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# Knowledge and use of medicinal plants by people around Debre Libanos Monastery in Ethiopia

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## Abstract

The study was conducted around Debre Libanos monastery from October 2005 to June 2006. A total of 250 villagers, 13 monks and 3 nuns were interviewed using semistructured questionnaire on the knowledge and use of medicinal plants. The informant consensus factor (ICF) and the fidelity level (FL) of the species were determined. Eighty medicinal plant species were reported. The average medicinal plant reported by a female is 1.67+/-0.33 and a male is 5.77+/-0.71 with significant difference between them (alpha=0.05, p=0.023). The ICF values demonstrated that local people tend to agree more with each other in terms of the plants used to treat 'Mich' and headache (0.69) and intestinal illness and parasites (0.68) but a much more diverse group of plants are cited to treat problems related to rabies (0.14) and unidentified swelling and cancer (0.11). The FL values are also similar to ICF values. The knowledge of the villagers close to the monastery is found to be higher than those distant from the monastery and the correlation between Abichu and Telaye (r=0.970, alpha=0.05, p=0.001), and Zegamel and Doreni (r=0.745, alpha=0.05, p=0.027) is significant indicating the relationships between the number of plants reported by the informants and the distance from the monasteries to the villages. This study was not able to determine the knowledge difference between the villagers and the monastery dwellers because the monks and nuns were not willing to give information on the knowledge and use of medicinal plants. This may result in the long run in loss of local knowledge in the surrounding area and the country at large for preparation of pharmacologically effective remedies.

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... and shrubs (9 species = 14.75%) (Fig. 4). Herbs often have a high content of bio-active compounds (Giday et al. 2009;Mesfin et al. 2009;Teklehaymanot et al. 2007;Lulekal et al. 2013) and so their medicinal action is more effective than shrubs and trees (Adnan et al. 2012;Adnan et al. 2014). Herbs also grow more commonly along roadsides and in homegardens, and therefore available in nature (Shrestha and Dhillion, 2003;Ayyanar and Ignacimuthu, 2005;Uniyal et al. 2006;Giday et al. 2009;Islam et al. 2014;Kayani et al. 2014) and easily accessible. ...
... As inflammatory reactions often include the formation of tissue-damaging oxidation products, i.e. increased oxidative stress, compounds with high antioxidant activity may inhibit inflammation. Interestingly, lentils have long been used by ancient treatment remedies to treat some inflammatory symptoms, such as skin infections by its water paste and the treatment of burns, after being roasted, milled and applied directly to affected areas (Sezik et al., 2001;Teklehaymanot et al., 2007). Additionally, regular consumption of pulse foods, particularly lentils, have been evidenced by many researches to reduce the incidence of developing chronic inflammatory disease including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and cancers (Adebamowo et al., 2005;Anderson et al., 2007;Rizkalla et al., 2003). ...
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Lentils contain a plethora of bioactive phytochemicals such as extractable and insoluble-bound phenolics, carotenoids, tocopherols, saponins, phytic acid, and phytosterols, which have been increasingly attributed to the health benefits of lentil consumption in the diet. The concentration and stability of these phytochemicals in lentils may be affected by several processing parameters including different thermal processing, exogenous enzyme treatment and germination. Consumption of lentils has been associated with the risk reduction of many diseases due to the potential antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory potential of phytochemicals in lentils. This mini review is intended to provide most current information on the phytochemical composition of lentils, and the potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of these compounds.
... The frequent use of multicomponent recipes documented in this study could be attributed to the belief in synergistic interactions (Giday et al., 2010). It is believed that the poly herbal prescriptions contain a range of active compounds and more healing power than mono-component treatment, since each medicinal plant used in the mixture is a remedy (Teklehaymanot et al., 2007). The medicinal uses of plants collected in our study were compared with the previously published information from other parts of the world (see Table 2). ...
... It has been largely employed as an insect repellent against fleas and mosquitos and as antimalarial [47,50,52,53]. Inhalation of the smoke of burnt stems and leaves is used against evil eye [48,51] and its juice, diluted with water, is drunk for treatment of stomach ache, vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, and dysentery [46,51]. In the same geographical area, the juice of O. tomentosa and O. fruticosa has been similarly used against diarrhea [46], and the latter also against ascariasis [46] and tonsillitis [48]. ...
Article
The 2 genera Ballota and Otostegia, belonging to the Lamiaceae family, are closely related taxonomically and found mainly in the Mediterranean area, Middle East, and North Africa. Since ancient times, they have been largely employed in traditional medicine for their biological properties such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, insecticidal, anti-malaria, etc. Phytochemical investigations of Ballota and Otostegia species have revealed that diterpenoids are the main constituents of the genera. A large number of flavonoids and other metabolites were also identified. This review, covering literature from 1911 up to 2018, includes traditional uses, chemical profiles (both of volatile and nonvolatile metabolites), and biological properties of all the taxa of these 2 genera studied to date.
... Such studies are useful not only for documenting, analyzing and disseminating indigenous knowledge of local people but also to indicate interaction between biodiversity and human society [18]. Thus far, various ethnobotanical studies were conducted in Ethiopia [19][20][21][22][23][24]. However, much remains to be studied given the enormous ecological and cultural diversity in Ethiopia. ...
... 8 The seed extracts have been utilized in local conventional medicine, to treat dysentery, gastrointestinal disorders, stomachache, indigestion, febrile disease, and skin disorders. 10 Also, the antimicrobial effectiveness of L sativum seed extracts versus various microbial pathogens has been documented. 11,12 Although the impacts of L sativum extracts have been confirmed against the pathogenic microbes, the effect of the aqueous extract of L sativum seeds against MRSA is still uncertain. ...
Article
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Many plant-derived compounds have been used to treat microbial infections. Staphylococcus aureus a common cause of many organ infections, has generated increasing concern due to its resistance to antibacterial drugs. This work was carried out to explore the susceptibility of 6 strains (LN872136, LN872137, LN871238, LN871239, LN872140, and LN871241) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to aqueous extract of Lepidium sativum seeds in vitro. Various concentrations (5-20 mg/mL) were used to evaluate the effect of the extract on bacteria growth via the assessment of the microbial biomass and the inhibition zone (IZ). The results showed that the plant extract at 15 or 20 mg/mL, significantly decreased the the biomass of S aureus strains after 24 or 48 hours exposure period. Staphylococcus aureus (LN871241) showed the largest IZ at 20 mg/mL and documented by scanning electron microscope. The current work may suggest that L sativum seed extract can be candidate as a promising antimicrobial agent to treat infection with methicillin-resistant S aureus.
... Lentil seeds are used nowadays in the folk medicine of many ethnicities to treat different illnesses. They are used orally to treat diabetes [60], topically as a water paste to treat skin infections [61] and for the treatment of burns, after being roasted, milled and applied directly to affected areas [62]. In addition, lentils are used as a source of lectins for the treatment and prophylaxis of retroviral infections including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections [63]. ...
Article
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Humans have known lentils (Lens culinaris L.) since the dawn of civilization. The current work is a comprehensive review of lentils composition, nutritional value, and health benefits. The article addresses major proteins identified in lentils and their bioactive peptides, including lectins, defensins, and protease inhibitors. In addition, this review discusses the complex carbohydrate fractions in lentils, particularly the resistant starches, oligosaccharides, and dietary fibers with emphasis on their biomedical properties. Also, the current review discusses minerals and vitamins as well as the non-nutritive bioactive phytochemicals of lentils which add to the promising potential for clinical applications in the management and prophylaxis of several chronic human illnesses. The article finds out that various potential health benefits have been described for lentils such as anticarcinogenic, blood pressure- lowering, hypocholesterolemic and glycemic loadlowering effects. The proposed mechanisms behind each health benefit are discussed.
... In addition to availability and a chance of obtaining pharmacologically active compounds, socio-cultural beliefs and practices of the healers may contribute to the high use of herbs. The common use of herbs is also reported in studies carried out elsewhere in Ethiopia Teklehaymanot et al., 2007;Giday et al., 2003 ) and other parts of the world (Tabuti et al., 2003;Muthu et al., 2006). ...
Article
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Like many other parts of Ethiopia, people in the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples’ Region (SNNPR) do have indigenous knowledge on the preparation and use of traditional medicinal plants. Even though different studies have been conducted to document medicinal plants in different zones of SNNPR separately, there is no previous review work which summarizes the medicinal plants and the associated indigenous knowledge at the regional level (at SNNPR region as a whole or in large scale). Also, there is no previous review work that prioritizes the factors that affect medicinal plants at the regional level (including threatened medicinal plants). The purpose of this paper was to review habitat, growth forms, the method of remedy preparation and administration, marketability of medicinal plants, and to prioritize the factors that affect medicinal plants in SNNPR. Most of the medicinal plants in the majority of the reviewed areas are harvested from wild. Herbs are the most utilized life forms and leaves are the most utilized plant part in the preparation of remedies. Fresh plant materials are the most employed in the preparation of remedies. Majority of medicinal plants are not marketable. Agricultural land expansion is a major threat to medicinal plants which followed by deforestation. Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata, Prunus africana, Echinops kebericho, Croton macrostachys, Cordia africana and Dodonaea angustifolia, Hagenia abyssinica, Withania somnifera and Ficus spp are the highly affected medicinal plant species which require conservation and management priority in the region.
... The use of ethnobotanical plants may be taken as outside activity in the forest fringe area. The fact that men have better medicinal plant knowledge than women could be due to the reason that boys are usually favoured in the transfer of the knowledge (Begossi et al. 2002;Collins et al. 2006;Teklehaymanot et al. 2007). In contrast, no difference in ethnobotanical plant knowledge between men and women was also reported (Fassil 2003;Geng et al. 2016). ...
Article
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In the present study attitude of forest fringe communities around Chilapatta reserve forest in northern part of West Bengal towards use of ethno-medicinal plants in comparison to different socioeconomic factors like gender, age, income, education and material possession etc. has been addressed. The eight villages from district Alipurduar and Chilapatta forest division were purposively selected due to the availability of forest ecosystem and profuse number of people who are residing within the forest area and maintain their livelihood and fulfilling their other needs with the help of forest resources. Primarily, the purposive and random sampling procedure was followed in case of selecting the area and respondents. A total of hundred respondents were selected randomly from each village for personal semi-structured interview schedule. Amongst the respondents 91% were male and 49% were of young age (i.e. 33-52 years). Majority of the respondents (95%) were schedule tribe or belong to indigenous community, literate (71%) and farmers (68%) with medium family size (52%) and marginal (low) land holding (78%). The variable gender is positively and significantly contributing in case of characterizing the predicted variable, attitude of ethno-botanical plant users. In presence of other predictor variable, the variable gender contributes 23% in case of delineating the attitude. One unit change in the variable gender can change 1.97 units in attitude towards positive direction. The R 2 value of 0.163 indicates that the eleven predictor variables put together have explained 16.30% variations embedded with the predicted variables attitude of ethno-botanical plant users. Still 83.70% variations within the predicted variable are left unexplained. This study also reported that, there is vertical transfer of ethno-botanical plant knowledge which is due to the interest among the younger generation to learn and practice it.
... These observations correlate with those of prior ethnobotanical studies conducted in other regions (Sharma et al., 1992;Gedif and Hahn, 2003;Muthu and Ignacimuthu, 2005;Upadhyay et al., 2007;Panghal et al., 2010). The majority of the informants reported that they kept their medicinal plant knowledge secret and that the transfer of the knowledge mainly takes place vertically, along a familial line, most commonly from father to son ( Sharma et al., 1992;Gedif and Hahn, 2002;Muthu and Ignacimuthu, 2005;Uniyal et al., 2006;Upadhyay et al., 2007;Giday et al., 2009;Teklehaymanot et al., 2007;Panghal et al., 2010). However, a study conducted by Jagtap et al. (2006) in the rural Amravati district of Maharashtra, India, demonstrated that the traditional knowledge on medicinal plants is transferred to only select teenagers who work as assistants to the recognized Bhumkas (Medicine man) in the community and in the present study just under 7% of the informants were between the ages of 16 and 25 years old. ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Ethnobotanical surveys are a key means of preserving indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants and their application within traditional medical systems. The present survey was undertaken within the Jhabua district of Madhya Pradesh, India, to collect information from the Bhil and Bhilala tribes on the use of medicinal plants in the treatment of dermatological diseases. Material and methods The ethnobotanical data was collected from local traditional healers in 39 villages within the Jhabua district of western Madhya Pradesh, using standard ethnobotanical methods. The Use Value (UV), Fidelity Level (FL) and Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) were calculated in order to analyse the data collected and results were compared to prior ethnobotanical surveys relating to dermatological conditions conducted within India. Results A total of 116 plant species of 103 genera, belonging to 58 families were identified as used in the treatment of a total of 21 different dermatological disorders. UV ranged from Punica granatum, with the highest value of 2.41 to Rumex dentatus, with the lowest UV of 0.11. The highest FL of 100% was found for 17 plant species, and the ICF was found to range from 0.20 (leucoderma) to 1 (mouth ulcers). Conclusions The survey was able to identify and record the broad range of medicinal plants and practices used by the Bhil and Bhilala people in their treatment of dermatological conditions. The data collected is valuable, not only as part of the process of documenting and preserving a traditional knowledge and culture in danger of being lost, but also in its provision of a broad selection of medicinal plants that could be subjected to further pharmacological and clinical investigation for their potential role in the treatment of dermatological conditions.
... The mixture of two or more plants is seen in this study; and it is known that the use of more than two herbs could contain a range of different active compounds and can modify its effect, enhancing or reducing the healing effect. If we considered each mixture as one single remedy [26], the list of natural remedies could be multiplied. Nonetheless, the toxic effects should be studied in depth. ...
Article
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An ethnobotanical study was performed to collect information on the use of medicinal plants in Papantla, Veracruz, Mexico. The area has a high number of endemic species, and the social importance of the medicinal plants in the community is essential for public health and the conservation of traditional knowledge. This study identified the medicinal plants currently used, registered traditional knowledge, and documented the patterns of ailments treated in the indigenous communities of Totonacas. A total of 101 medicinal plants belonging to 51 families were described by 85 local informants. Asteraceae was the family with the highest number of plant species identified by these informants. Plant parts are used to treat several ailments, including venomous bites, gastro-intestinal disorders, infectious diseases and other disorders. Informants reported that the most common plant part used was the leaf tissue (55%), and they also took the herbal remedies orally (72%), and decoctions (38%) as well as infusions (29%) were the forms used to prepare these natural remedies. This study provides documentation of medicinal plants used in the Veracruz area of Mexico. Mexican people are still dependent upon medicinal plants, and in order to avoid their loss, certain measures of conservation for medicinal plants are needed.
... En los antiguos tratados de remedios, se cataloga a las lentejas como planta terap?utica (Lardos, 2006). Oralmente se trataba para la diabetes (Giday, Teklehaymanot, Animut, & Mekonnen, 2007), t?picamente se trataba para infecciones de la piel (Teklehaymanot, Giday, Medhin, & Mekonnen, 2007), us?ndola como pasta l?quida y tambi?n se utilizaba contra las quemaduras, poni?ndolas sobre las ?reas afectadas despu?s de tostar las semillas ( Sezik et al., 2001). ...
Thesis
Las tendencias del consumo de alimentos en la época contemporánea están orientadas por el interés en conservar la salud y contribuir a la conservación del ambiente. Consumir menos carne de vacuno y más proteínas de origen vegetal es una de las opciones de alimentación en crecimiento. Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo desarrollar una hamburguesa para vegetarianos que cumpliera la proporción de aminoácidos esenciales similar a la del huevo (como referencia estándar), a la cual se le determinaron propiedades texturales, de color, humedad, grasa y características sensoriales. La hamburguesa se elaboró a escala de laboratorio y se calculó el puntaje de aminoácidos esenciales teórico. Se encontró que es posible elaborar una hamburguesa vegetariana que cumpla con la proporción de aminoácidos iguales o superiores a los del huevo como referencia estándar, y que además tenga una aceptabilidad sensorial. Palabras clave: Hamburguesa, vegetarianos, aminoácidos esenciales, análisis sensorial, TPA
... The Acanthus family is fairly large 2 Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine decoction given orally and to treat bleeding and stabbing pain leaf paste is applied. The leaves are used as a medicine with butter and applied to wounds in Ethiopia [9]. ...
Article
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Background Medicinal plants play indispensable roles to treat various ailments. Acanthus polystachyus is one of the medicinal plants used traditionally for treatment of wounds. However, there were no scientific reports documented so far on the wound healing activities of this plant. Thus, the present study provides a scientific evaluation for the wound healing potential of the crude extract of A. polystachyus leaves. Methods The crude extraction was carried out using 80% methanol. The crude extract was prepared in 5% (w/w) and 10% (w/w) ointment and evaluated for wound healing activity using excision, infected, and incision wound models in Swiss albino mice. Results Both 5% and 10% (w/w) ointments significantly reduced period of epithelialization and increased wound contraction rate and tensile strength compared to the negative control group (P < 0.05). The wound healing activity of 10% (w/w) ointment treated group was greater than 5% (w/w) and nitrofurazone ointment treated groups in S. aureus infected wound model. Conclusion These results demonstrate that the crude extract of A. polystachyus leaves possesses wound healing activities. This justifies the traditional claimed use of the plant for treating uninfected and infected wounds caused by S. aureus.
... This capacity attributed to presence polyphenols which have functional group such as hydroxyl (-OH), hydroxymethyl (-CH2OH), methoxyl (-OCH3), and carboxyl (-COOH) as well as features in their chemical structure (Kumar and Pandey 2013). Rumex nervosus belong to genus Rumex and has been used as an alternative for the treatment of wounds heling, dysentery, stomach-ache, pharyngitis, diarrhea and also it has been used as drug for livestock (Teklehaymanot et al. 2007;Sher and Alyemeni 2011). İt is native to Arabian Peninsula (known as athrob) and some African countries (Al-Dubai and Al-Khulaidi 1996). ...
Article
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Chemical composition, antioxidant, anticancer, and antimacrobial activities of essential oil obtained from leaves of Rumex nervosus has been evaluated here for the first time. GC/MS analysis reveals the presence of Palmitoleic Acid (28.35%) and Palmitic acid, (25. 37%) as their methyl ester as major components. The essential oil showed significant DPPH radical scavenging activity (94.907 ± 0.1089% and 94.003 ± 0.0749%) at concentration (100 and 80) μg/mL respectively. The oil showed promising activity against staph aureus, while showed weak activity against (Hela and 3T3) cell lines. The crude extract / fractions of R. nervosus (leaves) showed significant antioxidant activity at dose (100 and 80) μg/mL. Futhermore the crude showed significant activity against (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) cell lines with IC 50 (20.5138 ± 0.933 and 25.1728 ± 0.9176) μg/mL respectively, and chloroform fraction showed good activity against (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) cell lines with IC 50 (31.154 ± 0.965 and 42.269 ± 2.1045) μg/mL.
... Traditionally, the flower heads or leaves of the plant is chewed or crushed and placed inside carious cavities on affected teeth, to relieve dental pain (Jayaraj et al., 2013). In India, extracts from Spilanthes species are also used for treatment of mouth ulcers, boils and wounds (Pushpangadan and Atal, 1986), while traditional medicine practitioners in Ethopia use extracts from the plant for treatment of external injuries (Teklehaymanot, 2007). The plant is also used for treatment of sialagogue in Nigeria (Dalziel, 1937) and Sri Lanka (Jayaweer, 1981) and for induction of labor during childbirth in Uganda (Kamatenesi-Mugisha and Oryem-Origa, 2007). ...
... The charcoal of the stem if blended with egg yolk then could be utilized as solution for skin smolders; furthermore, the margarine if added could be used to treat skin irritation [7]. R. nervosus roots used as powder on cut edge to cure a small, hard, benign growth on the skin, which is called Wart [8]. Likewise, its root is used as nectar glue dressing to cure the stomach throb and as powder blended with softened butter against diarrhea [9]. ...
Article
Rumex nervosus, common weed plant in Sarawat Mountains, Saudi Arabia, belongs to family Polygonaceae and usually used as traditional herbal medicines. In the current study, R. nervosus plants dissected into roots, stems, leaves, and flowers that collected from seven locations in Aseer region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The antimicrobial activity of methanol and n-hexane extracts was investigated against three pathogenic bacterial strains and one pathogenic fungus by using agar well-diffusion method. The phytochemicals and vitamins content present in the methanol extracts was investigated by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results revealed that all extracts showed significant activity against tested microbes. Methanol extracts demonstrated the highest degree of antimicrobial inhibition activity as compared with n-hexane extracts. The root extracts exhibited the highest inhibitory activity against the tested microbes. The GC–MS and HPLC indicated the presence of numerous phytochemicals in the different parts of R. nervosus as well as a set of vitamins including vitamins $${\mathrm{B}}_{1}, {\mathrm{B}}_{2}, {\mathrm{B}}_{12}$$, and folic acid. In conclusion, the present study showed that methanol and n-hexane extracts of all parts of R. nervosus could be used as promising alternative drugs to treat bacterial and Candida spp. infections.
... Germach (B) Tult (Am) Girshu ( Sheko) Polygonaceae Crush R mix with water and drink Crush the R, mix with water then drink juice R and L [23,34] Nc [27,64] [43,43] Rumex nervosus Vahl. Dhangaggoo (Or) Embuacho (Am) Polygonaceae L crushed, homogenized in water and drunk R powdered mixed with melted butter [23] Nc [67] Salvia acuminata Ruiz & Pav. Anchino (M) Lamiaceae Chewing the L [61] Nc Salvia nilotica Juss. ...
Article
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Ethiopia This paper presents a review of relevant anti-diarrhoeal medicinal plants based on the fundamental knowledge accumulated by indigenous people of Ethiopia. The review includes an inventory carried out on the phytochemical and pharmacological analysis of plant species used in the treatments of diarrhoeal diseases. This study is based on a review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, theses, proceedings, and reports. A total of 132 medicinal plants used by local people of Ethiopia are reported in the reviewed literature. Herbs (43.6%) were the primary source of medicinal plants, followed by trees (27%). Some findings include the predominance of leaf material used (78%), as well as the frequent use of crushing of the plant parts (38%) as a mode of preparation. This study demonstrates the importance of traditional medicines in the treatment of basic human ailments such as diarrhoeal diseases in Ethiopia. Baseline information gaps were observed in different regions of Ethiopia. Thus, documentation of the knowledge held by other regions of Ethiopia that have so far received less attention and urban Ethnobotany is recommended for future Ethnobotanical studies. In addition, phytochemical studies are recommended mainly on frequently utilized medicinal plants for treatment of diarrhoeal diseases which can serve as a basis for future investigation of modern drug development. Although societies in Ethiopia have long used medicinal plants for diarrhoeal diseases treatment, it is also a good practice to perform toxicological tests.
... Les identifications ont été confirmées par l'équipe du Prof. Koffi AKPAGANA du Togo. La précision des noms en langues locales a été réalisée en référence à Adjanohoun et al.Heinrich et al., 1998, Gazzaneo et al., 2005, Aburjai et al., 2006, Teklehaymanot et al., 2007) a été déterminé par la formule suivante : FC = N-Ne/N-1 où N est le nombre de fois que la pathologie est citée et Ne, le nombre total d'espèces citées pour la soigner.Le Degré de fidélité caractéristique de l'importance de la pathologie parmi les pathologies indiquées(Alexiades, 1996, Teklehaymanot et al., 2007, a été déterminé par la formule : DF = Np/Nx100 avec Np désignant le nombre d'enquêtés qui ont cité la plante pour la pathologie et N, le nombre total de personnes enquêtées. Denou et al., 2016; Koudouvo et al., 2016) prenant en compte les recettes de plantes uniques, a été la technique de sélection de plantes pour de futurs tests de laboratoire. ...
Article
Introduction: The management of female infertility by the conventional medicine is very expensive and its coast is unavailable for the very poor populations. In Africa, an important recourses of medicinal plants are available for health care. Objective: The present study was led to recorder traditional remedies use to treat female infertility in the Sanitary Savannas Region of Togo. Methodology: For data collection, semi interview was used. Data were processed and analysed using ethnobotanical quantitative index. The Selection by Progressive Elimination (SPE) was essentially used for the choice of species. Results: With 51 practitioners interviewed, 79 recipes constituted by 87 species belonging to 48 botanical families were collected. Combretaceae (12,64 %) and Rubiaceae (5,7 %) were the most frequent families. Trees (36,78 %) and shrubs (27,58%) were the main ports. Roots (29,17 %) and leaves (27,5 %) were the most used parts. Recipes were prepared frequently by decoction (51,88 %) and powder (38,12%), and were principally taken orally (47,28 %) and by body bath (43,48 %). Sexually transmitted infections (STI) (143 citations) and Painful menstruations (PM) (108 citations) were the most frequent pathologies. The highest Informants consensus factors were 0,61 and 0,56 respectively for STI and PM. The most important Fidelity degrees was 25,49 % for STI related to Capsicum frutescens and Piper guineense. Related to Aframomum melegueta, Piper guineense and Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides the Fidelity degree was 19,61% for PM and STI. Blighia sapida, Ganoderma colossus, Kigelia africana and Mangifera indica were selected. Conclusion: Plants with highest fidelity degree and those selected by SPE will be subjected to laboratory tests.
... This entails a focus on plants in attempts of antimalarial research. In Ethiopia, medicinal plants have been widely used for the treatment of various ailments including malaria [3][4][5][6]. The country is rich for its plant species, culture, language and tradition which contribute to the diverse practices. ...
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Objective: To document plants used in traditional treatment of malaria in the Awash-Fentale District, the Afar Region of Ethiopia, and to evaluate antimalarial activity of selected ones against Plasmodium berghei in mice. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with purposively selected informants in the District to gather information on plants used in the traditional treatment of malaria. Standard procedures were used to investigate acute toxicity and a four-day suppressive effect of crude aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaves of the two most frequently cited plants [Aloe trichosantha (A. trichosantha) and Cadaba rotundifolia (C. rotundifolia)] against Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice. Results: The informants cited a total of 17 plants used in the traditional treatment of malaria in Awash-Fentale District. Plant parts were prepared as infusions or decoctions. Leaf was the most commonly cited (44%) plant part, followed by stem (22%). Shrubs were the most frequently cited (63%) medicine source followed by trees (21%). Of the 17 plants, C. rotundifolia and A. trichosantha were the most frequently mentioned plants in the district. Ethanol extracts of the leaves of C. rotundifolia and A. trichosantha suppressed P. berghei parasitaemia significantly accounting for 53.73% and 49.07%, respectively at 900 mg/kg. The plants were found to be non-toxic up to a dose of 1 500 mg/kg. Conclusions: Seventeen plant species were reported to be used for treatment of malaria in the Awash Fentale Distinct, among which A. trichosantha and C. rotundifolia were the most preferred ones. P. berghei suppressive activity of these plants may partly explain their common use in the community.
... Capparis tomentosa Lam. is among Ethiopian traditional medicinal plants which have been used to treat different diseases. These plants are traditionally used for antimalarial treatment in Ethiopia [12]. C. tomentosa is found widely in local pharmacopoeias throughout Africa [13]. ...
... Some species from the genus Clematis are used for the treatment of leprosy, fever, various skin diseases, headache, common cold, hemorrhoids, and eczema (Wubetu et al., 2017). D. abyssinica was reported for its use in the treatment of hemorrhoids (Chekole et al., 2015) and the use of C. myricoides include casting out an evil spirit (Araya et al., 2015;Chekole et al., 2015), treating snake bites (Teklay et al., 2013), malaria (Asnake et al., 2016), diarrhea (Kefalew et al., 2015), arthritis/rheumatism, conjunctivitis, and trachoma (Araya et al., 2015), "Almaz-balechira' (herpes zoster) (Teklehaymanot et al., 2007) coughs, headaches, and abdominal pains. For various human ailments, different parts of the medicinal plants with various modes of preparation are employed. ...
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Traditional medicine is widely practiced in Ethiopia. Here we investigate the toxicity of extracts of seven medicinal plants traditionally used to treat breast cancer in Ethiopia. These plants, Sideroxylon oxyacanthum, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, Clematis simensis, Clematis longicauda, Dovyalis abyssinica, Vernonia leopoldi, and Clerodendrum myricoides, were selected based on recommendations by traditional healers and on the frequency of use. After harvesting the plant material, the water content was determined and the powder was subjected to methanol extraction resulting in crude extracts which were tested for cytotoxicity in dose response assay. Then the methanol extract of the most toxic plants was subjected to further solvent-solvent fractionation to gain petroleum ether, hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and water fractions and these were also tested for cytotoxicity in dose response assays. Extracts of Z. chalybeum and C. myricoides were not toxic. The crude extracts of S. oxyacanthum, C. simensis, and D. abyssinica showed cytotoxicity with half maximal inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) below 1 μg/ml in the human breast cancer cell lines JIMT-1, MCF-7, and HCC1937. The ethyl acetate fraction of V. leopoldi was the most cytotoxic fraction of all fractions tested with an IC50 of 0.87 μg/ml in JIMT-1 cells. The aqueous fraction of S. oxyacanthum and the chloroform fraction of C. simensis were also cytotoxic. In conclusion, our data show a wide difference in in vitro toxicity of medicinal plants used to treat breast cancer patients, which may guide the use of traditional medicine and the choice of plants for isolation of new compounds for cancer treatment. Key words: Cancer, Ethiopia, in vitro cytotoxicity, 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), traditional medicine.
... Cette caractéristique des recettes a été également observée dans d'autres régions d'Afrique, notamment au Kenya (Kareru et al., 2007) et au Rwanda (Mukazayire et al., 2011 ;Kamagaju et al., 2013). Par contre, le principe de « médicaments complexes pour les maux complexes » guide souvent les pratiques traditionnelles à travers les médications multiplantes (Teklehaymanot et al., 2006). Cependant, certains auteurs ont lié la recette multiplantes au caractère secret de la médecine traditionnelle. ...
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En ethnobotanique, des aspects comme l’influence de l’accessibilité d’une plante sur sa fréquence d’usage, le consensus entre les tradipraticiens autour des rela- tions maladie-plante ainsi que le degré de fidélité d’une plante à une catégorie de maladies sont essentiels pour évaluer une tradition médicinale ; mais ils sont d’une interprétation difficile. Nous avons exploré ces aspects dans cette étude basée sur des entretiens semi-structurés avec 88 tradi- praticiens issus des communautés Batwa, Havu, Shi et Tembo dans les localités situées à proximité de la forêt de montagne du Parc national de Kahuzi-Biega, en pro- vince du Sud-Kivu, à l’Est de la République démocratique du Congo. Il s’avère que 77 espèces végétales sont utilisées pour traiter les pathologies regroupées dans 18 catégories de maladies, dont les plus fré- quentes sont les troubles digestifs et les infections. Lesfeuilles et les écorces sont les parties les plus utilisées dans les recettes majoritairement monoplantes et principa- lement préparées en solutions aqueuses. Bien que la corrélation entre l’accessibilité des plantes et leurs fréquences d’usage soit positive (H = 17,64 ; p < 0,001), certaines plantes forestières pourtant moins acces- sibles connaissent des fréquences d’usage particulièrement élevées. Le facteur de consensus des tradipraticiens est globale- ment élevé, particulièrement pour les caté- gories de troubles musculo-squelettiques (= 0,83) et les infections (= 0,80). Toutes les catégories de maladies fidélisent au moins une plante malgré les taux globalement faibles. Bien qu’exploratoires, nos résultats suggèrent un certain ancrage d’une tradi- tion médicinale au sein de communautés locales de la région. Cet ancrage suppose une bonne connaissance des plantes médicinales, une transmission intergénéra- tionnelle des savoirs ainsi qu’une certaine collaboration entre les tradipraticiens. Plus d’études sont nécessaires pour évaluer davantage ces différents aspects.
... Ethnomedicinal uses of E. kebericho have been recorded for human and livestock ailments. Reported ailments treated by E. kebericho include wound infections, toothache tonsillitis, stomachache, gonorrhea, respiratory manifestations, febrile illness, lung tuberculosis, trypanosmiasis, typhoid, tonsilitis, tooth ache, typhus, common cold, cancer, hypertension, colic, cough, and malaria [11][12][13][14][15][16][17]. It is also used to treat scabies, headache, cough, fumigation during childbirth, and mosquito repellent [12]. ...
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Background: Echinops kebericho is an endemic medicinal plant in Ethiopia traditionally used for treatment of various infectious diseases through different routes of administration such as inhalation, orally chewed, and topically sprayed to affected area. This study investigated antibacterial activity of the essential oil (EO) and the different fractions of ethanolic extract of Echinops kebericho tuber. Results: MIC of EO ranged from 78.125 µg/ml – 625 µg/ml and it was most active against methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA, NCTC 12493). Ethyl acetate fraction showed better activity against MRSA (NCTC 12493), MIC = 39.075 µg/ml followed by E. faecalis (ATCC 49532), MIC = 78.125 µg/ml and was least active against K. pneumonia (ATCC 700603), MIC = 1250 µg/ml. MIC of hexane fraction ranged from 156.2- µg/ml to E. faecalis (ATCC 49532) to 1250 µg/ml to E. coli (NCTC 11954). Chloroform fraction MIC ranged from 312.5 - 2500µg/ml; while butanol fraction could be considered pharmacologically inactive as its MIC value is 2500 µg/ml for all and no activity shown for E. coli (NCTC 11954). The MIC of DMSO against all strains ranged 12.5- 25 % w/v. The MIC estimated by OD measurement correlated well with that of resazurin assay method. Conclusion: Essential oil and ethyl acetate fraction showed noteworthy antibacterial activity, and MRSA was the most susceptible strain. Further study, however, should be done to investigate the effect on the isolated active component(s).
... Traditional healers have been playing an important role in the primary health care system of the rural community who had less access and could not afford the cost of modern medication. We documented that old and middle aged women and men had more knowledge than the young generation in agreement with previous research findings ( Asfaw and Nigatu 1995;Awas 2007;Gemedo-Dalle et al. 2005;Giday et al. 2003;Teklehaymanot 2007). It was also observed that the young generation showed no interest to learn and make use of traditional medicines. ...
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Ethnobotanical study was conducted in Nagelle Arsi District, Ethiopia with the objective of identifying and documenting medicinal plants, associated indigenous knowledge and ethnobotanical practices of local communities. Household survey using semi-structured interviews, key informant interview, group discussions, field observations and market survey methods were used for data collection. A total 17 kebeles (smallest administrative unit) out of the 34 in the District were selected for this study, from which 90 informants for the household survey were interviewed. Eight key informants per each site were selected following purposive sampling method. Qualitative and quantitative statistical methods, priority ranking, paired comparison, direct matrix ranking, informant consensus and percentage distribution were used for data analysis. A total of 102 medicinal plants belonging to 85 genera and 55 families were collected and identified including four endemic plants to Ethiopia. The finding indicated that 65 species were used for treating human diseases, 31species for both human and livestock diseases and 7 for livestock diseases. Species used for treating cancer, blood pressure, malaria, diabetes, hemorrhoids and prostate problems were identified and documented. Seventeen medicinal plants were found to be wild edibles. Commonly used plant parts were leaves followed by roots and barks. The common routes of administration were oral followed by dermal. It was concluded that although the District was rich in medicinal plants, these species have been under serious threat due to agricultural expansion, deforestation, forest degradation and over harvesting for different purposes including firewood collections. Therefore, urgent conservation measures applying in-situ and ex-situ methods and strengthening sustainable management of natural forest were recommended.
... Medicinal preparations from Echinops kebericho Mesfin have been suggested to shorten the course of illness from black leg, respiratory manifestations and liver disease [38]. Moreover, the smoke from burning the plant is inhaled to relieve headache [27,31,32,34,44,50]. Echinops kebericho is traditionally used for the treatment of fibre illness, evil spirit, snake bite, tonsillitis, coughing and sudden illness [35,36,43,56]. ...
... The frequent use of multiple plant remedies among the traditional healers could be attributed to the belief of synergic reactions where one plant could have a potentiating effect than other 17 . It is believed that the multiple prescriptions contain a range of pharmacologically active compounds and poly-herbal treatment has more healing power than single medicinal plant, since each medicinal plant used in the mixture is a remedy 18 . ...
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An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to collect information from traditional healers on the use of medicinal plants in Mudivaithananthal village, Thoothukudi district of Tamil Nadu. The indigenous knowledge of local traditional healers and the plants used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips. The investigation revealed that, the traditional healers used 39 species of plants distributed in 35 genera belonging to 25 families to treat various diseases. In this study the most dominant family was Euphorbiaceae and leaves were most frequently used for the treatment of diseases. This study showed that many people in the studied area still continue to depend on medicinal plants at least for the treatment of primary healthcare. The traditional healers are dwindling in number and there is a grave danger of traditional knowledge disappearing soon since the younger generation is not interested to carry on this tradition.
... 20 Based on the ethnobotanical reports and interviewing traditional practitioners, Becium grandiflorum Lam. is a potential plant for the treatment of many ailments like bacterial infections, wound healing, malaria, diabetes mellitus, respiratory depression, influenza and inflammatory disorders. [21][22][23] Traditionally, people use fresh leaf of Becium grandiflorum for treatment of different ailments including diabetes although it lacks scientific evidence. 18 The aim of this study is to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of 70% ethanolic leaves extract of Becium grandiflorum in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. ...
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Background: Becium grandiflorum has been used traditionally for treatment of different ailments including diabetes mellitus although it lacks scientific evidence. Thus, the present study was aimed at evaluating the antidiabetic effect of Becium grandiflorum in streptozotocin (STZ)﻿-induced diabetic mice. Methods: The antidiabetic activity of hydro-ethanolic (30:70) leaf extract of Becium grandiflorum was evaluated in ﻿STZ (45 mg/kg)﻿-induced diabetic and normal mice. Antihyperglycemic, hypoglycemic, oral glucose tolerance and body weight change effects of the extract were assessed after administering three doses of the extract (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg), glibenclamide 5 mg/kg (reference drug) and 2% ﻿Tween 80 (vehicle). One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc test were used for data analysis. Results: All doses of the extract (200 mg/kg (p<0.05), 400 mg/kg (p<0.05) and 600 mg/kg (p<0.01)) and glibenclamide 5 mg/kg (p<0.001) showed statistically significant blood glucose level reduction in normal mice as compared to Tween 80. The hydroalcoholic extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg (p<0.05), 400 mg/kg (p<0.01) and 600 mg/kg (p<0.001) showed better blood glucose tolerance after 60, 120 and 180﻿-minute treatment duration in normal mice as compared to negative control. In diabetic mice, Becium grandiflorum doses and the reference drug caused maximum reduction in blood glucose level at the end of the 15th day of treatment by 17.61%, 22.52%, 24.62% and 34.12%, respectively. The extract's doses and the standard drug showed significant (p<0.05) improvement in body weight while the diabetic control continued to lose their body weight. Conclusion: Thus, Becium grandiflorum exhibits antihyperglycemic activity in ﻿STZ﻿-induced diabetic mice, and shows improvement in oral glucose tolerance and body weight, which justifies the claimed use of the plant in ameliorating diabetes mellitus in Ethiopian folk medicine.
... Groups in medium dose group of either sex showed normal morphology (3 and 7). Liver of high dose treated groups in either sex showed moderate fatty change (green arrow), 4 and 8. Kidney of all groups in box sex showed normal morphology(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16). Spleen of all groups showed normal but mild sinusoidal congestion(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24) ...
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Background: Echinops kebericho is widely used for treatment of a variety of diseases including infectious, non-infectious disease and fumigation during child birth. Antibacterial, antimalarial, anti-leshimania, anti-diarrheal and insect repellent activities have been elucidated. Its toxicity profile is not yet investigated and thus this study was to investigate acute and sub-acute toxicity of E. kebericho decoctions. Methods: Acute toxicity study was performed in female Wistar albino rats with single oral dose and followed up to 14 days. The sub-acute oral dose toxicity studies were conducted in rats of both sexes in accordance with the repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study in rodent OECD guidelines. Physical observations were made regularly during the study period while body weight was measured weekly. Organ weight, histopathology, clinical chemistry and hematology data were collected on the 29th day. Results were presented as mean ± standard deviation. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed if assumptions were met; otherwise Kruskal-Wallis analysis was performed. Result: Oral administration of E. kebericho decoction showed no treatment-related mortality in female rats up to the dose of 5000 mg/kg. In sub-acute toxicity studies, no significant treatment-related abnormalities were observed compared to negative controls. Food consumption, body weight, organ weight, hematology, clinical chemistry, and histopathology did not show significant variation between controls and treatment groups. However, creatinine, relative lung weight, triglycerides, and monocytes were lower in treated compared to control groups. Significant variations between male and female groups in food consumption, relative organ weight, hematology, clinical chemistry were observed. Histolo-pathology of high-dose treated groups showed fatty liver. Conclusion: Echinops kebericho showed LD50 of greater than 5000 mg/kg in acute toxicity study and is well tolerated up to the dose of 600 mg/kg body weight in sub-acute toxicity study.
... Among the different plant parts used, the leaves were most frequently used for medicinal purposes. Many indigenous communities elsewhere also utilized mostly leaves for the medicinal purposes (Ignacimuthu et al., 2006(Ignacimuthu et al., , 2008Teklehaymanot et al., 2007;Srithi et al., 2009;Giday et al., 2010;Cakilcioglu and Turkoglu, 2010;Gonzalez et al.,2010 andAbdul Latheef et al., 2014). The reason why leaves were used mostly is that they are collected very easily than underground parts, flowers, fruits etc. (Giday et al., 2009) and in scientific point of view leaves are active in photosynthesis and production of metabolites (Ghorbani, 2005). ...
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Medappara forest of Kerala was surveyed to list out the ethnobotanical plants used by Malamuthans tribal community. Totally 250 plants belonging to 86 families were reported to be present in the study area, in which Fabaceae family was the dominant one contributed 25 species followed by the families, Euphorbiaceae (16 species), Asteraceae (13 species) and Acanthaceae with 12 species and the distribution of species in the study area includes various life-forms viz., trees (81 species), shrubs (53 species), herbs (78 species), climbers (35 species) and epiphytics (3 species) habits respectively. Of the 250 plant species, 237 (95%) were recognized as medicinally important and also cures 127 types of ailments. Of the 250 plant species encounted at all life-form levels. Sixteen ailment categories were classified, among them a higher number of 110 species were prescribed by the Malamuthan ethnic community for Gastro Intestinal Ailment (GIA).
... ese include Bersama abyssinica, Buddleja polystachya, Clerodendrum myricoides, Dovyalis abyssinica, Ekebergia capensis, Myrsine melanophloeos, Olea capensis, Pentas lanceolata, Sideroxylon oxyacanthum, and Zingiber officinale [14]; Bidens macroptera, Clematis simensis, Ferula communis, and Punica granatum [15]; Rumex abyssinicus [16]; Zanthoxylum chalybeum [17]; Phytolacca dodecandra and Vinca rosea [18]; Kalanchoe lanceolata, Stephania abyssinica, and Vernonia hymenolepis [19]; Plumbago zeylanica [20][21][22]; Acalypha acrogyna, Carissa spinarum, Maytenus ovatus, and Salvia nilotica [23]; Croton macrostachyus [24]; and Dorstenia barnimiana [25,26]. ...
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... Leaves of Rumex nervosus crushed and its paste applied on affected area can prevent Brest Cancer diseases [31]. The use of this plant as anti-dysentery, cure for stomach ache, and effective treatment of warts [32]. The roots of Rumex nervosus used as anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activity [33]. ...
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Rumex nervosus belongs to the family of Polygonaceae,which is traditionally used in Ethiopia to treat various diseases. This prompted us to isolate bioactive compounds from the root of this plant. Ground root parts of Rumex nervosus were subjected to exhaustive extraction successively with petroleum ether and methanol.The solvent from each extract was evaporated under reduced pressure using rotavapour to obtain petroleum ether and methanol extract. Chromatographic purification of the methanol extracts by Column chromatography followed by Preparative Thin layer Chromatography using Chloroform: methanol (9.5:0.5) ratio gave a compound coded as RN-6. The structure of this compound 4-ethylheptyl benzoate was characterized as by means of ¹H NMR, ¹³C NMR, UV and IR spectral data.
... Generally, individuals living for longer, and closer to the resources, are those who have the greater knowledge and use of the plant resources [34]. Coupled with this, women tend to have a greater knowledge and use of medicinal plants, as they are usually responsible for early health care in several local communities [37][38][39][40]. Women are also more vulnerable to food security issues than men due to gender inequalities. ...
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Background Mining activities have environmental impacts due to sediment movement and contamination of areas, and may also pose risks to people's food security. In Brazil, the majority of coal mining activities are in the south, in the Santa Catarina Carboniferous region. In this region, previously mined areas contaminated with heavy metals, frequently occur nearby inhabited zones. Heavy metals are contaminants that do not have odor, color, or taste, and are therefore difficult to detect. We aimed to verify whether people use plants from contaminated mine areas, and to understand which factors are related to plant use. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with residents from 14 areas nearby abandoned mines in the main municipalities of the Santa Catarina Carboniferous region. Results Out of the 196 interviewed residents, 127 (65%) reported collecting plants for medicinal and food use, directly from contaminated mine areas. Long-term residents, as well as those who noticed more environmental changes (positive and negative), cited more plants used, and had more detailed knowledge of plant use in their communities. When asked if they were aware of the possible contamination of mined areas, 85% said they knew about it. However, only 10% associated negative health effects with the use of plant species collected in contaminated mined areas. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that people living nearby contaminated areas use and consume locally sourced plants, it also reveals a lack of information about contamination, as well as a lack of actions that include local communities in contaminated area restoration strategies. This situation poses a risk to the food security of the people living nearby former coal mining areas.
... Studies on Ethiopian medicinal plants showed that herbal extracts have been attracting scientific interest due to their potential as sources of phytochemicals against pathogenic microorganisms. Moreover, they play important role in meeting the primary healthcare needs of society [11][12][13][14]. Hence, well-documented Ethiopian traditional medicinal plant database is important for drug research. ...
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Background: People's classification, management, and use of plants represent attempt to attracting people from different academic disciplines. Many countries use traditional medicine for their primary healthcare system. Medicinal plants have been important components of healthcare systems since the time immemorial. The objective of this research was to document and analyze traditional medicinal plants used by the Sheka people and associated ethnobotanical knowledge. Methods: Data was collected by administering pre-prepared semi-structured interview items to 414 informants. Market surveys, group discussion, and guided field walk were used. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics; determination of informant consensus factor, fidelity level, as well as ranking and scoring. Results: A total of 266 plant species belonging to 192 genera and 74 families were identified. About 204 (77%) of the medicinal plants were used to treat human health problems. Only ten (4%) were used to treat livestock health problems and 52 (19%) of them were used to treat both human and livestock health problems. Croton macrostachyus, Prunus africana, Peperomia retusa, Lobelia giberroa, and Celosia schweinfurthiana were found to be high ranking medicinal plants against gastrointestinal problems based on simple preference ranking. Conclusion: Very high number of medicinal plant species recorded from the study area indicates that vegetation of Sheka is reservoir of medicinal plants. Hence, the area needs attention for medicinal plant conservation priorities. Plant parts used as medicines also play vital role in the entire medicinal plant life cycle. Therefore, it is useful to consider harvesting impacts. Except well-experienced traditional healers, people of the study area use the medicinal plants haphazardly. There may be high risk of being victims of dosage and improper usage. High ranking medicinal plants are candidates for further phytochemical profiling, drug research, and development.
... The use of traditional medicine for treating human diseases still remains widespread in low income countries with a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities (Ajayi et al., 2011;Ejele 2010). Bersama abyssinica (Melianthaceae) is an ever green shrub to small tree up to 18 m tall and its bark, leaf and root decoctions are widely taken as a purgative to treat a range of stomach disorders, such as abdominal pain, colic, diarrhea, cholera, intestinal worms, dysentery, and also for the treatment of rabies, tumour, syphilis, gonorrhea, malaria, rheumatism, aphrodisiac and snake bites (Djemgou et al., 2010;Lather et al., 2010;Kuete et al., 2008;Teklehaymanot et al., 2007). B. abyssinica is known in Ethiopia as Azamer (Amharic) and Lolchissa (Afan Oromo) (Verdcourt, 1989). ...
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Keywords: Bersama abyssinica steroids phytochemical screening antibacterial activity Bersama abyssinica is one of the medicinal plants used traditionally to treat various diseases such as leprosy, wound, diarrhea, fever, eye disease, rabies and tumor/cancer. Phytochemical screening test of dichloromethane/methanol (1:1) and methanol extracts revealed the presence of glycosides, alkaloids, tannins, flavanoids, saponins, terpenoids, steroids and phytosterols. Silica gel column chromatography separation of dichloromethane/methanol (1:1) root extracts afforded β-sitosterol (1), 7-hydroxysitosterol (2) and 2-methylamino-butyric acid (3) of which the latter is isolated for the first time from natural source. The crude extracts and isolated compounds were screened for in vitro antibacterial activity against strains of Salmonella thphimurium, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. Dichloromethane/methanol (1:1) extract, methanol extract and β-sitosterol (1) showed moderate activity against E. coli and S. aureus (zone of inhibition 13±0, 13±2 and 12.6±0.48, respectively) and (zone of inhibition 13.6±0.55, 12±2, and 12.5±0.5 mm, respectively) compared to ciprofloxacin (28.6±1.25 and 26±5.1 mm) at 0.5 mg/mL. The structures of compounds were determined by spectroscopic techniques (IR and NMR) and comparison with literature report.
... and shrubs (9 species = 14.75%) (Fig. 4). Herbs often have a high content of bio-active compounds (Giday et al. 2009;Mesfin et al. 2009;Teklehaymanot et al. 2007;Lulekal et al. 2013) and so their medicinal action is more effective than shrubs and trees (Adnan et al. 2012;Adnan et al. 2014). Herbs also grow more commonly along roadsides and in homegardens, and therefore available in nature (Shrestha and Dhillion, 2003;Ayyanar and Ignacimuthu, 2005;Uniyal et al. 2006;Giday et al. 2009;Islam et al. 2014;Kayani et al. 2014) and easily accessible. ...
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Background: This study is the first of its own kind conducted in the study area with the aim to document and conserve the indigenous traditional knowledge of medicinal plants used for curing gynecological diseases. Materials and Methods: During the course of work, the use of medicinal plants and their ethnomedicinal uses for gynecological problems were documented by interviewing 532 people of different ages (20-110 years) through semi-structured interviews. Results: The result of the present work is showing the dependency of the indigenous population on medicinal plants. In the present work 60 plants, species belonging to 40 families were collected and their medicinal uses were documented by interviewing both genders of the local population through semi-structured interviews and open-ended questionnaires. The results of the study were compared to 14 previously published articles. The result of this study indicates that Asteraceae was the dominant family with 4 species. Similarly, the dominant life form was herb (39 species) and the most used plant part was leaf (19 species). The highest RCF (Relative Citation Frequency) value was obtained for Acacia modesta Wall. 0.71. The highest UV (Use Value) was 0.91 for Trachyspermum ammi (L.) sprague and lowest UV was 0.50 for Ficus benghalensis L. The highest ICF (Informants Consensus Factor) value 1.0 was obtained for emmenagogue and vomiting and the lowest for leucorrhoea (0.67). Conclusions: The present study shows that the study area is rich in ethnomedicinal knowledge. The result also indicates that the local population is more sensitive and careful about gynecological diseases. This study is providing a baseline for future pharmacological studies to discover new herbal drugs.
... While Lardos and Heinrich (2013) partly explored the relationship between SNSs and knowledge related to wild food plants in Cyprus, the relationship between SNSs and knowledge related to medicinal plants has as yet been little discussed in other geographical contexts. Teklehaymanot et al. (2007) examined the medical plant knowledge of people living close to an Ethiopian Orthodox monastery and found that local herbalists acquired their knowledge and use of medicinal plants from the monastic community, where this knowledge was passed down secretively from one generation to the next through illustrated codices often influenced by the writings of and , crucial sources for monastic medicine (Lardos and Heinrich 2013;Mądra Gackowska et al. 2018;Medeiros and de Albuquerque 2012;Niederer 2005). This medicinal knowledge was then adapted to local conditions (Dal Cero et al. 2014). ...
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Sacred Natural Sites (SNSs), found in all inhabited continents, are cultural landscapes of spiritual significance for local communities. As they are believed to influence Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK), we documented the use of wild and semi-domesticated plants for food and medicine in four villages located at different distances from SNSs in Central Italy. Results may indicate that SNSs, which have been managed and inhabited for centuries by monastic communities, have had a restrictive impact on local TEK, as the communities located near SNSs reported fewer traditional uses for plants than those living further from the same SNSs. One possible explanation is that the Scholarly Knowledge (SK) held by the monastic communities of SNSs competed with the TEK of the surrounding villages and this resulted in a smaller body of plant-related folk knowledge, practices and beliefs retained by the people living in the vicinity of SNSs. Further studies should address the past and current mechanisms of competition and/or osmosis between TEK and SK in terms of both daily practices and beliefs/theoretical knowledge.
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In India, There are several herbal and folk remedies beginning, the documentation of traditional knowledge especially on the medicinal uses of plants, has provided many important drugs of modern day. Traditional medicinal plants play a major role in m health needs of the people and India has a great wealth of medicinal flora and traditional medicinal knowledge. The many places of India and also Himalayan region are a rich repository of medicinal flora because of the geographical position and difficult means of transport and communication. The traditions Indian medicinal knowledge of the ancients is carefully persevered in the literature like Vedas, many temples and historical places of different state. In which author selected hund Keywords: Traditional, Medicinal Plant, India, Use.
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Traditional medicine plays an important role in the daily lives of people living in rural parts of Ethiopia. Despite the fact that Ethiopia has a long history of using traditional medicinal plants as an alternative medicine source, there is no checklist compiling these plants used for snakebite treatment. This review collected and compiled available knowledge on and practical usage of such plants in the country. A literature review on medicinal plants used to treat snakebites was conducted from 67 journal articles, PhD dissertation and MSc theses available online. Data that summarize scientific and folk names, administration methods, plant portion used for treatment and method of preparation of recipes were organized and analyzed based on citation frequency. The summarized results revealed the presence of 184 plant species distributed among 67 families that were cited for treating snakebite in Ethiopia. In this literature search, no single study was entirely dedicated to the study of traditional medicinal plants used for the treatment of snakebite in Ethiopia. Most of the species listed as a snakebite remedy were shrubs and climbers (44%) followed by herbs (33%) and trees (23%). Fabaceae was the most predominant family with the greatest number of species, followed by Solanaceae and Vitaceae. Remedies are mainly prepared from roots and leaves, through decoctions, infusions, powders and juices. Most remedies were administered orally (69%). The six most frequently mentioned therapeutically important plants were Nicotiana tabacum, Solanum incanum, Carissa spinanrum, Calpurnia aurea, Croton macrostachyus and Cynodon dactylon. Authors reviewed the vegetal substances involved in snakebite management and their action mode. In addition to screening the biologically active ingredients and pharmacological activities of these plant materials, future studies are needed to emphasize the conservation and cultivation of important medicinal plants of the country.
Chapter
The present study was conducted for the first time in sacred groves located in East Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh, India. The purpose was to document the indigenous knowledge of the tribal people used in the preparation of herbal medicines. To get the data on traditional uses of ethnomedicinal plants, 25 key informants were interviewed. Quantitative ethnobotanical indices, i.e., fidelity level (FL), data matrix ranking (DMR), priority ranking (PR), and Jaccard index (JI), were calculated for recorded ethnomedicinal plants. A total of 104 ethnomedicinal plants belonging to 89 genera and 53 families used in 17 disease categories were documented. Leaves (32.59%) were the frequently used plant parts, and most of the informants suggested taking herbal medicines orally. In our study, we found highest FL value for Andrographis paniculata and Gymnema sylvestre (100%) and the lowest value was recorded for Gloriosa superba (40%). Syzygium cumini was the most multipurpose plant other than medicinal uses. In PR, informants ranked poducultivation (Burn agriculture) (19.25%) as a leading threat to ethnomedicinal plants. The present study provides useful information about traditional uses of ethnomedicinal plants used by indigenous communities in different ailments. Most of the plants having highest use values could be employed in pharmaceutical research in order to achieve adequate revenue. Some of the plants in the study area are facing threats; hence, sustainable harvesting and conservation initiatives are needed in the region.
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Tamil Nadu is treasure of practical knowledge on traditional herbal medicines. In recent years, indigenous knowledge about natural resources is becoming increasingly important in defining strategies and actions for conservation. An ethno medicinal survey was conducted to collect the information on ethnomedicinal uses of plants was obtained through direct field interviews and designed questionnaire. The study revealed that local communities have a great faith in the traditional healing system and they rely on medicinal plants for treatment of various diseases. Therefore, this work will also contribute for the investigation of new medicines and treatments.
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• N L Vecchiato
Vecchiato, N.L., 1993. Traditional medicine. In: Kloos, H., Zein, A. (Eds.), The Ecology of Health and Disease in Ethiopia. Westview Press, Boulder, Sanfrancisco and Oxford.
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• D Abebe
• A Ayehu
• D Abebe
• E Hagos
Abebe, D., Ayehu, A., 1993. Medicinal Plants and Enigmatic Health Practices of Northern Ethiopia. B.S.P.E., Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Abebe, D., Hagos, E., 1991. Plants as a primary source of drugs in the tradi-tional health practices of Ethiopia. In: Engles, J.M.M., Hawkes, J.G., Melaku Worede (Eds.), Plant Genetic Resources of Ethiopia. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 101–113.
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• R Pankhurst
• V Schulz
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Alexiades, M.N., 1996. Selected Guidelines for Ethnobotanical Research: A Field Manual. Advances in Economic Botany, vol. 10. The New York Botan-ical Garden, Bronx. Berhe Tesfu, C., Mengistu, B., W/Aregay, G., 1995. Women Lead in Protecting Food Germplasm and Herbs for Health in Ethiopia. Report submitted to EarthCare Africa, Nairobi, Kenya, unpublished. Bishaw, M., 1990. Attitudes of modern and traditional medical practitioners toward cooperation. Ethiopia Medical Journal 28, 63–72.
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• J Abbink
Abbink, J., 1995. Medicinal and ritual plants of the Ethiopian southwest: an account of recent research. Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor 3, 6-8.
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• G J Martin
Martin, G.J., 1995. Ethnobotany. A methods manual. In: WWF for Nature International. Chapman & Hall, London, UK.
Plants as a primary source of drugs in the traditional health practices of Ethiopia
• D Abebe
• E Hagos
Abebe, D., Hagos, E., 1991. Plants as a primary source of drugs in the traditional health practices of Ethiopia. In: Engles, J.M.M., Hawkes, J.G., Melaku Worede (Eds.), Plant Genetic Resources of Ethiopia. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 101-113.
Women Lead in Protecting Food Germplasm and Herbs for Health in Ethiopia
• Berhe Tesfu
• C Mengistu
• W Aregay
Berhe Tesfu, C., Mengistu, B., W/Aregay, G., 1995. Women Lead in Protecting Food Germplasm and Herbs for Health in Ethiopia. Report submitted to EarthCare Africa, Nairobi, Kenya, unpublished.
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• K Merahi
Merahi, K., 2001. Saints and Monasteries in Ethiopia. Commercial Printing Enterprise, Addis Ababa, pp. 60-64.
Selected Guidelines for Ethnobotanical Research: A Field Manual
Alexiades, M.N., 1996. Selected Guidelines for Ethnobotanical Research: A Field Manual. Advances in Economic Botany, vol. 10. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.
Etse Debdabe (Ethiopian Traditional Medicine) (in Amharic)
• G Abate
Abate, G., 1989. Etse Debdabe (Ethiopian Traditional Medicine) (in Amharic).
Rational Phytotherapy. A Physician's Guide to Herbal Medicine
• V Schulz
• R Hänsel
• V E Tyler
Schulz, V., Hänsel, R., Tyler, V.E., 2001. Rational Phytotherapy. A Physician's Guide to Herbal Medicine, fourth ed. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
The Ecology of Health and Disease in Ethiopia
• N L Vecchiato
Vecchiato, N.L., 1993. Traditional medicine. In: Kloos, H., Zein, A. (Eds.), The Ecology of Health and Disease in Ethiopia. Westview Press, Boulder, Sanfrancisco and Oxford.
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