Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) catalyzes the initial, rate-limiting step of tryptophan (Trp) catabolism along the kynurenine (KYN) pathway, and its induction in cells of the immune system in response to cytokines has been implicated in the regulation of antigen presentation and responses to cell-mediated immune attack. Microarray and quantitative PCR analyses of isolated human islets incubated with interferon (IFN)-gamma for 24 h revealed increased expression of IDO mRNA (>139-fold) and Trp-tRNA synthase (WARS) (>17-fold) along with 975 other transcripts more than threefold, notably the downstream effectors janus kinase (JAK)2, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1, IFN-gamma regulatory factor-1, and several chemokines (CXCL9/MIG, CXCL10/IP10, CXCL11/1-TAC, CCL2, and CCL5/RANTES) and their receptors. IDO protein expression was upregulated in IFN-gamma-treated islets and accompanied by increased intracellular IDO enzyme activity and the release of KYN into the media. The response to IFN-gamma was countered by interleukin-4 and 1alpha-methyl Trp. Immunohistochemical localization showed IDO to be induced in cells of both endocrine, including pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1-positive beta-cells, and nonendocrine origin. We postulate that in the short term, IDO activation may protect islets from cytotoxic damage, although chronic exposure to various Trp metabolites could equally lead to beta-cell attrition.
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"Human islets were procured, processed, and cultured for 24 h in the absence or presence of recombinant human cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β: 10 ng/mL [500 units/mL], interferon [IFN] γ: 25 ng/mL [500 units/mL], or tumor necrosis factor [TNF] α: 25 ng/mL [2,500 units/mL] or a cocktail mixture of IL-1β [2 ng/mL], IFNγ [10 ng/mL], and TNFα [10 ng/mL]), as described previously (24). Functionality of human islet preparations was assured by reversion of hyperglycemia following transplantation into streptozotocin-induced diabetic Rag2−/− B6 mice, as detailed elsewhere (24). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: More than one-half of the ~50 human chemokines have been associated with or implicated in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes, yet their actual expression patterns in the islet environment of type 1 diabetic patients remain, at present, poorly defined. Here, we have integrated a human islet culture system, murine models of virus-induced and spontaneous type 1 diabetes, and the histopathological examination of pancreata from diabetic organ donors with the goal of providing a foundation for the informed selection of potential therapeutic targets within the chemokine/receptor family. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL) 5 (CCL5), CCL8, CCL22, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL) 9 (CXCL9), CXCL10, and chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand (CX3CL) 1 (CX3CL1) were the major chemokines transcribed (in an inducible nitric oxide synthase-dependent but not nuclear factor-κB-dependent fashion) and translated by human islet cells in response to in vitro inflammatory stimuli. CXCL10 was identified as the dominant chemokine expressed in vivo in the islet environment of prediabetic animals and type 1 diabetic patients, whereas CCL5, CCL8, CXCL9, and CX3CL1 proteins were present at lower levels in the islets of both species. Of importance, additional expression of the same chemokines in human acinar tissues emphasizes an underappreciated involvement of the exocrine pancreas in the natural course of type 1 diabetes that will require consideration for additional type 1 diabetes pathogenesis and immune intervention studies.
"Retinoic acid–receptor responder 3 (RARRES3) (8,9) was expressed in β-cells of fulminant type 1 diabetic pancreata (Supplementary Fig. 4). Cleaved caspase 8, a marker of the Fas-mediated extrinsic apoptotic pathway, cleaved caspase 9, a marker of the activated non–Fas-mediated apoptotic pathway, and activated caspases 3, a marker of the end stage of β-cell apoptosis, were expressed specifically in islet β-cells (Supplementary Fig. 4). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The contribution of innate immunity responsible for aggressive β-cell destruction in human fulminant type 1 diabetes is unclear.
Islet cell expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), cytoplasmic retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors, downstream innate immune markers, adaptive immune mediators, and apoptotic markers was studied in three autopsied pancreata obtained 2 to 5 days after onset of fulminant type 1 diabetes.
RIG-I was strongly expressed in β-cells in all three pancreata infected with enterovirus. Melanoma differentiation-associated gene-5 was hyperexpressed in islet cells, including β- and α-cells. TLR3 and TLR4 were expressed in mononuclear cells that infiltrated islets. Interferon (IFN)-α and IFN-β were strongly expressed in islet cells. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-class I, IFN-γ, interleukin-18, and CXC motif ligand 10 were expressed and colocalized in affected islets. CD11c+ MHC-class II+ dendritic cells and macrophage subsets infiltrated most islets and showed remarkable features of phagocytosis of islet cell debris. CD4+ forkhead box P3+ regulatory T cells were not observed in and around the affected islets. Mononuclear cells expressed the Fas ligand and infiltrated most Fas-expressing islets. Retinoic acid-receptor responder 3 and activated caspases 8, 9, and 3 were preferentially expressed in β-cells. Serum levels of IFN-γ were markedly increased in patients with fulminant type 1 diabetes.
These findings demonstrate the presence of specific innate immune responses to enterovirus infection connected with enhanced adoptive immune pathways responsible for aggressive β-cell toxicity in fulminant type 1 diabetes.
"MIG has also been shown to be important for protection from Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice  and is associated with disease severity in human tuberculosis . MIG is induced by IFN-γ and mediated via the JAK-STAT signalling pathway  and is therefore a marker of bioactive IFN-γ and functional JAK-STAT signalling. In CS stimulated PBMC there was a correlation between MIG and IFN-γ mRNA, although in the two volunteers with sterile protection there was more MIG relative to IFN-γ. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Malaria remains one of the world's greatest killers and a vaccine is urgently required. There are no established correlates of protection against malaria either for natural immunity to the disease or for immunity conferred by candidate malaria vaccines. The RTS,S/AS02A vaccine offers significant partial efficacy against malaria.
mRNA expression of five key cytokines interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), monokine induced by gamma (MIG), interleukin-10 (IL-10), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were measured by real-time RT-PCR before and after vaccination with RTS,S/AS02A and Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara encoding the circumsporozoite protein (MVA-CS) in healthy malaria-naïve adult volunteers. The only significant change was in IFN-γ mRNA expression, which was increased seven days after vaccination (P = 0.04). Expression of MIG mRNA seven days after vaccination correlated inversely with time to detection of parasites by blood film in an experimental sporozoite challenge (r = 0.94 P = 0.005). An inverse relationship was seen between both TGF-β1 and IL-10 mRNA at baseline and the anti-circumsporozoite IgG antibody response (r = −0.644 P = 0.022 and r = −0.554 P = 0.031 respectively). This study demonstrates the potential for MIG expression as a correlate of protection against malaria. Baseline levels of the regulatory cytokines TGF-β and IL-10 inversely correlated with antibody levels post vaccination and warrant further studies to improve understanding of individual differences in response to vaccination.