Nine months aerobic fitness induced changes on blood lipids and lipoproteins in untrained subjects versus controls

Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.
Arbeitsphysiologie (Impact Factor: 2.19). 02/2007; 99(3):291-9. DOI: 10.1007/s00421-006-0347-x
Source: PubMed


Regular endurance exercise has favorable effects on cardiovascular risk factors. However, the impact of an exercise-induced change in aerobic fitness on blood lipids is often inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of nine consecutive months of training on aerobic fitness and blood lipids in untrained adults. Thirty subjects 35-55 years of age (wt: 73.1 +/- 13.6 kg, height 171.1 +/- 9.0 cm, %body fat 24.6 +/- 6.3%, 14 males and 16 females) were randomly assigned to an exercise (EG) (N = 20) and control (CG) (N = 10) group. All subjects completed an incremental treadmill test, anthropometric measurements, and venous blood sample collection before and after the 9 months of exercise. Participants in the exercise group were supervised and adjusted for improvements in running performance, whereas no change was administered for the control group. One-way and multivariate ANOVA was conducted to determine significant differences in means for time and group in selected variables [body mass, % body fat, BMI; VO(2peak), km/h at 2.0 (v-LA2) and 4.0 (v-LA4) mmol l(-1) blood lactate (LA) concentration, km/h of the last load (v-max); TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, TG, Apo B, Apo A-1, and Lp (a)]. Correlation coefficients and multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the association between aerobic fitness and blood lipids. The exercise group improved significantly (P < 0.0001) in VO(2peak), v-LA2, v-LA4, v-max and exhibited a significant decrease in Apo B (P < 0.04) compared to the control group (NS). In 9 months, E achieved 24% increase in VO(2peak) and 18% reduction in Apo B, denoting the impact of cardiovascular fitness on cardiovascular risk.

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    • "Although there are conflicting data regarding the effect of regular exercise on atherogenic lipoproteins, there is strong evidence for changes in apolipoprotein B, HDL, and triglycerides with regular exercise. Longitudinal studies have shown regular exercise to reduce apolipoprotein B up to 20%.117,120 As for HDL and triglycerides, one meta-analysis by Carroll and Dudfield showed that long-term, moderate-intensity exercise training increases HDL and lowers triglycerides even in the absence of weight loss.100 "
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    • "This finding follows the same trend as that of a recent meta-analysis of studies that utilized 2–12 months of exercise in subjects with type 2 diabetes and found no significant changes in high-density lipoprotein or low-density lipoprotein.10 A recent 9-month study in young healthy adults showed only an insignificant trend toward low-density lipoprotein reduction.11 "
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    • "For instance, it increases cardiorespiratory fitness, which is inversely associated with poor cardiovascular outcomes and all-cause mortality in diabetic patients [10] [11]. Furthermore, exercise training induces favorable changes in lipid profile and restricts both visceral and total body adiposity, the main resources of insulin resistance [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17]. The multiple effects of physical activity patterns on emerging components of cardiovascular profile, so-called pleiotropic effects, provide an alternative explanation of their beneficial influence on cardiovascular function [18] [19]. "
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