High-Risk Groups for Late Diagnosis of HIV Infection: A Need for Rethinking Testing Policy in the General Population

Unité Inserm U1077, Caen, Lower Normandy, France
AIDS PATIENT CARE and STDs (Impact Factor: 3.5). 01/2007; 20(12):838-47. DOI: 10.1089/apc.2006.20.838
Source: PubMed


The aim of the study was to identify high-risk groups and the determinants of late HIV diagnosis in France in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), from January 1996 to June 2005. Informations were collected from an electronic medical record of all HIV- 1-infected patients who sought care in six HIV reference centers in France, constituting a prospective multicentric cohort. Patients were defined as "late testers" if they had presented with either symptoms of clinical AIDS or a CD4 cell count less than 200/mm(3) during the year of diagnosis, as "nonlate" if their CD4 count was above 200, and as "unknown" if CD4 cell count in the year at the time of diagnosis was not documented. Among the 4516 patients available for analysis, the percentage of late testing was 38% (n = 1718) and decreased after 2003 (31.5% in 2004-2005). This percentage was higher in heterosexual men (48.2%) than in homosexual men (31.7%) or heterosexual women (32.6%) and was higher for patients older than 30. Heterosexual men living in a couple with children had a higher risk of late testing (odds ratio [OR] = 1.65, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03 to 2.66), while heterosexual women in a couple without children had a lower risk (OR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.25 to 0.83). Among homosexual men, unemployment was associated with late testing (OR = 2.23, 95% CI: 1.14 to 4.36). The proportion of late testing was still high. Groups classically identified as low risk for HIV infection, particularly heterosexual men in a couple with children, were found to be at high risk for late testing. It seems necessary to improve HIV testing policy in the heterosexual population.

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    • "This lack of knowledge regarding HIV status can increase the risk of transmission within the general population and may compromise the success of new prevention strategies, such as oral pre-exposure and post-exposure prophylaxis and microbicide gel. In addition, approximately 40% of new diagnoses are made during a late stage of infection when patients are already severely immunosuppressed [3], [4], leading to increased mortality [5]. "
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    ABSTRACT: BackgroundSeveral countries have recently recommended the expansion of anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody testing, including self-testing with rapid tests using oral fluid (OF). Several tests have been proposed for at-home use, but their diagnostic accuracy has not been fully evaluated.ObjectiveTo evaluate the performance of 5 rapid diagnostic tests for the detection of anti-HIV-1/2 antibodies, with 4 testing OF and 1 testing whole blood.MethodsProspective multi-center study in France. HIV-infected adults and HIV-uninfected controls were systematically screened with 5 at-home HIV tests using either OF or finger-stick blood (FSB) specimens. Four OF tests (OraQuick Advance Rapid HIV-1/2, Chembio DPP HIV 1/2 Assay, test A, and test B) and one FSB test (Chembio Sure Check HIV1/2 Assay) were performed by trained health workers and compared with laboratory tests.ResultsIn total, 179 HIV-infected patients (M/F sex ratio: 1.3) and 60 controls were included. Among the HIV-infected patients, 67.6% had an undetectable HIV viral load in their plasma due to antiretroviral therapy. Overall, the sensitivities of the OF tests were 87.2%, 88.3%, 58.9%, and 28% (for OraQuick, DPP, test A, and test B, respectively) compared with 100% for the FSB test Sure Check (p<0.0001 for all comparisons). The OraQuick and DPP OF tests' sensitivities were significantly lower than that of the FSB-based Sure Check (p<0.05). The sensitivities of the OF tests increased among the patients with a detectable HIV viral load (>50 copies/mL), reaching 94.8%, 96.5%, 90%, and 53.1% (for OraQuick, DPP, test A, and test B, respectively). The specificities of the four OF tests were 98.3%, 100%, 100%, and 87.5%, respectively, compared with 100% for the FSB test.ConclusionAn evaluation of candidates for HIV self-testing revealed unexpected differences in performance of the rapid tests: the FSB test showed a far greater reliability than OF tests.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "An early diagnosis, especially in this group does not necessarily require that the patient be undergoing follow-up or treatment [40,41]. However, reinforcing the strategies that increase the availability of the test should be directed in the first place at those individuals likely to be at high risk for HIV infection based on the presence of indicator situations or events where the estimated prevalence of HIV-1 infection is above 1%, and at the most vulnerable groups [42-44]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Early diagnosis of HIV infection can prevent morbidity and mortality as well as reduce HIV transmission. The aim of the present study was to assess prevalence, describe trends and identify factors associated with late presentation of HIV infection in Barcelona (Spain) during the period 2001-09. Demographic and epidemiological characteristics of cases reported to the Barcelona HIV surveillance system were analysed. Late presentation was defined for individuals with a CD4 count below 350 cells/ml upon HIV diagnosis or diagnosis of AIDS within 3 months of HIV diagnosis. Multivariate logistic regression were used to identify predictors of late presentation. Of the 2,938 newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals, 2,507 (85,3%) had either a CD4 cell count or an AIDS diagnosis available. A total of 1,139 (55.6%) of the 2,507 studied cases over these nine years were late presenters varying from 48% among men who have sex with men to 70% among heterosexual men. The proportion of late presentation was 62.7% in 2001-2003, 51.9% in 2004-2005, 52.6% in 2006-2007 and 52.1% in 2008-2009. A decrease over time only was observed between 2001-2003 and 2004-2005 (p = 0.001) but remained constant thereafter (p = 0.9). Independent risk factors for late presentation were older age at diagnosis (p < 0.0001), use of injected drugs by men (p < 0.0001), being a heterosexual men (p < 0.0001), and being born in South America (p < 0.0001) or sub-Saharan Africa (p = 0.002). Late presentation of HIV is still too frequent in all transmission groups in spite of a strong commitment with HIV prevention in our city. It is necessary to develop interventions that increase HIV testing and facilitate earlier entry into HIV care.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2011 · AIDS Research and Therapy
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    • "Concurrently, these data suggest that the French policies -which have focused on high risk groups (Sub-Saharan migrants as mentioned above, but also men who have sex with men and intravenous drug users) -might have missed opportunities to raise the awareness of French heterosexuals and other lower-risk groups. As a result, when infected with HIV, these populations are then at higher risk of being tested late (Delpierre, et al., 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: In France, the newly diagnosed infection rate was 372/100,000 for African immigrants versus 6/100,000 for the French-born population in 2008. In addition, people from sub-Saharan countries were at higher risk for late diagnosis than native-born French despite their more frequent use of HIV testing. The purpose of this study was to compare the mean time since the last HIV test according to migration origin. This study used data from the SIRS (a French acronym for health, inequalities, and social ruptures) cohort, which, in 2005, included 3023 households representative of the greater Paris area. HIV testing uptake and the time since the last test were studied in relation to socio-economic factors, psychosocial characteristics, and migration origin. Multivariate ANOVA analyses were performed using Stata 10. People from sub-Saharan Africa were more likely to have been tested in their lifetime (78.51%) than those of French (56.19%) or Maghreb (39.74%) origin (p<0.0000). The mean time, in years, since the last HIV test was shorter among sub-Saharan immigrants and Maghreb immigrants (2.15 and 2.53 years, respectively) than among native-born French (4.84 years) (F=12.67; p<0.0000). These differences remained significant even after adjusting for gender, age, number of steady relationships, time lived in France, and difficulty reading and/or writing French (F=5.73; p=0.0007). A gender analysis revealed the same pattern for both sexes, with greater differences in the mean duration by migration origin for women. These results and recent epidemiological data seem to show that since the early 2000s, measures aimed at increasing HIV testing and decreasing late diagnosis in sub-Saharan immigrants have been effective.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · AIDS Care
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