcohol education as normal (EAN), in reducing self-reported heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol-related harms (ARHs) in adolescents. Setting 105 high schools in Northern Ireland (NI) and in Scotland. Participants Schools were stratified by free school meal provision. Schools in NI were also stratified by school type (male/female/coeducational). Eligible students were in school year 8/S1 (aged 11–12 years) at baseline (June 2012). Intervention A classroom-based alcohol education intervention, coupled with a brief alcohol intervention for parents/carers. Primary outcomes (1) The prevalence of self-reported HED in the previous 30 days and (2) the number of self-reported ARHs in the previous 6 months. Outcomes were assessed using two-level random intercepts models (logistic regression for HED and negative binomial for number of ARHs). Results At 33 months, data were available for 5160 intervention and 5073 control students (HED outcome), and 5234 and 5146 students (ARH outcome), respectively. Of those who completed a questionnaire at either baseline or 12 months (n=12 738), 10 405 also completed the questionnaire at 33 months (81.7%). Fewer students in the intervention group reported HED compared with EAN (17%vs26%; OR=0.60, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.73), with no significant difference in the number of self-reported ARHs (incident rate ratio=0.92, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.05). Although the classroom component was largely delivered as intended, there was low uptake of the parental component. There were no reported adverse effects. Conclusions Results suggest that STAMPP could be an effective programme to reduce HED prevalence. While there was no significant reduction in ARH, it is plausible that effects on harms would manifest later. Trial registration number ISRCTN47028486; Post-results.
... Malta, the Netherlands or Belgiumhas the legal purchase age changed. Similarly, there is evidence that parenting through modelling, greater disapproval of their children's drinking, closer monitoring and warmer and more open relationships are related strongly to less (risky) alcohol consumption in adolescents [40][41][42]. However, there is no research available on changes in parental supply, modelling and approval over time, and whether this might be playing a role in reductions in young people's drinking [37]. ...
Article
Aims: To estimate temporal trends in adolescents' current cigarette, alcohol and cannabis use in Europe by gender and region, test for regional differences and evaluate regional convergence. Design and setting: Five waves of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) from 28 countries between 1999 and 2015. Countries were grouped into five regions [northern (NE), southern (SE), western (WE), eastern Europe (EE) and the Balkans (BK)]. Participants: A total of 223 814 male and 211 712 female 15-16-year-old students. Measurements: Daily cigarette use, weekly alcohol use, monthly heavy episodic drinking (HED) and monthly cannabis use. Linear and quadratic trends were tested using multi-level mixed-effects logistic regression; regional differences were tested using pairwise Wald tests; mean absolute differences (MD) of predicted prevalence were used for evaluating conversion. Findings: Daily cigarette use among boys in EE showed a declining curvilinear trend, whereas in all other regions a declining linear trend was found. With the exception of BK, trends of weekly drinking decreased curvilinear in both genders in all regions. Among girls, trends in WE, EE and BK differed from trends in NE and SE. Monthly HED showed increasing curvilinear trends in all regions except in NE (both genders), WE and EE (boys each). In both genders, the trend in EE differed from the trend in SE. Trends of cannabis use increased in both genders in SE and BK; differences were found between the curvilinear trends in EE and BK. MD by substance and gender were generally somewhat stable over time. Conclusions: Despite regional differences in prevalence of substance use among European adolescents from 1999 to 2015, trends showed remarkable similarities, with strong decreasing trends in cigarette use and moderate decreasing trends in alcohol use. Trends of cannabis use only increased in southern Europe and the Balkans. Trends across all substance use indicators suggest no regional convergence.
... Yet, early adolescence represents a crucial time of substance use initiation (Spoth, Redmond, & Shin, 2001) and early initiation predicts later dependency (D'Amico, Ellickson, Collins, Martino, & Klein, 2005;McCabe, West, Morales, Cranford, & Boyd, 2007). Moreover, once an adolescent has initiated substance use in adolescence, parental influence seems to decrease (Koning et al., 2009;Van Der Vorst, Engels, Meeus, & Deković, 2006). This finding suggests that the window of opportunity for parent-adolescent conversations to prevent the onset of substance use may begin to shrink as youth age. ...
Article
The present study seeks to understand how parents as prevention agents approach substance use prevention messages during the period of early adolescence. Students (N = 410) in a drug prevention trial completed surveys from 7th to 9th grade. Using longitudinal data, a series of latent transition analyses was conducted to identify major trends of parent–adolescent drug talk styles (i.e., never talked, situated direct, ongoing direct, situated indirect, and ongoing indirect) in control and treatment conditions. Findings demonstrate a developmental trend in drug talk styles toward a situated style of talk as youth transitioned from 7th grade to 9th grade. Findings also show that even though the drug prevention trial did not specifically target parental communication, parents in the treatment condition provide more ongoing substance use prevention messages to their adolescent children than do parents in the control condition. The present study discusses relevant developmental issues, potential intervention effects, and future research directions for communication research in substance use prevention.
... Parents should be educated about the importance and impact of their alcohol use behaviors on their children's drinking. Specifically, practitioners and policy makers should inform parents of the powerful influence of their own alcohol use behaviors as observed by their children, even when household rules and norms are intended to discourage youth alcohol use (e.g., Van Der Vorst, Engels, Meeus, & Deković, 2006). Given the magnitudes of the RRs for exposure to peer drinking, parents also need to closely monitor their children's selection of friends. ...
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Although the rate of alcohol use among adolescents has declined, it remains their drug of choice. Parent and peer alcohol use are powerful risk factors for youth alcohol use. However, questions remain about how these factors influence underage drinking. The present study investigates the relationship between exposure to parent or peer alcohol use and two stages of adolescent drinking—onset and escalation—overall and at five age points during adolescence. Participants were 9348 adolescents in Waves I (WI) and II (WII) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, whose parents completed interviews at WI, and who identified themselves as either non-drinkers or experimental drinkers at WI. Reports of WII alcohol use were used to measure onset among WI non-drinkers and escalation among WI experimenters. Risk ratios were calculated to assess the overall impact of exposure to parent or peer alcohol use on onset and escalation, and at five age points (i.e., ≤ 13, 14, 15, 16, and ≥ 17). Findings show that exposure to either parent or friend alcohol use increased the risk of onset and escalation. Age-based analyses reveal a more nuanced relationship, showing variability in the nature and strength of influence by stage of drinking and by age. This study highlights the relevance of both parent and peer modeling on youth drinking throughout adolescence. Implications in advancing prevention and treatment include parental education about the impact of their own behaviors and the importance of monitoring teens’ friendships.
... The parental component of STAMPP was developed by the trial team and was based on earlier work by Koutakis et al., 61 who found that giving advice to parents about setting strict rules around alcohol consumption reduced drunkenness and delinquency in 13-to 16-year-olds in Sweden (the Örebro Prevention Programme). The original Swedish intervention was based on empirical evidence that suggested that lower levels of youth alcohol drinking were associated with stricter parental attitudes against youth alcohol use and involvement in structured, adult-led activities. ...
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Background Alcohol use in young people remains a public health concern, with adverse impacts on outcomes such as health, well-being, education and relationships. Objectives To assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a combined classroom curriculum and parental intervention on self-reported alcohol use [heavy episodic drinking (HED)] and alcohol-related harms (indicators such as getting into fights after drinking, poorer school performance and trouble with friends and family). Design A two-arm, cluster randomised controlled trial with schools as the unit of randomisation. Setting A total of 105 post-primary schools in Northern Ireland (NI) and Glasgow/Inverclyde Educational Authority areas. Participants A total of 12,738 male and female secondary school students (intervention delivered when students were in school year 9 in NI or S2 in Scotland in the academic year 2012–13 and aged 12–13 years) were randomised. Randomisation and baseline (T0) surveys took place when children were in school year 8 or S1. Schools were randomised (1 : 1) by an independent statistician to the Steps Towards Alcohol Misuse Prevention Programme (STAMPP) or to education as normal (EAN). All schools were stratified by free school meal provision. Schools in NI were also stratified by school type (male/female/coeducational). Interventions STAMPP combined a school-based alcohol harm reduction curriculum [an adapted version of the School Health and Alcohol Harm Reduction Project (SHAHRP)] and a brief parental intervention designed to support parents in setting family rules around drinking. The classroom component comprised two phases delivered over 2 years, and the parental component comprised a standardised presentation delivered by a trained facilitator at specially arranged parent evenings on school premises. This was followed up a few weeks later by an information leaflet mailed to all intervention pupils’ parents highlighting the main points of the evening. Main outcome measures (1) Self-reported HED (defined as self-reported consumption of ≥ 6 units in a single episode in the previous 30 days for male students and ≥ 4.5 units for female students) assessed at 33 months from baseline (T3); and (2) the number of self-reported harms (harms caused by own drinking) assessed at T3. Data sources Self-completed pupil questionnaires. Results At final follow-up (T3), data were available for 5160 intervention and 5073 control pupils for the HED outcome, and for 5234 intervention and 5146 control pupils for the self-reported harms outcome. The intervention reduced self-reported HED compared with EAN (p < 0.001), but did not reduce self-reported harms associated with own drinking. The odds ratio for the intervention effect on HED was 0.596 (standard error 0.0596, 95% confidence interval 0.490 to 0.725). The mean cost of delivery per school was £818 and the mean cost per individual was £15. There were no clear cost savings in terms of service utilisation associated with the intervention. The process evaluation showed that the classroom component engaged and was enjoyed by pupils, and was valued by teachers. Schools, students, intervention trainers and delivery staff (teachers) were not blind to study condition. Data collection was undertaken by a team of researchers that included the trial manager and research assistants, some of whom were not blinded to study condition. Data analysis of primary and secondary outcomes was undertaken by the trial statistician, who was blinded to the study condition. Limitations Although the classroom component was largely delivered as intended, there was very low attendance at the parent/carer event; however, all intervention pupils’ parents/carers received an intervention leaflet. Conclusions The results of this trial provide some support for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of STAMPP in reducing heavy episodic (binge) drinking, but not in reducing self-reported alcohol-related harms, in young people over a 33-month follow-up period. As there was low uptake of the parental component, it is uncertain whether or not the intervention effect was accounted for by the classroom component alone. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN47028486. Funding This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Public Health Research programme and will be published in full in Public Health Research; Vol. 5, No. 2. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information. The Public Health Agency of NI and Education Boards of Glasgow/Inverclyde provided some intervention costs. Diageo provided funds to print some workbooks. The remaining intervention costs were internally funded.
... Parents play an important role in the socialisation process of their adolescents, in addition to the transfer of attitudes towards certain issues in their lives (Maccoby, 1992). Research has shown that parents setting rules regarding alcohol may prevent adolescents from drinking Koutakis et al., 2008;Van Der Vorst, Engels, Meeus, & Deković, 2006). In two reviews of risk factors for adolescent drinking, parents' relationship to their adolescent and parents' approval of drinking were the strongest risk factors for young people's initiation of alcohol use combined with monitoring of the adolescent (Donovan, 2004;Torsheim, Sorlie, Olseth, & Bjornebekk, 2015). ...
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Article
Aim: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the parental part of the Norwegian Unge & Rus (Youth and Alcohol) programme. The intervention was aimed at changing parents' rules and attitudes towards adolescent alcohol use, and their ability to talk with their adolescents about alcohol, as well as improving parents' relationships with and knowledge about their adolescents. These topics were addressed during parent meetings at school. Method: The effectiveness of the parent programme was tested using a longitudinal quasi-experimental control group design. Parents completed four online questionnaires N = 1166 at T1 in 2011 and N = 591 at T4 in 2013. Mixed models with observations nested in individuals were used to test the difference in rates of change between the groups. Results: Parents in both groups reported strict rules and attitudes towards alcohol use. There were no significant differences in the changes between the two parent groups in terms of rules and attitudes at the three follow-up time points. The parents in the intervention did not change significantly compared to the parents in the comparison group on other alcohol-related questions. Conclusions: Parents are important facilitators for the transmission of alcohol-related attitudes and rules. However, our study did not show significant differences between changes experienced by the intervention group and those of the comparison group for the main outcome variables, such as rules, attitudes and talking about alcohol with their adolescents.
... Research indicated that restrict rules on adolescent alcohol use is related to lower rates of risky alcohol-related behaviours (Mares et al., 2012;van der Vorst et al., 2006). Also consistent of zero-tolerant messages communicated by parents were more effective 575 Adolescentparent interaction strategies against alcohol use than mixed messages (Abar et al., 2012). ...
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Purpose To determine the extent to which youth have ready access to alcohol and the extent that immediate family influence and affect consumption. Design/methodology/approach This qualitative descriptive exploratory study undertook semi-structured peer-group interviews with 20 participants from four New Zealand High Schools. The interviews centred on exploring the ‘general’ experiences of youth related to alcohol access – but with a focus on alcohol access ‘at home’ and the parental role. Findings The study confirmed that the home unit was the main source of alcohol for most youth and parents were the most common source of provision. Parents provided financial access to alcohol by giving their child money to purchase it themselves through older family members or friends. It was also found that youth used negotiation strategies with their parents to influence their consumer purchases of alcohol. Research limitations/implications Youth frequently used strategies such as pressure tactics, exchange tactics, ingratiating tactics, and consultation tactics to influence their family’s decision making process and to pressure their parents into supplying them with alcohol. Practical implications It is important to recognise the role that family play as ‘gate-keepers’ for readily allowing access and supplying youth with alcohol – and the reasons for doing so. Originality/value Many studies have been conducted in relation to youth and alcohol consumption. Very few, as far as we can tell, explore the role of the family from the young consumers perspective and especially from a qualitative narrative perspective.
... Although our study has a number of strengths, such as the use of a large, national sample, and longitudinal data, its results should be interpreted in light of study limitations. We did not have a measure capturing parent-youth communication specifically about alcohol, which is suggested in the adolescent literature to be an important factor [36,37]. If we had such a measure, estimated associations may have been stronger. ...
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Article
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine how parental relationship quality (communication frequency, time spent together, and closeness) during early adulthood is related to heavy episodic drinking (HED) during this developmental period and whether effects vary according to age, youth sex, or parent sex. Methods: National data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics-Transition to Adulthood Study were analyzed. Youth participated in up to four interviews (2005, 2007, 2009, and 2011; n = 1,320-1,489) between ages 18-25 years. At each wave, respondents reported past-year HED and their communication frequency, time spent, and closeness with each parent (items combined into an index). We tested differences in parental effects by age, parent sex, and youth sex using multigroup latent curve models. Results: Paternal relationship quality was negatively associated with HED for both males and females at each age; associations did not vary by respondent age or sex (odds ratio [OR] = .73, 95% confidence interval [CI]: .63-.85). Maternal relationship quality was significantly negatively associated with HED at ages 18-19 years among both sexes equally (OR = .50, 95% CI: .41-.61). Although protective associations continued until the age of 25 years for males, they weakened and became nonsignificant at ages 20-25 years for females (OR = .87, 95% CI: .72-1.04). Findings were robust to inclusion of multiple covariates associated with both parenting and alcohol use. Conclusions: Having close, communicative parental relationships seems protective against HED in early adulthood, although for females maternal effects appear limited to late adolescence. Programs to improve relationship quality between young adults and their parents may help curb problematic drinking during this vulnerable period.
Article
Purpose This study aims to examine within-family and peer communication (type and frequency) and subsequent wine consumption of young adults. Specifically, this research investigates whether the distinct types of technical, prohibition and moderation-based communication affect wine knowledge, responsible drinking practices, and ultimately, wine consumption. Design/methodology/approach The authors adopted an econometric approach based on a cross-sectional study with data collected from a large sample of 1,466 students in France. Findings The authors show that wine technical-based messages from parents help young adults acquire knowledge about wine, which in turn increases consumption. Also, moderation-based messages make young adults both, more knowledgeable about wine and, as expected, more responsible in terms of drinking practices, subsequently limiting their consumption. Finally, prohibition-based messages marginally decrease wine knowledge and have no impact on responsible drinking practices. Social implications This article provides relevant recommendations for public policymakers and brands, who should target parents and peers as part of their responsible drinking communication or advertising campaigns. Originality/value To fill a gap in the literature on young consumer behavior and food marketing, this research primarily investigates the relationship between family (and peer) communication and young adults' wine consumption, particularly whether and how, which type(s) of parental communication influences young adults' wine knowledge and adoption of responsible drinking practices.
Article
Background The prevalence of adolescent alcohol use continues to be a public health concern. Although adolescents spend an increasing amount of time with their friends, parents remain an important source of support and continue to play a key role in the lives of their adolescents. Extensive research in this area has resulted in parent-based intervention (PBI) efforts to prevent or reduce adolescent alcohol use. However, one major limitation of PBIs is that they do not currently consider the large role that social media plays in adolescents’ lives and in relation to their alcohol use. We will add to the literature by developing and refining a web-based PBI designed to reduce both high-risk social media cognitions and alcohol use among adolescents. Objective The central goal of the proposed study is to develop, refine, and pilot a web-based PBI to reduce both high-risk social media cognitions and alcohol use among adolescents. Methods A total of 100 parent-teen dyads will be randomly assigned to one of the following 2 conditions: intervention or control. Parents in the intervention group will be given access to the web-based PBI and suggestions for working through the PBI modules with their teens. The parent-teen dyads will fill out 3 questionnaires: a baseline questionnaire, 1-month questionnaire, and 6-month questionnaire. Results Recruitment and enrollment will begin in August 2022. Upon completion of the intervention trial, we will examine the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effect sizes of the newly developed web-based PBI. Conclusions This study has the potential to open doors for future studies examining the clinical implications of an efficacious web-based PBI to reduce alcohol use and high-risk cognitions about alcohol displays on social media. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04333966; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04333966 International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID) PRR1-10.2196/38543
Article
Many studies have documented that health behaviors are transmitted from parents to children. Due to the rise in divorce and remarriage, the context of intergenerational transmission has changed. Using a national multi-actor survey from the Netherlands, the impact of parents' health behaviors on children was compared in different types of families. The focus was on smoking and alcohol consumption of adult children (25–45) in relation to the same health behaviors of multiple parent figures when the children were growing up. Analyses show that the influence of divorced fathers was smaller than that of married fathers. Stepfathers had a significant influence on children as well, on top of the effects of the biological parents. The impact of both divorced fathers and stepfathers was moderated by their involvement in the child's life after divorce. The overall transmission of health behaviors was smaller in single-parent families but larger in stepfamilies.
Chapter
This chapter reviews the research evidence concerning relations between parent substance use and substance use disorder and child physical and mental health outcomes. We discuss methodological issues in the literature and review major theoretical biopsychosocial mechanisms thought to explain these effects. These mechanisms include fetal exposure, temperament and gene-environment interplay, parenting (both general and specific to substance use), and early adversity. We conclude with a consideration of protective factors and directions for future research.
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According to prior work, the type of relationship between the person consuming alcohol and others in the surrounding (friends, family, spouse, etc.), and the number of those people (alone, with one person, with a group, etc.) are related to many aspects of alcohol consumption, such as the drinking amount, location, motives, and mood. Even though the social context is recognized as an important aspect that influences the drinking behavior of young adults in alcohol research, relatively little work has been conducted in smartphone sensing research on this topic. In this study, we analyze the weekend nightlife drinking behavior of 241 young adults in Switzerland, using a dataset consisting of self-reports and passive smartphone sensing data over a period of three months. Using multiple statistical analyses, we show that features from modalities such as accelerometer, location, application usage, bluetooth, and proximity could be informative about different social contexts of drinking. We define and evaluate seven social context inference tasks using smartphone sensing data, obtaining accuracies of the range 75%-86% in four two-class and three three-class inferences. Further, we discuss the possibility of identifying the sex composition of a group of friends using smartphone sensor data with accuracies over 70%. The results are encouraging towards (a) supporting future interventions on alcohol consumption that incorporate users' social context more meaningfully, and (b) reducing the need for user self-reports when creating drink logs.
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Background: The parental rules about alcohol questionnaire (Van der Vorst et al., 2005, 2006) uses 10 items to assess how strictly adolescents believe the rules set by their parents about drinking are. An increasing body of literature has attested to the importance of rule setting in the prevention of problematic alcohol use among adolescents. A recent study proposed a two-factor solution in place of the hypothesized unidimensional one, with factors assessing non-normative, and normative rules. Methods: The present study used five waves of data to examine the structure of the scale, and how well it relates to a measure of heavy episodic drinking (HED). Participants in Waves one to four {10,954-9,383} were substantively more numerous than those at wave five (N = 2,332). Results: Confirmatory Factor Analyses did not support either the ten-item hypothesized model, nor the proposed two-factor solution. Results of exploratory factor analyses all pointed to a one factor solution. Using Modification Indices, we obtained a good-fitting, five-item unidimensional model in Waves one to four. At wave five, a good fitting unidimensional model was obtained with the dropping of a further item. Scores on this shortened scale were internally consistent, correlated highly with scores on the original ten-item version, and correlated to a similar degree as the original 10-item measure, with scores on a HED measure. Conclusion: Further work is required in assessing the properties of this scale across cultures and samples before definitively determining that two factors best represent parental rules.
Article
Background Even if the legal age for alcoholic beverages in Germany is 16 or 18, the majority of young people have tried alcohol before this age. Parents are a frequent source of supply, especially for small amounts of alcohol (“sipping”).Aim of the workTo investigate whether trying small amounts of alcohol is an independent predictor for binge drinking initiation.Material and methodsA longitudinal analysis was carried out with 2566 students from 6th to 8th grade from thirteen German federal states (survey period 2018 to 2020). Inclusion criteria were an age of 13 years or younger and had never drunk a full drink of alcohol. The main study parameter was the first binge drinking event within 12 months.ResultsOf the respondents, 35.9% stated that they had already tried alcohol but had not yet drunk a whole drink, while 64.1% had not yet had any experience with alcohol. After 12 months, those who had tried alcohol stated more often that they had already practiced binge drinking. This relationship persisted even after all study variables associated with binge drinking were controlled including age, type of school, sensation seeking, smoking, consumption of energy drinks and coffee, media time, sleep duration, hyperactivity, and behavior problems (adjusted odds ratio = 2.33; 95% CI 1.64–3.31).DiscussionThere was an independent association between prematurely trying alcohol and the onset of binge drinking. The findings are in line with those of other studies that question the practice of early alcohol exposure. However, further studies are necessary to establish a causal relationship.
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Alcoholism is a chronic illness with an insidious onset which may occur at any age and adolescent's drinking behaviour has been the vital social issues in several countries. A pre experimental one group pre-test post knowledge regarding alcohol use and refusal skills among adolescents. Total 98 adolescents from selected schools of Delhi were enrolled. Planned teaching program (PTP) alcohol use and refusal skills was developed by focused group discussion. PTP was administered during pre was collected from adolescents by us efficacy of significance at p < 0.05. There was significant improvement in mean knowledge score of adolescents before (13.26) and after (20.58) administration of PTP and significant increase in mean refusal skill score was found before (96.83) and after (104.73) administration of PTP. Inverse correlation was found between age and subjects first learnt about Knowledge level was significantly high in females, subjects studying in 11th standard, who denied any friend taking alcohol and who reported any neighbor taking alcohol. The refusal skills were significantly high in females, s information about alcohol through newspaper, radio or television. Study concluded that PTP on knowledge regarding alcohol use and refusal skills was very effective and viable method for improving adolescents' knowledge on alcohol use and refusal skills.
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Previous research suggests that, even in college, parents influence the alcohol consumption of their children directly and indirectly through peers. However, research has not tested whether face-to-face interactions with parents buffer students against social influences on drinking. In the current study, 1168 undergraduate students selected 5 people they contact regularly and then completed a 30-day daily diary reporting on interactions with those people and drinking behavior. The 401 students who selected a parent drank less and less often than those who did not select a parent as a frequent contact. In addition, on evenings when these students had met with their parents, they drank less alcohol and the association between others’ drinking and participant drinking was weakened. This adds to evidence suggesting that parents continue to influence emerging adults after they have left home and may be helpful in informing future intervention efforts.
Chapter
Many environmental factors are associated with the increased risk of alcohol and illicit drug abuse using the misuse of opioids. The maternal use of opioids may cause birth defects in offspring and also the possibility of neonatal opioid withdrawal symptoms requiring hospitalization and therapy. The Federal Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act defines maltreatment as child abuse or neglect that encompasses any act or lack of action by a child's caretaker that results in physical or emotional harm. Childhood maltreatment significantly increases the risk of substance abuse including opioid misuse later in life, especially, during adolescence years. Moreover, environmental factors like peer pressure, availability of alcohol/drugs, poor grades in school, and involvement with a gang can also increase the risk of drug and alcohol abuse. Life stressors such as prolonged unemployment, divorce, and widowhood can also increase the risk of alcohol and drug abuse. Mental disorders may also increase the risk of alcohol or drug abuse.
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Based on existing studies on the impact of parental active mediation and parental behaviors on adolescents’ use of media and mobile phones, the present study explored the impact of parental active mediation on mobile phone dependency and its underlying mechanism through 2238 Chinese adolescents to verify a moderated mediation model. The results showed that parental active mediation affected adolescent mobile phone dependency behaviors through a chain mediation of adolescent behavioral attitude and behavioral intention. Parental phubbing moderated the impact of parental active mediation on adolescent behavioral attitude toward self-controlling mobile phone use; the impact was weakened when the frequency of parental phubbing increased. The findings of this study provide theoretical guidelines for parental intervention to prevent adolescent mobile phone dependency.
Chapter
For the last 15 years, alcohol policy in the Netherlands has shifted focus from adults (and predominantly students) to younger people aged 10–18 years old (mainly secondary school students).
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Background: Using intergenerational prospective data from the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), we examine whether parents allowing 14-year-olds to drink alcohol is associated with greater likelihood of early adolescents' heavy episodic drinking (i.e., lifetime, rapid escalation from first drink, and frequent past year), beyond shared risk factors for parental alcohol permissiveness and adolescent alcohol use. Methods: The MCS is a unique, contemporary, nationally representative study with mother, father, and child data from infancy through age 14 years (n = 11,485 children and their parents). In a series of multivariate logistic regressions, we estimated whether teenagers whose parents allowed them to drink alcohol (16% of parents said "yes") faced an elevated likelihood of heavy alcohol use at age 14, controlling for a large host of likely child and parent confounders measured when children were age 11. To further assess plausible intergenerational associations of parental alcohol permissiveness and offspring heavy alcohol use, coarsened exact matching (CEM) was used to match 14-year-olds whose parents allowed them to drink alcohol with teens whose parents did not allow them to drink on these childhood antecedent variables. Results: Adolescents whose parents allowed them to drink had higher odds of heavy drinking (odds ratio [OR] = 2.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.96 to 2.94), rapidly escalating from initiation to heavy drinking (OR = 1.94; CI = 1.52 to 2.49), and frequent heavy drinking (OR = 2.32; 1.73 to 3.09), beyond child and parent confounders and using CEM methods. Conclusions: Adolescents who were allowed to drink were more likely to have transitioned quickly from their first drink to consuming 5 or more drinks at 1 time and to drinking heavily 3 or more times in the past year. Given well-documented harms of adolescent heavy drinking, these results do not support the idea that parents allowing children to drink alcohol inoculates them against alcohol misuse.
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This study explored factors that contribute to an alcohol intoxication resulting in Emergency Room (ER) admission among underage adolescents. We conducted qualitative interviews with 14 adolescents (14–18 years old) who experienced an alcohol intoxication requiring ER admission. Motivations for drinking were individual (e.g. curiosity) or social (e.g. having fun). While circumstances and motivations were comparable with other studies among (binge) drinking youth in general, most adolescents in this study did not drink with the intention to get drunk. They often unknowingly and unintentionally crossed their limits because they had not enough knowledge or experience to foresee the consequences.
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The present study sought to examine predictors of attrition from residential treatment for adolescents with addictive behaviors. Using data from 137 adolescents and their families, latent variable models were constructed to examine three child/adolescent factors and three parenting factors as predictors of attrition. Findings indicated that emotional/social difficulties and parental involvement in treatment, as well as their interaction, had a direct effect on attrition. In addition, parenting in adolescence interacted with both substance/behavioral problems and early caregiver discipline to predict attrition. This study provided insight into the exacerbating effects of neglectful or absent parenting practices in the successful completion of adolescent substance use treatment.
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Much research and attention has focused on addressing the extremes of the adolescent substance use spectrum: either the prevention of substance use prior to its onset or the treatment of those with a substance use disorder (SUD). Little research has looked at adolescents who fall mid-continuum. Adolescents who use substances in this mild-to-moderate range may be efficiently and cost-effectively treated using brief interventions based on cognitive-behavioral (CB) and motivational interviewing (MI) strategies. Accessibility and feasibility of providing interventions may also be enhanced by training parents in application of CB and MI principles. An innovative home-based brief intervention for parents whose children engaged in mild to moderate drug abuse was developed and evaluated using a quasi-experimental design. Participants were parents and their adolescent child from the 7-county metro area of Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota. Decreased substance use and increased family cohesion were the predicted outcomes of the Home Base intervention. Results suggest decreased adolescent marijuana use frequency, decreased alcohol use disorder symptomology, and increased parental happiness with their adolescent child. Alcohol and tobacco use frequency were statistically unchanged. Baseline levels of drug use severity moderated the relation between intervention and outcomes. These findings support the potential utility of this approach and also indicate the need to further develop accessible and efficient interventions for mild to moderate SUD.
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Objectives According to the prototype willingness model, risky behaviours such as heavy drinking may be influenced by images of others who engage in this behaviour. In this study, we examined whether college students’ prototypes of an individual who frequently drinks “over the limit” were associated with their own alcohol consumption and experience of alcohol‐related problems during their first 2 years in college. Methods We assessed students’ (N = 340) prototypes of excessive drinkers and their own alcohol consumption and problems at four time points, across their first 2 years in college. Along with examining the trajectory of prototypes, consumption, and problems, we tested whether prototypes significantly predicted consumption and problems across the 2 years. Additional analyses examined whether the predictive value of prototypes was unique from related variables including perceived descriptive norms, perceived injunctive norms, and peer pressure to drink alcohol. Results Primary analyses indicated that more positive prototypes of an excessive drinker were significantly associated with greater alcohol consumption in both year 1 and year 2. More positive prototypes were also significantly associated with experiencing more alcohol‐related problems in year 2. These findings held when controlling for perceived descriptive and injunctive norms, and peer pressure. Conclusions Findings further support the importance of drinker prototypes to one's own drinking behaviour. By examining prototypes over time and their relationship to alcohol‐related problems, this study makes a novel contribution to the existing research. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? • Perceived norms (beliefs about how much others drink and what they approve of) are associated with own drinking. • Individuals construct “risk prototypes,” or images of people who engage in risky behaviours like drinking alcohol. • Positive risk prototypes of drinkers have been associated with own willingness to drink and subsequent drinking. What does this study add? • This study shows the trajectory of drinker prototypes across the first 2 years of college. • Findings highlight consistent patterns of positive associations between drinker prototypes and own drinking. • More positive drinker prototypes are associated with a greater number of problems with alcohol.
Article
Background: Intergenerational transmission, which refers to the similarity between parent and their children, is a possible explanation of adolescent physical activity (PA). However, only a few existing studies explore the relationship of parent-adolescent PA in East Asian countries. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association of parent-adolescent PA using a nationally representative data in Korea with a large sample size. Methods: Data were collected from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted from 2010 to 2014. The authors performed a linear mixed effects regression analysis with 1342 cases after using log conversion of parent and adolescent moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) levels. Results: In the study, the median MVPA of adolescents was 150 (interquartile range: 360) minutes per week. Adolescent MVPA levels were significantly correlated with their mother's MVPA (β = 0.055, P = .02). Similar findings of greater association in girls and younger adolescents (age: 13-15 y) were found in subgroup analysis (girls: β = 0.073, P = .05; younger adolescents: β = 0.103, P = .001). Conclusion: Increasing maternal PA levels could stimulate their adolescent's PA levels. Therefore, intervention at the family level may lead to an increase in adolescent PA levels.
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Early initiation of substance use significantly increases one's risk of developing substance use dependence and mental disorders later in life. To interrupt this trajectory, effective prevention during the adolescent period is critical. Parents play a key role in preventing substance use and related harms among adolescents and parenting interventions have been identified as critical components of effective prevention programs. Despite this, there is currently no substance use prevention program targeting both students and parents that adopts online delivery to overcome barriers to implementation and sustainability. The Climate Schools Plus (CSP) program was developed to meet this need. CSP is an online substance use prevention program for students and parents, based on the effective Climate Schools prevention program for students. This paper describes the development of the parent component of CSP including a literature review and results of a large scoping survey of parents of Australian high school students (n = 242). This paper also includes results of beta-testing of the developed program with relevant experts (n = 10), and parents of Australian high school students (n = 15). The CSP parent component consists of 1) a webinar which introduces shared rule ranking, 2) online modules and 3) summaries of student lessons. The parent program targets evidence-based modifiable factors associated with a delay in the onset of adolescent substance use and/or lower levels of adolescent substance use in the future; namely, rule-setting, monitoring, and modelling. To date, this is the first combined parent-student substance use prevention program to adopt an online delivery method.
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A normative aspect of late adolescents' drinking is related to the context of use: about 80% of young people's consumption takes places in pubs and discos. In this respect, drinking exclusively at home could be perceived as deviant. In the current study, we explored the possibility that in particular among late adolescents who only drink at their home, drinking levels are associated with feelings of stress and low self-esteem. Data from a study of 958 late adolescents were used for analyses. Our findings showed that only in the group of male “home drinkers”, higher consumption levels were associated with distress and low self-esteem. In the group of male subjects who (also) drank in public drinking places, no such relationships were found. For females, no relationships between distress and alcohol were found. In addition, male subjects in category of “home drinkers” were less integrated in peer networks, reported less often involvement in a steady relationship and had more feelings of loneliness.
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Five hundred and seven 14-to-16-year-old students gave self-report responses to a substance use questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed adolescents' use, preferences, and norms and also their perceptions of their parents' and peers' use and norms in relation to alcohol, tobacco, and tea/coffee. Path analysis revealed that adolescents' internalization of parental and peer pressures is a stronger predictor of substance use than are direct effects. Internalized effects occur by means of preferences rather than norms, and peer pressure is predominantly through modeling behavior, whereas parental influence is through perceived normative standards. Peers' influence is stronger in relation to tobacco use, parental influence is stronger in relation to tea/coffee use, and both are equally important in relation to alcohol use. These findings are discussed in relation to preventive strategies.
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This investigation evaluated the hypothesis that the development of either effective or disruptive adolescent problem-solving behavior is reciprocally associated with the child-rearing strategies of parents. Longitudinal data collected over 3 time points from a large sample of families were analyzed at 1-year and 2-year measurement intervals by using structural equation modeling. Parent and adolescent behavior was assessed by independent observers. Reciprocal parent--adolescent interactions occurred primarily in the presence of disruptive adolescent behavior. Analyses involving positive adolescent behavior produced unidirectional effects from parent behavior to adolescent behavior. Also, reciprocal associations were most evident when the 2-year measurement interval was used.
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The purpose of this study was to examine the contributions of child temperament, parents' alcohol use norms for their children and parent-child relationship quality to children's alcohol use norms. Observational and self-report data on these variables were gathered from mothers, fathers and target children during home visits to a purposive random sample of 171 intact white families with a 10- to 12-year-old child, 85 with girls and 86 with boys. Liberality in children's norms was associated with active, sensation-seeking temperament, liberality in parents' norms and poor parent-child relationship quality. Positive parent-child, particularly father-child, relationships were associated with less liberal child norms even when parents' norms were liberal and children's temperaments were active and sensation oriented. Positive parent-child relationships have a conventionalizing effect on children's alcohol use norms that moderates the effects of temperament and parental norms. The development of alcohol use norms is best described by transactional models.
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Past literature has established an association between children's alcohol-related behaviors and parents' use of and attitudes toward alcohol. However, most studies tend to measure parental use and attitudes through proxy, i.e. children's perception. It is not clear the extent to which actual parental use and attitudes influence children's alcohol behaviors. The current study directly used parents' reports on alcohol use and attitudes toward alcohol and examined their impact on children's alcohol use. Based on a three-stage random sampling design, 642 dyads of parents and children (ages 15-18) were interviewed by telephone in New York State. Study variables include parental alcohol use, children's alcohol use, parental attitudes toward underage drinking and parent-child interaction. While parental use and attitudes do not seem to significantly affect children's alcohol use, the extent to which parents prohibit children from using alcohol at home tends to reduce children's alcohol involvement. In addition, the greater the amount of time spent with alcohol-using parents, the more likely the children are to use alcohol. Findings suggest that, while parents' alcohol use influences children's alcohol use through extensive interaction, parental control of underage alcohol use in the household appears to reduce children's involvement in underage alcohol use.
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This study investigated the influences of peer and parent variables on alcohol use and problems in a sample of late adolescents in the summer immediately prior to entry into college. Participants (N = 556) completed a mail survey assessing peer influences (alcohol offers, social modeling, perceived norms), parental behaviors (nurturance, monitoring), and attitudes and values (disapproval for heavy drinking, permissiveness for drinking), and alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated significant associations between both peer and parental influences and alcohol involvement, and showed that parental influences moderated peer-influence-drinking behavior, such that higher levels of perceived parental involvement were associated with weaker relations between peer influences and alcohol use and problems. These findings suggest that parents continue to exert an influential role in late adolescent drinking behavior.
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This study uses a representative general population sample of 699 adolescents and their families to examine the effects of paren ting practices, particularly support and control, on the development of adolescent drinking, delinquency, and other problem behaviors. Black families were oversampled (n = 211) to permit meaningful analyses. The findings confirm that parental support and monitoring are important predictors of adolescent outcomes even after taking into account critical demographic/family factors, including socioeconomic indicators, age, gender, and race of the adolescent, family structure, and family history of alcohol abuse. In addition, peer orientation remains a significant predictor of drinking behavior and deviance and interacts with aspects of parenting. Methodological issues associated with sampling, family respondent, and measurement of support and control are critiqued as they pertain to parental socialization and adolescent outcome research.
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Social influence is central to models of adolescent substance use. Nonetheless, researchers fail to delineate the various forms of social influence. A framework that distinguishes between active (explicit drug offers) and passive (social modeling and overestimation of friends' use) social pressure was tested. The effect of these processes on alcohol and cigarette use was examined with 526 seventh graders taking part in an alcohol prevention program. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that pretest measures of alcohol use, offers, modeling, and overestimation each accounted for unique variance in posttest alcohol use. Similar results were obtained for cigarette smoking. The general model was not significantly different for boys and girls, or for prior users and prior nonusers, supporting the generalizability of the framework. Implications for intervention programs are discussed.
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Four social determinants (parental and peer modeling, parental and peer norms) were studied for their effects on adolescents' norms, preferences and reported drinking behavior.
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This paper examines the relationships between age at first exposure to alcohol and four measures of drinking behaviour (frequency of drinking, typical and most amount consumed, alcohol-related problems) at age 15 years in a birth cohort of New Zealand children. There were small but consistent correlations (r = -0.10 to -0.16) between self-reported age at first exposure to alcohol and the four measures of alcohol consumption. These associations remained statistically significant (p < 0.05) after control for a wide range of potentially confounding covariates including measures of family socio-demographic background, parental alcohol use and attitudes to alcohol use and early childhood behaviour. After control for these factors, children who had been introduced to alcohol before the age of 6 years were 1.9 to 2.4 times more likely to report frequent, heavy or problem drinking at age 15 years than children who did not drink alcohol before the age of 13. It is concluded that young people reared in home environments that have permissive attitudes to alcohol use and who are introduced to alcohol at an earlier age may be more vulnerable to alcohol-related problems in adolescence.
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the predictors of the timing of alcohol consumption debut and to analyze possible associations between the timing of debut and later alcohol consumption and possible alcohol-related problems. A population sample of 465 adolescents (249 girls) from the greater Oslo area was followed up through five data collections over a 6-year span. By means of generalized structural equation modeling--accommodating survival variables--parental and friends' influences on debut age were estimated. Further, the consequences of the age of debut on subsequent alcohol consumption and alcohol problems were studied, taking other influences into consideration. In particular, possible gender differences were investigated. The mean age for alcohol consumption debut was 14.8 years. The age of alcohol debut had an independent effect on both future alcohol consumption and the development of alcohol-related problems, and the effects were invariant across sex. According to the estimated model, a 10% delay in debut age will lead to a 35% decrease in subsequent expected alcohol consumption. Alcohol debut was an excellent predictor of subsequent alcohol consumption and alcohol problems. The strong preventive implication is that interventions should be implemented in order to postpone alcohol debut age. A weak implication is that preventive measures should be implemented for the early onset drinkers. Further, it seems to be important to give high priority to more thorough studies on the exact nature of the relationships we have investigated here.
Article
Less is known about heavier drinking in adolescents than about alcohol initiation. The present study examined the emergence of regular (weekly) and heavy episodic (five or more drinks at a time) adolescent drinking as a function of social influence (modeling and social control) from parents and peers. A three-wave study was conducted using a representative household sample of families in metropolitan Buffalo, New York (N = 612). Over half (54%) of the adolescent respondents were female. Black families made up 30% of the sample. Interviews were conducted at 1-year intervals. Adolescent drinking was dichotomized at each wave into abstinence/light drinking versus regular drinking. Logistic regression including only adolescents who were abstainers/light drinkers at Wave 1 was performed to assess which Wave- variables could predict regular-drinking onset by Wave 2; a similar analysis examined the onset of heavy episodic drinking by Wave 2. Parallel analyses using Wave-2 variables to predict the onset of the drinking outcomes by Wave 3 were also conducted. Across the different analyses, the strongest psychosocial predictors of advancement to heavier drinking were friend's drinking and low parental monitoring. Also, white adolescents were at greater risk than their black counterparts. A multidimensional approach to prevention that addresses different processes of influence (e.g., modeling and social control) involving both parental and peer domains is likely to be most successful in deterring the onset of heavier drinking in adolescents.
Article
This panel study examined the relations between alcohol-specific socialization by parents (monitoring of alcohol use by children, allowing alcohol use by children at home, communicating against alcohol use and setting rules against alcohol use), general dimensions of parenting behavior (responsiveness and demandingness) and alcohol use by children. A sample of 488 fifth-grade children reported their perceptions of alcohol-specific socialization by parents, parental responsiveness and parental demandingness. These variables were used to predict alcohol use when children in the panel were in seventh grade. Nineteen percent of seventh-grade children reported alcohol use in the past 30 days. Logistic regression analyses indicated that, after accounting for children's age, sex, single parent status, prior use of alcohol and exposure to parental modeling of alcohol use, the odds of alcohol use were significantly greater among children who perceived no parental monitoring of alcohol use, who had been allowed by parents to have a drink with alcohol at home and who perceived relatively low levels of parental demandingness. Rules against alcohol use, parental communication against alcohol use and parental responsiveness were unrelated to the study outcome. Parental monitoring of alcohol use by children, family norms regarding alcohol use by children at home and parental ability to set and enforce behavioral rules merit consideration as factors that should be modified by prevention programs. There is a need, however, for additional research that further examines the relations between exposure to such parenting behaviors during childhood and alcohol use during adolescence.
Article
The associations between alcohol consumption and intimate relationships in adolescence were examined. Data from a longitudinal study of 1,063 adolescents were used to investigate whether (a) alcohol use was a precursor of partnership and (b) adolescents tended to change their drinking habits once they became involved in a steady relationship. Youngsters who consumed alcohol at the ages of 14 and 15 were more likely to be involved in an intimate relationship 3 years later. Drinking in social settings particularly increased the likelihood of having a partner 3 years later. In addition, for males, partnership was associated with a smaller increase in alcohol consumption in public drinking places compared to the other categories (i.e., adolescents who never had a partner vs. adolescents who had no partner at the time of measurement). In contrast, the increase in consumption at home was the strongest for young men involved in a steady relationship. For females, the differences in changes in consumption between the partnership categories were in most cases not significant.
Article
To determine whether parent social influences are associated with health-risk behaviors more than peer social influences among young minority adolescents. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of seventh-grade students in a public urban magnet middle school using a survey instrument adapted from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The sample consisted of all seventh-grade students in the school, and the survey was part of a needs assessment for a school-based health education program. We measured four health-risk behaviors: use of (a) tobacco, (b) alcohol, (c) onset of sexual activity, and (d) marijuana use; and five social influences: (a) parent disapproval of health-risk behaviors, (b) parent modeling of health-risk behaviors, (c) parent monitoring of health-risks, (d) peer disapproval of health risks, and (e) peer modeling of health-risk behaviors. The analyses included measures of the prevalence of health-risk behaviors, bivariate analyses to evaluate relationships between health-risk behaviors and social influences, and regressions analyses to determine the independent associations of the social influences with the four health-risk behaviors. Twenty percent of respondents reported using tobacco, over 50% used alcohol in the past year, 13.3% were sexually active, and 12% reported marijuana use. Parent influences were associated with differences in alcohol use, whereas peer influences were associated with differences in all measured health-risk behaviors: tobacco and alcohol use, sexual activity, and marijuana use. Regression analyses demonstrated that peer social influences were the only measures independently associated with abstinence from tobacco (p < .05), alcohol (p < .01), sexual activity (p < .05), and marijuana use (p < .05). In all analyses, peers emerged as the most consistent social influence on health-risk behavior. This study suggests peers and peer group behavior may be better predictors of adolescent health-risk behaviors than parental social influences among young adolescents.
Article
Links between parental knowledge and adolescent delinquent behavior were tested for correlated rates of developmental change and reciprocal associations. For 4 years beginning at age 14, adolescents (N = 396) reported on their delinquent behavior and on their parents' knowledge of their whereabouts and activities. Parents completed measures of their adolescents' delinquent behavior. Knowledge was negatively correlated with delinquent behaviors at baseline, and increases over time in knowledge were negatively correlated with increases in parent-reported delinquent behavior. Reciprocal associations indicate that low levels of parental knowledge predict increases in delinquent behavior and that high levels of delinquent behavior predict decreases in knowledge. Discussion considers both youth-driven and parent-driven processes that may account for the correlated developmental changes and reciprocal associations.
Article
This study presents an overview of Dutch studies on prevalence of alcohol use and adds findings from our own study on prevalence of drinking among adolescents and young adults aged 12-30 years in the Netherlands. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal study by the Netherlands Twin Register in 1993 (n=3885), 1995 (n=4814), 1997 (n=3772) and 2000 (n=4090). Measures included lifetime alcohol use, frequency of drinking, quantity of drinking, lifetime drunkenness, frequency of drunkenness and problem drinking. The main findings are: (a) alcohol use increased with age until the age of 25, after which it decreased; (b) males exceeded females on all aspects of alcohol use, with exception of the youngest age group and lifetime alcohol use; (c) time trends indicated an increase in frequency and quantity of drinking among 12-15-year-old adolescents during the 1990s; and moreover, (d) 21-25-year-old females drank more frequently, consumed more drinks a week, had more experience with lifetime drunkenness and were drunk more often in 2000 than in 1993. Among 21-25-year-old males, an increase of drunkenness and problem drinking was displayed during the 1990s.
Article
To determine which alcohol-specific socialization practices are related to adolescents' alcohol use, and to investigate whether parents differ in their alcohol-specific socialization towards their children. In a sample of 428 families, both parents and two adolescents (aged 13-16 years) completed a questionnaire at home about alcohol-specific parenting and their own alcohol use. Based on the reports of each family member, three different models of alcohol-specific socialization were formulated: from the perspective of the siblings, the mother and the father. Results of structural equation modelling generally showed the same associations between alcohol-specific socialization and drinking of younger and older adolescents. The strongest association was found for providing alcohol-specific rules. Applying strict rules about alcohol use was negatively related to adolescents' alcohol use; this was also the case for having confidence in the effectiveness of alcohol-specific socialization. Unexpectedly, frequency of communication about alcohol issues was positively associated with alcohol consumption of adolescents. This study is one of the first to examine associations between alcohol-specific socialization and adolescents' drinking using a between- and a within-family design. Results showed strong associations between alcohol-specific socialization (particularly of enforcing rules) and adolescent alcohol use. Although parents strongly differentiated their socialization practices between children, no differences in associations between alcohol-specific socialization and drinking were found between older and younger adolescents.
Article
The authors explored the predictive influence of both parental attachment and parental control on early onset of alcohol consumption in adolescence by use of a longitudinal sample of 1,012 young adolescents. Whether the relationship between parental control and adolescents' drinking is moderated by parental attachment was also examined. Consistent with other studies, attachment and strict control were cross-sectionally related to adolescents' alcohol use at all 3 measurements. However, the longitudinal results of structural equation modeling analyses suggest that a good attachment relationship between parent and child does not prevent adolescents from drinking. In addition, strict control was related to lower engagement in alcohol use. Furthermore, with regard to the moderating effect, parental attachment did not moderate longitudinally the association between parental control and an early development of alcohol use. Implications for further research are discussed.
Structural equation modeling with LISREL, PRELIS and SIMPLIS: Basic concepts, appli-cations, and programming Alcohol use and intimate relationships in adolescence: When love comes to town Why do late adolescents drink at home? A study on psychologicalwell-being, drinking context
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  • Associates
  • R C M E Engels
  • R A Knibbe
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Social norms and the formation of prototypes
  • R Spijkerman
  • R J J M Van Den Eijnden
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