Long-Term Change in Cholesterol in Relation to Inflammation-Sensitive Plasma Proteins: A Longitudinal Study

Department of Clinical Science, Section for Epidemiology, Lund University, Malmö University Hospital, Sweden.
Annals of Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 2). 01/2007; 17(1):57-63. DOI: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2006.03.005
Source: PubMed


The nature of the relationship between inflammation and elevated serum lipid levels is incompletely understood. This longitudinal study explores whether elevated levels of inflammation-sensitive plasma proteins (ISPs) are a risk factor for developing increased cholesterol and triglyceride levels.
Five ISPs (fibrinogen, orosomucoid, alpha1-antitrypsin, haptoglobin, and ceruloplasmin) were measured in a population-based cohort of nondiabetic healthy men aged 38 to 50 years at baseline. Subjects were reexamined after a mean of 6.2 years. The development of hypercholesterolemia (cholesterol>or=6.5 mmol/L [>or=251 mg/dL]) and hypertriglyceridemia (triglycerides>or=2.3 mmol/L [>or=204 mg/dL]) during follow-up was studied in relation to the number of elevated levels of ISPs (i.e., in the top quartile).
Of men with initially normal cholesterol levels (<6.5 mmol/L; n=2224), proportions of men with no, one, two, and three or more elevated ISP levels at baseline who developed hypercholesterolemia were 12%, 13%, 16%, and 20%, respectively (p for trend=0.0002). This relationship remained significant after adjustments for cholesterol level at baseline and other confounding factors. The relationship between ISP levels and future hypertriglyceridemia was attenuated and nonsignificant after adjustments for confounding factors.
In apparently healthy men with initially normal cholesterol levels, elevated ISP levels are a risk factor for development of hypercholesterolemia.

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    • "Recent studies have demonstrated that atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease.[3] Many cross-sectional studies have reported correlations between levels of serum lipids and various inflammatory markers, however, there is little information on temporal and causal relationships.[13] Proinflammatory cytokines are involved in the regulation of several enzymes of the lipid metabolism, for example, lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase, lipoprotein lipase, cholesteryl ester transfer protein, and endothelial lipase.[14–19] "
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    ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis is a complex disease that is associated with a variety of etiologic factors such as hyperlipidemia and inflammation. Aloe vera (Liliaceae family) has been used traditionally as an anti-inflammatory drug. The aims of this survey were to define the beneficial effects of Aloe vera leaf gel on some of the atherosclerosis risk factors, and also fatty streak formation in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. MATERIALS ANS METHODS: 32 white male rabbits were randomly divided into four experimental groups (n = 8, each). During the study, the animals had a standard diet (control group), high cholesterol diet (HC group), high cholesterol diet with Aloe vera leaf gel (3.2%v/v) (HC+ Aloe group) and Aloe vera leaf gel (Aloe group) for 30 days. Fasting blood samples were collected from all animals at the beginning and end of the study. Then total cholesterol (TC), fasting blood sugar (FBS), triglyceride (TG) and CRP were measured before and after experimental periods. By the end of the study, the aortas were removed and investigated for atherosclerosis plaque formation. Significant differences were observed in TC and CRP levels of the high-cholesterol diet with Aloe vera and the high-cholesterol diet alone (p < 0.05). The formation of fatty streaks in the aorta was also significantly lower in the same animals under the influence of dietary Aloe vera(p < 0.05). The control and Aloe group did not show any evidence of atherosclerosis. No significant difference was found between the groups in TG and FBS. The data suggests that Aloe vera has beneficial effects on the prevention of fatty streak development; it may reduce the development of atherosclerosis through modification of risk factors. However, further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms whereby this plant exerts its anti-atherosclerotic effects.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Journal of research in medical sciences
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    • "In a study of older adults from the Cardiovascular Health Study, fibrinogen levels were associated significantly with the development of high cholesterol levels (Manolio et al., 2004). In a population-based cohort of nondiabetic healthy men aged 38 to 50 years followed up over a long period, fibrinogen was identified as one of the risk factors for the developing increased cholesterol and TG levels (Engstrom et al., 2007). These findings suggest that high cholesterol and TG level could be associated with plasma fibrinogen levels. "
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    ABSTRACT: Fibrinogen alpha chain (FGA), a subunit of fibrinogen, might be a potential player for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), since the plasma levels of fibrinogen is known to be related to the incidence of T2DM. To elucidate the potential role of FGA in T2DM, we investigated whether FGA genetic variations are relevant in T2DM in the Korean population. Seven FGA single nucleotide poly- morphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in Ansung and Ansan cohorts (474 T2DM subjects and 470 normal controls) in Korea. The association between SNPs and T2DM was determined by logistic regression analysis. Genetic relevance of SNPs to T2DM-related phenotypes was investigated by multiple linear regression analysis. Statistical analysis revealed that among seven FGA SNPs, significant associations with T2DM were ob- served in FGA rs2070011 (p=0.013-0.034, OR=0.72∼ 0.79), rs6050 (p=0.026∼0.048, OR=1.24∼1.37), and rs2070022 (p=0.016∼0.039, OR=0.70∼0.72). Two SNPs, rs2070011 and rs6050, also showed significant associa- tion with T2DM-related phenotypes such as triglyceride (p=0.005∼0.011 for rs2070011 and p=0.003∼0.008 for rs6050), total cholesterol (p=0.01 for rs2070011 and p=0.024 for rs6050) and fasting glucose (p=0.035∼ 0.036 for rs2070011 and p=0.048 for rs6050) in 470 nor- mal controls. Our association study implies that FGA might be an important genetic factor in T2DM patho- genesis in the Korean population by affecting plasma lipid and glucose levels.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2009
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