Article

Childhood Overweight and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study

Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
The Journal of pediatrics (Impact Factor: 3.79). 02/2007; 150(1):18-25. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2006.09.039
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

To estimate the prevalence and incidence of overweight in African-American and Caucasian girls, and to examine associations between adolescent overweight and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors.
In the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (NGHS), annual measurements were obtained from girls followed longitudinally between age 9 or 10 and 18 years; self-reported measures were obtained at age 21 to 23 years. A total of 1166 Caucasian girls and 1213 African-American girls participated in the study. Childhood overweight as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) was the independent variable of primary interest. Measured outcomes included blood pressure and lipid levels.
Rates of overweight increased through adolescence from 7% to 10% in the Caucasian girls and from 17% to 24% in the African-American girls. The incidence of overweight was greater at age 9 to 12 than in later adolescence. Girls who were overweight during childhood were 11 to 30 times more likely to be obese in young adulthood. Overweight was significantly associated with increased percent body fat, sum of skinfolds and waist circumference measurements, and unhealthful systolic and diastolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels.
A relationship between CVD risk factors and CDC-defined overweight is present at age 9.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Frank Biro, Feb 19, 2014
    • "Consumption of excessive amount of sugar-sweetened beverages leads to positive energy balance and, consequently , weight gain[3]. Also, reduction of excessive weight gain prevents cardiovascular risk factors[20,21]. However, in our findings adjusted for BMI, the association remained materially unchanged. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between consumption of sugar-sweetened and diet soft drinks with blood pressure (BP) in adolescents. Methods: Fifth graders of 20 public schools were invited to participate in an intervention aimed at behavioral dietary changes and had their BP, weight, and height measured at baseline. Type and frequency of soft drink consumption were assessed using a food and beverages frequency questionnaire, and students were classified as nonconsumers, sugar-sweetened soft drink consumers, and diet soft drink consumers. Results: Of the 574 students invited, 512 were examined and 488 had their BP measured. Of these, 25 (5.1%) reported to be nonconsumers, 419 (85.9%) were sugar-sweetened soft drink consumers, and 44 (9%) were diet soft drink consumers. Mean SBP and DBP were 101.3/57.8, 102.6/58.8, and 106.0/61.3 mmHg for these three groups of consumption, respectively. After adjustment for sex, age, BMI, physical activity, addition of salt to food, and education of the head of the family, SBP was 5.4 mmHg higher in the diet soft drink consumers group compared with the nonconsumers group and 3.3 mmHg higher compared with the sugar-sweetened consumers group (P value of trend = 0.01). Moreover, DBP was also higher among diet soft drink consumers compared with nonconsumers, with a difference of 3.3 mmHg, and compared with sugar-sweetened consumers, with a difference of 2.3 mmHg (P value of trend = 0.04). Conclusion: The results indicate that the consumption of soft drink is associated with increased BP, which is further increased by drinking diet type sodas.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Hypertension
  • Source
    • "The etiology of the elevating BP among adolescents has been evolving and is multifaceted. The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Growth and Heart Study reports that overweight and obesity contribute to high BP levels among adolescents [8]. Evidence is abundant in the literature that indicates body mass index (BMI) is positively associated with high systolic BP [9] [10]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of the HEROES (Healthy, Energetic, Ready, Outstanding, Enthusiastic Schools) initiative, a multicomponent school-based obesity prevention intervention based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's coordinated school health approach, on the improvement of blood pressure (BP) and to determine long-term predictors of systolic and diastolic BP changes among high school students who were exposed to the intervention. Methods: Biometric and behavioral data from high school students were analyzed at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months (N = 847, three schools). The attrition rate at 18 months was 26.1%. Sequential generalized estimating equation models were fit to the data using SAS 9.3, taking into account clustering effects within the same school and correlations within repeated measures. Results: A significant downward trend was observed in systolic BP (p = .0006) and diastolic BP (p < .0001) among the students who were exposed to the HEROES initiative. The prevalence of hypertension decreased from 17.1% at baseline to 12.8% at 6 months (p < .0001), 12.0% at 12 months (p < .0001), and 15.0% (p = .0024) at 18 months. Baseline body mass index, increases in body mass index percentiles, and increases of television-viewing hours were associated with BP increases. Increases in frequencies of eating french fries or chips, skipping breakfast, and consuming supersize meals when eating fast food were predictive of systolic BP changes, not of diastolic BP changes. Conclusions: An 18-month multicomponent school-based obesity intervention program may be effectively used to decrease rates of high BP among adolescents.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Adolescent Health
  • Source
    • "Adolescent obesity is a strong predictor of adulthood obesity as excessive weight gain occurring in adolescence is unlikely to decrease over time [2]. Obesity can lead to many comorbid conditions such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and type 2 diabetes [3], and weight gain during adolescence may increase the risks for these morbidities in adulthood [4]. Furthermore, obese adolescents with type 2 diabetes, as well as those with metabolic syndrome, show reductions in cognitive performance and white matter microstructural integrity [5]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The hypothalamus is important in hunger and metabolism. Although a lot is known about the basic role of the human hypothalamus, less is known about how the in vivo volume is affected in obesity, particularly among adolescents. Based on pediatric body mass index percentiles, 95 participants were assigned to lean or obese groups. All subjects had medical evaluations, including fasting blood tests, to assess insulin sensitivity and circulating CRP and neurotrophins (NGF and BDNF) and an MRI of the brain. Hypothalamic volumes were measured by a segmentation method combining manual and automated steps. Overall, obese participants had descriptively smaller hypothalamic volumes, although this difference did not reach statistical significance; however, among obese participants, females had significantly smaller hypothalamic volumes than their male counterparts. There was a significant interaction between insulin resistance and sex on hypothalamus volume; obese females with significant insulin resistance have smaller hypothalamic volumes than obese males. Obese adolescents had higher circulating CRP and neurotrophin levels. Furthermore, among obese females, BDNF concentrations were inversely associated with hypothalamus volumes (r = −0.48). Given this negative association between BDNF and hypothalamus volumes among obese insulin-resistant females, elevated neurotrophin levels may suggest an attempt at protective compensation.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Disease markers
Show more