Physical Activity Compliance: Differences between Overweight/Obese and Normal-Weight Adults*

Article (PDF Available)inObesity 14(12):2259-65 · December 2006with24 Reads
DOI: 10.1038/oby.2006.265 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Comparisons of physical activity measured by accelerometers in overweight/obese adults and their normal-weight counterparts are limited. Compliance with the 2002 Institute of Medicine (IOM) exercise recommendations for 60 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise daily has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to compare physical activity, as measured by accelerometers, in overweight/obese adults vs. normal-weight controls and to assess compliance with recommendations for physical activity by the IOM in 2002 and by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and American College of Sports Medicine in 1995 for 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity, preferably all days of the week. Sixty-two overweight/obese subjects, BMI > or = 25, included 31 adults, 12 men and 19 women, 25 to 69 years old, and their normal-weight controls, BMI 18.5 to 24.9, matched for gender, age, and height. Body composition was assessed using DXA. Physical activity was measured with Actigraph accelerometers (MTI, Fort Walton Beach, FL) worn by each participant for 7 consecutive days. Accelerometry data indicated that overweight/obese adults recorded approximately 60 counts per minute less per day and spent 21 minutes less engaged in moderate or greater intensity activity than their normal-weight counterparts. Although 71% to 94% of those studied met 1995 recommendations, only 13% of overweight/obese subjects and 26% of normal-weight participants met 2002 exercise recommendations. These results suggest that daily minutes spent in moderate-intensity activity or greater are associated with weight status and that the 2002 IOM recommendations may be difficult to meet even for normal-weight individuals.
Physical Activity Compliance: Differences
between Overweight/Obese and
Normal-Weight Adults
Jaimie N. Davis, Valerie A. Hodges, and M. Beth Gillham
Abstract
DAVIS, JAIMIE N., VALERIE A. HODGES, AND M.
BETH GILLHAM. Physical activity compliance:
differences between overweight/obese and normal-weight
adults. Obesity. 2006;14:2259 –2265.
Objectives: Comparisons of physical activity measured by
accelerometers in overweight/obese adults and their normal-
weight counterparts are limited. Compliance with the 2002
Institute of Medicine (IOM) exercise recommendations for
60 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise daily has not
been reported. The purpose of this study was to compare
physical activity, as measured by accelerometers, in over-
weight/obese adults vs. normal-weight controls and to as-
sess compliance with recommendations for physical activity
by the IOM in 2002 and by the Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention and American College of Sports Medicine in
1995 for 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity, prefer-
ably all days of the week.
Research Methods and Procedures: Sixty-two overweight/
obese subjects, BMI 25, included 31 adults, 12 men and
19 women, 25 to 69 years old, and their normal-weight
controls, BMI 18.5 to 24.9, matched for gender, age, and
height. Body composition was assessed using DXA. Phys-
ical activity was measured with Actigraph accelerometers
(MTI, Fort Walton Beach, FL) worn by each participant for
7 consecutive days.
Results: Accelerometry data indicated that overweight/
obese adults recorded 60 counts per minute less per day
and spent 21 minutes less engaged in moderate or greater
intensity activity than their normal-weight counterparts. Al-
though 71% to 94% of those studied met 1995 recommen-
dations, only 13% of overweight/obese subjects and 26% of
normal-weight participants met 2002 exercise recommen-
dations.
Discussion: These results suggest that daily minutes spent
in moderate-intensity activity or greater are associated with
weight status and that the 2002 IOM recommendations may
be difficult to meet even for normal-weight individuals.
Key words: accelerometers, exercise recommendations,
overweight, controls, adults
Introduction
The role of physical activity in total energy expenditure is
difficult to measure objectively in free-living subjects. Two
available methods are doubly labeled water (DLW)
1
and
accelerometry. Validation studies comparing DLW with
direct and indirect calorimetry and with dietary balance
studies in which caloric intake was determined have found
DLW to be accurate within 97% to 99% over 1- to 3-week
intervals (1–3). However, expense ($400 to $600 per sub-
ject) and the complex administration procedure make this
method unrealistic for most settings (4). In addition, DLW
only measures energy expenditure and does not provide
qualitative data on physical activity, such as minutes spent
in different intensity levels. The development of the accel-
erometer provides investigators a more practical and rela-
tively inexpensive objective measure for assessing physical
activity under free-living conditions. Some accelerometers
on the market have validated, published, age-specific cut-
off points, which can distinguish the amount of time indi-
viduals spend at different intensity levels, i.e., sedentary,
Received for review October 31, 2005.
Accepted in final form August 1, 2006.
The costs of publication of this article were defrayed, in part, by the payment of page
charges. This article must, therefore, be hereby marked “advertisement” in accordance with
18 U.S.C. Section 1734 solely to indicate this fact.
Department of Human Ecology, University of Texas, Austin, Texas.
Address correspondence to Jaimie N. Davis, 2250 Alcazar Street, CSC-200, Los Angeles,
CA 90033.
E-mail: jaimieda@usc.edu
Copyright © 2006 NAASO
1
Nonstandard abbreviations: DLW, doubly labeled water; CDC, Centers for Disease Con-
trol and Prevention; ACSM, American College of Sports Medicine; IOM, Institute of
Medicine; cpm, count(s) per minute; GLM, general linear model; FFM, fat free mass;
MVPA, moderate to vigorous physical activity.
OBESITY Vol. 14 No. 12 December 2006 2259
moderate, hard, and very hard (5). Studies have shown that
these cut-off ranges are highly accurate in assessing mod-
erate-intensity activity under free-living conditions (6,7).
The data also allow assessment of whether individuals are
meeting recommended physical activity objectives for mod-
erate-intensity exercise.
In 1995, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
(CDC) and the American College of Sports Medicine
(ACSM) established physical activity recommendations for
health benefits of at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity
activity, preferably all days of the week (8). National data
collected from 1990 to 1998 by the CDC revealed a 25%
compliance rate among American adults; 29% of those
surveyed reported no leisure time regular physical activity
(9). In 2002, the Food and Nutrition Board of the National
Institute of Medicine (IOM) increased recommendations for
physical activity to at least 60 minutes of moderate intensity
every day of the week because of the benefits of activity in
weight management (10). To date, there are few reports on
compliance with the 2002 recommendations and none com-
paring the difference between compliance for overweight/
obese vs. normal-weight adults. However, because few
adults met the less stringent 1995 physical activity recom-
mendations, it is unlikely that many are meeting the new
standard. Therefore, the present study was designed to com-
pare time spent in activity of moderate intensity or greater
by these two groups and to compare the percentage of
individuals from each group meeting the 1995 and 2002
recommendations for physical activity.
Research Methods and Procedures
Subjects
Subjects were recruited by posting flyers at local gyms,
hospitals, sporting activities, and health centers and by
sending out a campus-wide e-mail to University faculty and
staff. More than 90% of the participants were recruited
through the campus-wide e-mail to faculty and staff. Sub-
jects were 62 adults, 25 to 69 years old, 31 of whom were
overweight or obese with a BMI 25 (27 to 41) kg/m
2
and
31 normal-weight subjects with a BMI of 18.5 to 24.9
matched for gender, height (1 inch), and age (1 year).
Subjects received no financial compensation; instead, they
participated with the sole incentive of receiving their test
results, and all participants completed the study. Subjects
were provided the study protocol, approved by University
Internal Review Board, before signing a consent form.
Anthropometrics, Body Composition, and Health History
Most data collection, other than accelerometry, took
place in a laboratory on the university campus during a
single 2-hour appointment. After subjects completed con-
sent forms, height and weight were measured using a phy-
sician scale (Detecto, Webb City, MO) and stadiometer
(Seca, Columbus, OH), with participants wearing light
clothing and shoes removed. Subjects completed a short
demographic and health history questionnaire that included
questions about occupation and past medical history. None
of the subjects were or had been involved in any weight loss
or physical activity program 1 year before participation in
this study. As for occupation, most participants reported
being teachers, students, or administration workers. Body
composition was measured by licensed medical radiological
technologists using the Prodigy Pro DXA (Encore 2002
software; GE Medical Systems LUNAR, Madison, WI).
Physical Activity
Accelerometers were employed to measure physical ac-
tivity. Participants wore the ActiGraph (MTI, Fort Walton
Beach, FL) for 24 hours a day for 7 consecutive days.
Numerous validation studies have shown that the Computer
Science and Applications ActiGraph provides accurate and
reliable data for assessing physical activity (5,6,11–14).
Subjects were instructed to wear the ActiGraph in the same
location on their waist every day. A protective pouch and an
elastic belt and clip, both worn at the waist, were provided
to each subject to aid in proper placement of the ActiGraph
and to accommodate subject preference and comfort. Sub-
jects were asked to complete a written log of any times
and/or activities when the ActiGraph was not worn, e.g.,
swimming and water skiing. Physical activity, i.e., counts
and intensity minutes, from these additional activities was
calculated using the compendium of physical activities (15).
Accelerometer data were recorded and stored on a
minute-by-minute basis and later downloaded to a computer
using a reader interface unit. Activity data were processed
and analyzed with the use of a Microsoft ActiSoft program
(ActiSoft version 3.2) (5) and expressed as count(s) per
minute (cpm) per day. Previous studies have employed
regression equations, using physical activity counts and
indirect calorimetry data, to determine the metabolic cost,
i.e., metabolic equivalent, corresponding to activity count
data (5). Based on the metabolic equivalent system, the
counts were converted into minutes spent in different inten-
sity levels, i.e., light, moderate, hard, and very hard.
Statistics
Data were analyzed using the SPSS/PC statistical pro-
gram (version 11.0 for Mac OS X; SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL).
Subjects were categorized by weight status (normal weight,
overweight, and obese). Unadjusted general linear models
(GLMs) were used to examine differences in physical ac-
tivity among overweight and obese adults. Differences be-
tween weight groups (overweight/obese vs. normal-weight
adults) and gender groups on physical characteristics, ac-
celerometer counts, and minutes spent in various intensity
levels were analyzed with two (female, male) two (over-
weight/obese, normal weight) GLMs, with fat free mass
Compliance with Physical Activity Guidelines, Davis, Hodges, and Gillham
2260 OBESITY Vol. 14 No. 12 December 2006
(FFM) entered as a covariate (as appropriate). GLMs with
repeated measures were employed to assess day-to-day dif-
ferences in minutes spent in various intensity levels
throughout the week, with and without controlling for FFM.
Repeated analyses were followed with Bonferroni-adjusted
paired comparisons. All data that were not normally distrib-
uted were log transformed. All assumptions for GLMs were
fulfilled.
2
Tests were employed to assess categorical ac-
celerometer data, i.e., the number of subjects meeting 1995
CDC/ACSM and 2002 IOM physical activity recommenda-
tions, in relation to each group. Accepted statistical signif-
icance was p0.05.
Results
Unadjusted GLM revealed no differences in physical
activity variables between overweight (BMI, 25.0 to 29.9
kg/m
2
;n6) and obese (BMI 30 kg/m
2
;n25)
subjects; thus, their data were pooled for further analysis.
Overweight/obese and normal-weight subjects were
matched for gender, age, and height. Mean differences of
0.4 0.9 years and 2.0 0.9 cm were observed in age
and height, respectively, between the overweight/obese and
normal-weight groups. On average, the group carrying ex-
cess weight was 28 kg heavier than their normal-weight
controls. Age, height, weight, BMI, and body composition
of the participants are presented in Table 1. As expected,
overweight/obese subjects had significantly higher weight,
BMI, and fat mass (kilograms and percentage) than their
normal-weight counterparts. A significant gender-by-
weight group interaction was observed for weight and
height only (p0.001).
Participants wore an accelerometer for an average of
7.0 0.6 days for 24 hours a day and removed it only for
showering and water activities. Subjects in both groups
rested or slept an average of 9 hours a night and were awake
for 15 hours a day. One subject wore the accelerometer
for only 5 days, and four subjects wore the accelerometer
for 6 days. All other subjects wore them for the full week.
Weekly and daily averages were adjusted for the number of
days that each participant actually wore the accelerometer.
When individual days were compared, only data from par-
ticipants who wore the accelerometer on those days were
included. For example, three subjects did not wear the
accelerometer on Friday, so their data were excluded when
assessing the Friday data sets, but their data were included
for Saturday through Thursday.
Large group differences were observed in cpm per day
and minutes spent in various intensities as recorded by the
accelerometers between overweight/obese and normal-
weight subjects. These data are presented in Table 2. Over-
weight/obese subjects registered significantly fewer mean
7-day, 5-day weekday, and 2-day weekend counts when
compared with their normal-weight counterparts, with and
without controlling for FFM. Normal-weight subjects spent
significantly more time, 21 minutes per day on the average,
engaged in moderate-intensity or greater activities when
compared with overweight/obese subjects. Overweight/
obese participants spent significantly less time in combined
moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) than their
normal-weight controls on weekdays, i.e., data summed
from Monday through Friday, 135 198 vs. 251 155
minutes (p0.05) and during the weekend, i.e., data
summed from Saturday and Sunday, 64 65 vs. 95 61
minutes (p0.02). There was a significant gender-by-
weight group interaction for weekend MVPA. Overweight/
obese women spent 24 less minutes in engaged in MVPA
than their normal-weight female counterparts on weekends,
whereas no difference in MVPA on the weekends was
Table 1. Descriptive statistics for matched pairs of overweight/obese and normal-weight adults
Overweight/obese group Normal-weight group
Total (n31) Men (n12) Women (n19) Total (n31) Men (n12) Women (n19)
Age (years) 44.0 11.9 42.5 9.1 44.9 13.5 43.6 12.0 41.8 8.7 44.8 13.7
Height (cm) 169.1 9.1 178.3 6.4† 163.2 4.4† 171.0 9.0 180.5 5.4† 165.0 4.3†
Weight (kg) 94.7 14.3* 105.3 9.4† 87.9 12.7† 66.5 11.3* 78.5 7.7† 58.8 4.1†
BMI (kg/m
2
)33.0 3.3* 33.1 1.7 32.9 4.1 22.5 1.5* 23.9 1.2 21.6 0.9
Fat mass (kg) 39.7 8.9* 36.6 7.7 41.7 9.2 15.6 3.8* 16.5 4.3 15.2 3.6
Fat mass (%) 42.8 7.8* 35.0 5.0 47.8 4.5 24.1 5.4* 21.1 4.5 26.0 5.2
Group and gender comparisons by general linear model; covariate was fat free mass (for fat mass-dependent variables). Overweight/obese
group was defined as BMI 25 (27) and normal-weight group defined as BMI of 18.5 to 24.9.
*p0.001 for main effect of weight group.
p0.001 for interaction of gender weight group effect.
Compliance with Physical Activity Guidelines, Davis, Hodges, and Gillham
OBESITY Vol. 14 No. 12 December 2006 2261
observed between men and their weight groups. No other
significant gender-by-weight group interactions for any of
the other physical activity measures were observed.
Because there were no gender-by-weight group interac-
tion effects for total counts and total MVPA, genders were
combined for repeated measure analyses. There was no
significant weight group by time interaction for day-to-day
analyses of accelerometer counts or minutes spent in
MVPA, indicating that the pattern of change in these vari-
ables was similar in the weight groups. However, there was
an overall weight group effect for accelerometer counts and
minutes spent in MVPA, indicating that these physical
activity measures were significantly different between
weight categories. Mean minutes spent in MVPA per day
are summarized in Figure 1. Similar findings were seen in
accelerometer counts (data not shown). Normal-weight sub-
jects had higher accelerometer counts and spent signifi-
cantly more time engaged in MVPA throughout the week
when compared with overweight/obese subjects (p0.05),
with and without controlling for FFM. Bonferroni-adjusted
paired comparisons determined that normal-weight subjects
had higher accelerometer counts and spent more minutes in
MVPA for days Monday through Thursday when compared
Figure 1: Minutes spent in moderate or greater intensity activity
by overweight/obese (Œ) and normal-weight (F) subjects as mea-
sured by accelerometry. Repeated measures analysis of covariance
found that there was a significant weight group overall effect for
minutes spent in MVPA (p0.05). Bonferroni-adjusted paired
comparisons indicated significant differences in means for minutes
spent in MVPA between groups for days Monday through Thurs-
day (p0.05). Statistical comparisons on non-normally distrib-
uted variables were performed using log-transformed data, but data
are shown as non-transformed values for ease of interpretation.
Table 2. Total counts and minutes spent in different intensity level activities as measured with accelerometers
by matched pairs of overweight/obese and normal-weight adults
Physical activity parameters
Overweight/obese group Normal-weight group
Total
(n31)
Men
(n12)
Women
(n19)
Total
(n31)
Men
(n12)
Women
(n19)
Counts for 7 days (cpm)* 227 153‡ 283 211 192 91 285 111‡ 297 155 277 74
Light activity for 7 days (min/d)* 1372 62 1374 67 1370 61 1361 85 1358 71 1364 94
Moderate activity or greater for 7 days
(min/d)* 31 21‡ 42 18 25 20 52 28‡ 58 36 47 21
Weekday counts (cpm)* 237 195† 306 288 193 88 295 115† 310 134 285 105
Weekday moderate activity or greater
(min/d)* 27 22 32 23 24 20 50 31 53 35 48 29
Weekend counts (cpm)* 216 113† 232 120 205 111 293 161† 285 219 298 116
Weekend moderate activity or greater
(min/d)* 32 33† 45 40 24 25§ 48 31† 47 40 48 25§
Data represent mean standard deviation.
* Statistical comparisons on non-normally distributed variables were performed using log-transformed data, but data are shown as
non-transformed values for ease of interpretation. Mean comparisons with two (female, male) two (overweight/obese, normal-weight)
general linear model with fat free mass entered as a covariate. Overweight/obese group was defined as BMI 25 (27) and normal-weight
group defined as BMI of 18.5 to 24.9.
p0.05 for main effects of weight group.
p0.01 for main effects of weight group.
§p0.001 for interaction of gender weight group effect.
Compliance with Physical Activity Guidelines, Davis, Hodges, and Gillham
2262 OBESITY Vol. 14 No. 12 December 2006
with overweight/obese subjects; however, counts and time
in MVPA did not differ on Friday, Saturday, or Sunday,
where values for the two groups tended to converge.
The percentage of subjects meeting 1995 CDC/ACSM
physical activity recommendations for 30 minutes of mod-
erate-intensity or greater activity five or more times a week,
or 150 minutes a week, and the percentage of subjects
meeting 2002 IOM physical activity recommendations for
over 60 minutes a day of moderate-intensity activity or
greater, or 420 minutes a week, based on accelerometer
data are summarized in Figure 2.
2
Tests showed that
normal-weight subjects were significantly more likely to
meet 1995 recommendations when compared with over-
weight/obese subjects, 94% vs. 71% (p0.05). Percent-
ages of overweight/obese and normal-weight subjects meet-
ing the 2002 physical activity recommendations did not
differ. Only 13% of overweight/obese participants and 26%
of normal-weight participants met the more stringent rec-
ommendations made by the IOM in 2002.
Discussion
In the past, investigators relied on subjective instruments,
such as physical activity recall, records, and questionnaires,
to evaluate physical activity. Although reported measures
are relatively inexpensive and easy to administer, subjects
often over-report activity. Research has found that obese
individuals overestimate physical activity by 30% to 50%
(16,17), whereas normal-weight adults over-report by 8% to
30% (18). Accelerometers provide investigators with an
inexpensive and reliable objective measure of physical ac-
tivity and allow direct comparisons between groups of sub-
jects.
Accelerometer data indicated that overweight/obese sub-
jects in the present study were significantly less active than
their matched counterparts. These differences occurred in
recorded accelerometer cpm throughout the week and time
spent in MVPA for the entire week and most individual
days. Based on accelerometer cpm, overweight and obese
individuals were less active on weekends and weekdays
when compared with their normal-weight match. These
results were similar to studies conducted by Cooper et al.
(19) and Rutter et al. (20), who reported that obese adults
accumulated fewer activity counts than normal-weight
adults. In contrast, Meijer et al. (21) and Tyron et al. (22)
found no difference in activity counts between obese and
normal-weight individuals. However, Meijer and Tyron em-
ployed different types and models of accelerometers from
those used in our laboratory, and none of the other studies
employed overweight/obese and normal-weight subjects
matched for gender, age, and height.
Accelerometry allows for comparison of minutes spent in
different intensities in an obese/overweight and normal-
weight population; however, few studies have examined
this phenomenon using overweight/obese subjects matched
for gender, age, and height with those of normal weight. In
the present study, overweight and obese participants spent
significantly less time in MVPA for the entire week, and
during weekdays and weekends than their normal-weight
counterparts, and weekend differences were observed for
women but not men. Cooper et al. (19), who studied 72
normal-weight and 12 obese adults, found that obese adults
spent significantly less time in activity of at least moderate
intensity than non-obese adults on weekends; however, in their
study, this difference was absent among their subjects on
weekdays. Ekelund et al. (23) employed both accelerometers
and DLW methods and found that obese adolescents spent
significantly less accumulated time in moderate-intensity phys-
ical activity when compared with normal-weight subjects
matched for height and age. Levine et al. (24), using inclinom-
eters, an instrument that measures angles and elevation, and
accelerometers found that lean individuals stand for 2 hours
longer per day than obese individuals. These results suggest
that activities associated with the routines of daily life (called
non-exercise activity thermogenesis) are also affected by obe-
sity status. All of these results indicate that if an overweight/
obese individual spent more time in MVPA and adopted the
non-exercise activity thermogenesis-enhanced behavior, they
could considerably increase their daily energy expenditure,
which would, in the absence of increased food intake, result in
substantial weight loss.
To our knowledge, only one other study has used accel-
erometers to assess how many adults met 1995 CDC rec-
ommendations for exercise. Cooper et al. (19), who also
used the Actigraph, found that only 80% of non-obese
participants and 60% of the obese accumulated at least 30
minutes of moderate-intensity activity on 5 or more days of
the week. Among subjects in the present study, over 70% of
the overweight/obese subjects and over 90% of our normal-
Figure 2: Percentage of overweight/obese and normal-weight sub-
jects, as measured by accelerometry, who met the 1995 CDC/
ACSM recommendations (30 minutes/d of moderate intensity or
greater all days of the week) and the 2002 IOM recommendations
(60 minutes/d for 7 days).
2
Tests showed that all overweight/
obese subjects were significantly less likely to meet the 1995
CDC/ACSM recommendations for exercise compared with their
normal-weight controls (* p0.05; ** p0.001).
Compliance with Physical Activity Guidelines, Davis, Hodges, and Gillham
OBESITY Vol. 14 No. 12 December 2006 2263
weight subjects met 1995 CDC/ACSM recommendations,
but only 13% of overweight/obese and 26% normal-weight
subjects met 2002 IOM recommendations for 420 minutes
or more of moderate-intensity exercise over the week. Pre-
vious well-known studies have shown that long-term weight
loss is improved as exercise participation nears the current
recommendation by the IOM (25,26).
It is likely that more of our participants than the subjects
studied by Cooper et al. (19) met the 1995 recommendations
because they volunteered for a study evaluating exercise
and energy expenditure and probably were more active than
the general population. Thus, among the general population,
it is likely that larger percentages of both overweight/obese
and normal-weight adults do not meet either 1995 or 2002
national recommendations for exercise. Possibly a more
modest recommendation would encourage more adults to
exercise to meet their goals for weight management.
The major limitation of our study is that it is cross-
sectional in nature and does not allow definitive conclusions
regarding the cause-and-effect relationship between physi-
cal activity measures and adiposity. Another limitation is
the relatively small sample size. However, the limitations of
the small sample size is somewhat offset by the objective
measures of physical activity (accelerometers) and the
matched participant design. Another limitation is that accel-
erometers have some margin of error when measuring phys-
ical activity in free-living populations. The waist-mounted
accelerometers may not capture all of a person’s motion,
especially arm movement, e.g., cooking, golf, deskwork,
and weight training (6,11). In addition, the model of accel-
erometers used in the current study could not be used for
swimming or other water activities. However, our partici-
pants were asked to keep a log of all swimming and water
activities and to record any activities performed that re-
quired excessive arm movement. Fortunately, very few of
our participants (n5) were swimmers, two in the over-
weight group and three in the normal-weight group, and
their logs allowed us to account for the additional minutes
spent in MVPA.
The present study found that obese and overweight adults
were less physically active, on the basis of recorded accel-
erometer counts throughout the week and on the amount of
time spent engaged in moderate-intensity activity or greater,
than their normal-weight counterparts matched for age, gen-
der, and height; and over two-thirds of both overweight/
obese and normal-weight subjects met 1995 CDC/ACSM
national exercise recommendations, whereas about one-
fourth or less of either group met 2002 IOM exercise
recommendations. These results suggest the amount of time
spent in moderate-intensity activity or greater is associated
with weight status. Weight loss/maintenance interventions
should encourage individuals to increase MVPA; however,
as indicated by our population, which was probably more
active than most, the 2002 IOM may be too ambitious for
the average adult. Practitioners, specifically registered die-
titians and health educators, as well as other health care
workers, should consider using objective instruments like
the accelerometer to help their clients and patients monitor
their physical activity levels and realign these levels with
current recommendations.
Acknowledgments
We are grateful to the subjects for cheerful participation
in the study without compensation other than individual
results. In addition, we thank the Department of Kinesiol-
ogy and Health Education (University of Texas, Austin),
particularly Philip R. Stanforth, for support of data collec-
tion activities, especially the measurement of body compo-
sition with DXA. We appreciate the support of the Graduate
Program in Nutritional Sciences for procurement of the
accelerometers and for the financial support of J.N.D. and
V.A.H. with teaching assistantships. We appreciate the con-
tributions of Kendra Burke, honors student in Nutrition and
Dietetics, who assisted with data collection and entry. Jack
H. Wilmore kindly reviewed the early stages of the manu-
script. No conflicts of interest are declared.
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Compliance with Physical Activity Guidelines, Davis, Hodges, and Gillham
OBESITY Vol. 14 No. 12 December 2006 2265
    • "Reduced PA in young people during weekends has been demonstrated in both boys and girls [10, 11, 12]. Similar differences between working days and weekends have been found in children [13], adults [14, 15] and seniors [2]. Boys are more physically active than girls during both school and weekend days [16, 17, 18]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction and objective: The physical, mental and social development that occurs in young people through physical activity (PA) is primarily through extracurricular activities. Family, peers and social environment, in addition to schools, interest groups and school sports, play a unique role during this developmental period. The objective of the study was to examine the differences in the intensity of PA during school days and weekends and the relationship between PA and physical inactivity (PI) during these days in Polish and Czech boys and girls. Materials and methods: In total, there were 816 participants among whom 333 met the requirements of 8 hours of continuous recording of PA (ActiTrainer accelerometers) during at least one school and one weekend day. Results: Boys and girls from both countries engaged in virtually the same amount of PA during school and weekend days, and participated in more PA at lower intensities on the weekends compared with school days. Conclusions: This study surveyed important issues related to global public health, specifically for the school environment and school settings. The important and crucial relations with family were emphasized, which should increase the awareness and understanding of public health problems of this particular research sample. The results indicated that less time was spent in PI, but also that the largest amount of time during the weekends was spent in front of a screen.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2016
    • "Furthermore, French et al. (2010) noticed alcohol as a complement to sedentary activities of watching television and attending sporting events which subsequently promotes weight gain. A statistically significant association of sedentary behavior with overweight (65.81%; p<0.001) and obesity (71.87%; p<0.001) has shown persistence to Davis et al (2006) in the present study. Similarly , Yancey et al. (2004) studied an association between sedentary behavior and overweight; and found lower educational attainment , female gender, advancing age, poorer self-perceived health status, self-perceived depression, smoking, leisure-time television watching/computer use, and receiving a diabetes diagnosis to be significantly related to sedentariness. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is a global preventable epidemic inundating health care resources by increasing mortality and morbidity. The present study aimed to determine prevalence, risk factors, and co-morbidities associated with body mass index (BMI) ranges. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess physical activity, dietary habits, alcohol, family history, sleep, stress, gender, age, education, employment and socioeconomic status as determinants of BMI. Total prevalence of overweight and obesity was reported among 33.34% and 18.24% of subjects, respectively; which increases with age (76.55%) and declines thereafter (21.87%). Female gender, primary and secondary education , middle social class, unemployment, positive family history, physical inactivity (p<0.001), non-vegetarian diet (p<0.05), adequate sleep, and significant stress was found associated with overweight and obesity. The prevalence of hypertension (p<0.05), hyperglycaemia (p<0.05), and hyperlipidemia was found directly proportional to increase in BMI. A rapidly rising obesity and its associated co-morbidities show that almost all the factors were potentially modifiable and preventable through lifestyle modification, which includes Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension, daily 30minutes moderate-intensity physical activity and stress management.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
    • "The importance of physical activity on health and disease prevention is unequivocal (Paffenbarger, Hyde, Wing, & Hsieh, 1986); however, few adults (approximately 10–40%) participate in sufficient amounts of physical activity (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2013; Tucker, Welk, & Beyler, 2011 ), particularly if they are obese (Davis, Hodges, & Gillham, 2006). The ability to monitor individual physical activity behaviour is positively associated with the volume of physical activity completed (Son, Kerstetter, Mowen, & Payne, 2009; Umstattd & Hallam, 2007). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monitoring physical activity is important to better individualise health and fitness benefits. This study assessed the concurrent validity of a smartphone global positioning system (GPS) 'app' and a sport-specific GPS device with a similar sampling rate, to measure physical activity components of speed and distance, compared to a higher sampling sport-specific GPS device. Thirty-eight (21 female, 17 male) participants, mean age of 24.68, s = 6.46 years, completed two 2.400 km trials around an all-weather athletics track wearing GPSports Pro™ (PRO), GPSports WiSpi™ (WISPI) and an iPhone™ with a Motion X GPS™ 'app' (MOTIONX). Statistical agreement, assessed using t-tests and Bland-Altman plots, indicated an (mean; 95% LOA) underestimation of 2% for average speed (0.126 km·h(-1); -0.389 to 0.642; p < .001), 1.7% for maximal speed (0.442 km·h(-1); -2.676 to 3.561; p = .018) and 1.9% for distance (0.045 km; -0.140 to 0.232; p < .001) by MOTIONX compared to that measured by PRO. In contrast, compared to PRO, WISPI overestimated average speed (0.232 km·h(-1); -0.376 to 0.088; p < .001) and distance (0.083 km; -0.129 to -0.038; p < .001) by 3.5% whilst underestimating maximal speed by 2.5% (0.474 km·h(-1); -1.152 to 2.099; p < .001). Despite the statistically significant difference, the MOTIONX measures intensity of physical activity, with a similar error as WISPI, to an acceptable level for population-based monitoring in unimpeded open-air environments. This presents a low-cost, minimal burden opportunity to remotely monitor physical activity participation to improve the prescription of exercise as medicine.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015
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