Olanzapine-induced agranulocytosis in systemic lupus erythematosus: a case report
Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chia Yi Shen 61344, Taiwan, R.O.C.General Hospital Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 2.61). 02/2007; 29(1):75-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2006.10.011
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients may have psychiatric manifestations during the illness course. Psychotropic agents are indicated in treating these symptoms. Second-generation antipsychotics, such as risperidone, olanzapine and quetiapine, have been thought to be safer than clozapine with regard to the side effect of neutropenia or agranulocytosis. We report a case of SLE who developed agranulocytosis during the treatment with olanzapine for the SLE-related psychiatric symptoms.
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ABSTRACT: The second generation antipsychotics clozapine and olanzapine are known to cause weight gain. However, only clozapine is associated with drug-induced fever. Cytokines have been linked to the induction of both weight gain and drug-induced fever. We investigated these potential side effects of clozapine and olanzapine and studied their differential effects on cytokine secretion. Thirty patients suffering from schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder or schizoaffective disorder were treated with either clozapine (mean modal dose: 266.7+/-77.9mg) or olanzapine (21.2+/-2.5mg) in a randomized, double-blind, 6-week study. Body mass index (BMI), tympanic temperature, and plasma levels of leptin and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), soluble TNF receptor 1 and 2 (sTNFR-1/2), soluble interleukin-2 receptors (sIL-2R), interleukin-6) were determined weekly. BMI, leptin and cytokines significantly increased over time, except interleukin-6 and sTNFR-1 in the olanzapine group. All cytokines numerically increased compared to baseline already during the first week of treatment in both groups. Leptin, TNF-alpha, sTNFR-1, sTNFR-2 and sIL-2R levels correlated with the BMI. Five patients who received clozapine (33%) developed drug-induced fever (>/=38 degrees C). In these, interleukin-6 peak levels were significantly (p<0.01) higher than in those patients treated with clozapine who did not develop fever. In conclusion, increase of BMI appears to be related to clozapine's and olanzapine's similar effects on cytokine systems, whilst drug-induced fever appears to be related to clozapine's differential effects on interleukin-6.
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ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a disorder which can affect the central nervous system and result in a broad range of psychiatric syndromes such as psychosis, mood disorders, acute confusion and cognitive dysfunction. Despite the robust nomenclature of neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE), psychiatric syndromes in patients are often nonspecific and may be secondary to concurrent non-SLE-related conditions and complications of medical therapies. Although the exact immunopathological mechanism for psychiatric presentation remains elusive, prompt exclusion of other factors contributing to the psychiatric symptoms coupled with effective assessment strategies and management with immunosuppression and psychiatric therapy are imperative. Psychiatrists and rheumatologists must work in close liaison to identify, treat and prognosticate patients with psychiatric syndromes in order to improve their quality of life, vocational aptitude and, ultimately, survival.
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