Radiation Injury and the Surgeon

Department of Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9158, USA.
Journal of the American College of Surgeons (Impact Factor: 5.12). 02/2007; 204(1):128-39. DOI: 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2006.09.014
Source: PubMed
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    • "Haematopoietic system is particularly affected in case of radiation disasters due to radiosensitivity of haematopoietic cells3233. A dose of 2 or more Gy of ionizing radiation results in haematologic syndrome characterized by depletion in the lymphocyte, granulocyte and platelet counts, thus making the victims susceptible to infections. "
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    ABSTRACT: Stem cell therapy hold the potential to meet the demand for transplant cells/tissues needed for treating damages resulting from both natural and man-made disasters. Pluripotency makes embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells ideal for use, but their teratogenic character is a major hindrance. Therapeutic benefits of bone marrow transplantation are well known but characterizing the potentialities of haematopoietic and mesenchymal cells is essential. Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have been used for treating both haematopoietic and non-haematopoietic disorders. Ease of isolation, in vitro expansion, and hypoimmunogenecity have brought mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into limelight. Though differentiation of MSCs into tissue-specific cells has been reported, differentiation-independent mechanisms seem to play a more significant role in tissue repair which need to be addressed further. The safety and feasibility of MSCs have been demonstrated in clinical trials, and their use in combination with HSC for radiation injury treatment seems to have extended benefit. Therefore, using stem cells for treatment of disaster injuries along with the conventional medical practice would likely accelerate the repair process and improve the quality of life of the victim.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · The Indian Journal of Medical Research
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    ABSTRACT: The human hand has been affected by ionizing radiation accidents than any other organ. Hand surgeons should understand the pathophysiology and appropriate management of various types of radiation injury. This article outlines the history and epidemiology of ionizing radiation injury to the hand, basic aspects of radiobiology, and principles of management for injury resulting from fluoroscopy, nuclear accidents or weapons, and other sources.
    No preview · Article · May 2008 · The Journal Of Hand Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: The search for non-toxic radio-protective drugs has yielded many potential agents but most of these compounds have certain amount of toxicity. Recent studies have indicated that bio-molecules such as folate and choline might be of radio-protective value as they are, within broad dose ranges, non-toxic to humans and experimental animals. The objective of the present study was to investigate choline dependent adaptive response to potential synergistic cytotoxic effect of folate deficiency and gamma-radiation. Male Swiss mice maintained on folate sufficient diet (FSD) and folate free diet (FFD) based on AIN-93M formula, were subjected to 1-4Gy total body gamma-irradiation. To investigate liver DNA damage, apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites) were quantified. A significant increase in liver DNA AP sites with concomitant depletion of liver choline reserves was observed when gamma-radiation was combined with folate deficiency. Further work in this direction suggested that cytotoxic interaction between folate deficiency and gamma radiation might induce utilization of choline and choline containing moieties by modifying levels of key regulatory enzymes dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and choline oxidase (ChoOx). Another major finding of these studies is that significant liver damage at higher doses of radiation (3-4Gy), might release considerable amounts of choline reserves to serum. In conclusion, a plausible interpretation of the present studies is that folate deprivation and gamma-radiation interact to mobilize additional choline reserves of hepatic tissue, for redistribution to other organs, which could not be utilized by folate deficiency alone. Present results clearly indicated a distinct choline pool in liver and kidney tissues that could be utilized by folate deficient animals only under radiation stress conditions.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2008 · Toxicology
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