Nonproliferative epithelial alteration and expression of estrogen receptor and Ki67 in the contralateral breast of women treated with tamoxifen for breast cancer
Division of Oncology and Senology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp), Campinas, Brazil.The Breast (Impact Factor: 2.38). 04/2007; 16(2):197-203. DOI: 10.1016/j.breast.2006.10.005
The aim of study was to evaluate the frequency of nonproliferative epithelial alteration and expression of Ki67 and estrogen receptors (ER) in patients using tamoxifen. Forty-four women were selected who had been taking 20mg of tamoxifen daily for at least 12 months for adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. The women underwent core biopsy in the contralateral breast into an area of highest fibroglandular mammographic density. Fragments were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for monoclonal antibody Ki67 and ER, and histopathologic analysis. It was verified that 82% of the patients presented nonproliferative epithelial alteration, 70% were ER-negative, and all had low Ki67 expression. There was no association between duration of tamoxifen therapy, patient age, mammographic density, and presence of nonproliferative alteration (P>0.05). In conclusion, tamoxifen for more than a year showed a high frequency of nonproliferative epithelial alteration and low expression of Ki67 and ER in the normal breast tissue, consistent with low cell proliferation.
Conference Paper: Foreground terrain effects on overland microwave transmissions[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The effect of large scale dominant obstacles such as mountains or ridges on short wave transmissions has been rather extensively investigated. In most cases the diffraction effects of such obstacles have been reasonably well described by use of knife-edge diffraction theory, especially when the diffraction angle is small. When the obstacle is a single mountain or ridge, the geometry of the situation is quite clear-cut. This paper, however, is concerned with the diffraction effects due to small and gently varying irregularities in foreground, terrain near one of the terminals of a microwave link. In this case the diffraction geometry is not so clear cut. Experimental results obtained on two paths indicate, nontheless, that the diffraction geometry is very much like that of knife-edge theory even though the diffracting terrain is very unlike a knife-edge in appearance.
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ABSTRACT: Progestins as well as estrogens have a role in breast cell proliferation and the development of breast cancer. Here, the effect of mifepristone on cell proliferation in human breast tissue in vivo was studied in premenopausal women. A group of 30 women, scheduled for surgical treatment of leiomyomas, were randomized to either 50 mg mifepristone or placebo every other day, for 3 months. Fine needle aspiration biopsies were obtained at baseline and after 3 months. Immunocytochemical analysis of Ki-67 was performed to reflect breast epithelial cell proliferation. Samples from 14 women were included in the final analyses. The Ki-67 index was significantly reduced after mifepristone treatment compared with baseline (P = 0.012). Furthermore, less individual variation in the Ki-67 index was seen in the mifepristone group. Treatment with mifepristone did not affect cortisol levels, whereas an increase in serum testosterone was noted. Breast symptoms like soreness and swelling were reduced, whereas the incidence of flushes increased. The ability of mifepristone to block breast epithelial cell proliferation in premenopausal women may prove beneficial when used for contraceptive purposes or for other gynaecological indications. Future studies should address a possible antiproliferative effect in the post-menopausal breast tissue during hormone replacement therapy. Our results implicate a possible protective effect of mifepristone on the breast epithelium. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00579475.
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ABSTRACT: This study analyzed the change in breast density in women receiving tamoxifen treatment using 3-D MRI. Sixteen women were studied. Each woman received breast MRI before and after tamoxifen. The breast and the fibroglandular tissue were segmented using a computer-assisted algorithm, based on T1-weighted images. The fibroglandular tissue volume (FV) and breast volume (BV) were measured and the ratio was calculated as the percent breast density (%BD). The changes in breast volume (ΔBV), fibroglandular tissue volume (ΔFV) and percent density (Δ%BD) between two MRI studies were analyzed and correlated with treatment duration and baseline breast density. The ΔFV showed a reduction in all 16 women. The Δ%BD showed a mean reduction of 5.8%. The reduction of FV was significantly correlated with baseline FV (P<.001) and treatment duration (P=.03). The percentage change in FV was correlated with duration (P=.049). The reduction in %BD was positively correlated with baseline %BD (P=.02). Women with higher baseline %BD showed more reduction of %BD. Three-dimensional MRI may be useful for the measurement of the small changes of ΔFV and Δ%BD after tamoxifen. These changes can potentially be used to correlate with the future reduction of cancer risk.
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