Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy

Department of Surgery, Mount Sinai Medical Center, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA.
Surgical Endoscopy (Impact Factor: 3.26). 04/2007; 21(4):521-6. DOI: 10.1007/s00464-006-9021-y
Source: PubMed


Several large series of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) have been published, largely focusing on immediate results and short-term complications. The aim of this study was to examine the results of LDN and collect medium-term and long-term donor followup.
We examined the results of two surgeons who performed 500 consecutive LDNs from 1996 to 2005. Prospective databases were reviewed for both donors and recipients to record demographics, medical history, intraoperative events, and complications. Patients were followed between 1 month and 9 years after surgery to assess for delayed complications, especially hypertension, renal insufficiency, incisional hernia, bowel obstruction, and chronic pain.
Left kidneys were procured in 86.2% of cases. Mean operative time was 3.5 h, and warm ischemia time averaged 3.4 min. Hand-assistance was used in 13.8%, and conversion rate was 1.8%. Intraoperative complication rate was 5.8% and was predominantly bleeding (93.1%). Most (86.2%) of the operative complications occurred during the initial 150 cases of a surgeon, compared with 10.3% in the subsequent 150 cases (p = 0.003). Operative time decreased by 87 min after the initial 150 cases (p < 0.001). Immediate graft survival was 97.5%. Delayed graft function occurred in 3.0% of recipients, and acute tubular necrosis occurred in 7.0%. Thirty-day donor complication rate was 9.8%. Mean donor creatinine was 1.24 on the first postoperative day, 1.27 at 2 weeks, and 1.24 at 1 year. At a mean followup of 32.8 months, long-term donor complications consisted of 11 cases of hypertension, 9 cases of prolonged pain or paresthesia, 2 incisional hernias, 1 small bowel obstruction requiring laparoscopic lysis of adhesions, and 1 hydrocele requiring repair.
LDN can be performed with acceptable immediate morbidity and excellent graft function. Operative time and complications decreased significantly after a surgeon performed 150 cases. Long-term complications were uncommon but included a likely underestimated incidence of hypertension.

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    • "Laparoscopic techniques also reduce length of hospitalization, improve pain scores, and produce a better cosmetic outcome [4–7]. Nonetheless, LDN requires additional technical training with a distinct learning curve, and surgeons may initially experience longer operating and warm ischemic times [5, 8, 9]. Published reports also suggest that LDN is more technically challenging than open donor nephrectomy (ODN) in patients who are greater than their ideal body weight [2]. "
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    ABSTRACT: THERE ARE TWO APPROACHES TO LAPAROSCOPIC DONOR NEPHRECTOMY: standard laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) and hand-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (HALDN). In this study we report the operative statistics and donor complications associated with LDN and HALDN from large-center peer-reviewed publications. Methods. We conducted PubMed and Ovid searches to identify LDN and HALDN outcome studies that were published after 2004. Results. There were 37 peer-reviewed studies, each with more than 150 patients. Cumulatively, over 9000 patients were included in this study. LDN donors experienced a higher rate of intraoperative complications than HALDN donors (5.2% versus. 2.0%, P < .001). Investigators did not report a significant difference in the rate of major postoperative complications between the two groups (LDN 0.5% versus HALDN 0.7%, P = .111). However, conversion to open procedures from vascular injury was reported more frequently in LDN procedures (0.8% versus 0.4%, P = .047). Conclusion. At present there is no evidence to support the use of one laparoscopic approach in preference to the other. There are trends in the data suggesting that intraoperative injuries are more common in LDN while minor postoperative complications are more common in HALDN.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · Journal of Transplantation
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Living donor kidney transplantation is a well-established method to reduce time on the waiting list. Although the laparoscopic donor nephrectomy has already been established worldwide, more than 80% of the living donor nephrectomies are performed as a traditional open donor nephrectomy in Germany. The aim of our study was to analyze perioperative data and long-term outcome of donors and recipients following open donor nephrectomy. METHODS: From February 2004 to July 2008, a total of 51 open donor nephrectomies were performed in Tuebingen University Hospital. Forty-five data of corresponding transplant donors and recipients were analyzed. The Kocak classification which provides a format to compare postoperative complications after living donor nephrectomy was used. RESULTS: Five-year graft survival was 100%. No intraoperative complications occurred. Postoperatively Grad I complications were observed in 10 donors (22.2%). In the long term no major complications occurred. Two donors (4.4%) had newly diagnosed hypertension and required antihypertensive medication. None of the donors developed proteinuria. Right-sided transabdominal donor nephrectomy was associated with a shorter mean hospital stay compared to left-sided lumbar nephrectomy. (7.8 ± 2.4 vs. 9.2 ± 1.8 days, p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Open donor nephrectomy is a safe procedure with an excellent graft survival. Complication rates in our center are comparable to recent results in laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy. Therefore, the open donor nephrectomy remains important.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Wiener klinische Wochenschrift
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    ABSTRACT: The worldwide expansion of laparoscopic, at the expense of open, donor nephrectomy (DN) has been driven on the basis of faster convalescence for the donor. However, concerns have been expressed over the safety of the laparoscopic procedure. The UK Transplant National Registry collecting mandatory information on all living kidney donations in the country was analyzed for donations between November 2000 (start of living donor follow-up data reporting) to June 2006 to assess the safety of living DN, after the recent introduction of the laparoscopic procedure in the United Kingdom. Twenty-four transplant units reported data on 2509 donors (601 laparoscopic, 1800 open and 108 [4.3%] unspecified); 46.5% male; mean donor age: 46 years. There was one death 3 months postdischarge and a further five deaths beyond 1 year postdischarge. The mean length of stay was 1.5 days less for the laparoscopic procedure (p < 0.001). The risk of major morbidity for all donors was 4.9% (laparoscopic = 4.5%, open = 5.1%, p = 0.549). The overall rate of any morbidity was 14.3% (laparoscopic = 10.3%, open = 15.7%, p = 0.001). Living donation has remained a safe procedure in the UK during the learning curve of introduction of the laparoscopic procedure. The latter offers measurable advantages to the donor in terms of reduced length of stay and morbidity.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2007 · American Journal of Transplantation
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