190VOL. 8 NO. 4 2006 REVIEWS IN UROLOGY
Diagnostic Utility of the
in Bladder Cancer
Kirsten L. Greene, MD, Anna Berry, MD, Badrinath R. Konety, MD, MBA
Departments of Urology and Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA
Bladder cancer is a common malignancy in the United States. Although urine
cytology is a useful adjunct in both diagnosis and follow-up and is highly
sensitive for detecting high-grade tumors, it is limited by decreased sensitivity
in detecting low-grade tumors, which constitute the majority of new diag-
noses. Additional screening tests with high sensitivity and specificity for
urothelial tumors of all grades are indicated to help improve the diagnostic
ability of urine cytology as well as to reduce the need for frequent cystos-
copies, especially in those with low-risk disease. Several assays have been
developed, with the ImmunoCyt/uCyt? test (DiagnoCure, Inc., Québec,
Canada) being especially promising. Recent studies on the applicability and
efficacy of ImmunoCyt/uCyt? testing are reviewed, as are its sensitivity,
specificity, and predictive value in the follow-up and screening of urothelial
[Rev Urol. 2006;8(4):190-197]
© 2006 MedReviews, LLC
Key words: Bladder cancer • Cystoscopy • ImmunoCyt/uCyt? test • Urothelial malignancies
cystoscopy recommended every 3 months for the first 2 years, every 6 months
for the next 2 years, and annually thereafter.2This translates into high health care
costs as well as frequent discomfort and inconvenience for patients.3Although
ladder cancer is a common malignancy in American men and women, with
61,420 cases and 13,060 deaths predicted for 2006 in the United States.1
Patients treated for urothelial carcinoma require rigorous follow-up, with
Diagnostic Utility of the ImmunoCyt/uCyt? Test
VOL. 8 NO. 4 2006 REVIEWS IN UROLOGY 197
Urinary nuclear matrix protein 22 (NMP22): a
diagnostic adjunct to urine cytologic examina-
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Lodde M, Mian C, Comploj E, et al. uCyt? test: al-
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of patients with low risk of urothelial carcinoma.
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Feil G, Zumbragel A, Paulgen-Nelde HJ, et al. Ac-
curacy of the ImmunoCyt assay in the diagnosis
of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary
bladder. Anticancer Res. 2003;23:963-967.
33. Toma MI, Friedrich MG, Hautmann SH, et al.
Comparison of the ImmunoCyt test and urinary
cytology with other urine tests in the detection
and surveillance of bladder cancer. World J Urol.
Hautmann S, Toma M, Lorenzo Gomez MF, et al.
Immunocyt and the HA-HAase urine tests for the
detection of bladder cancer: a side-by-side com-
parison. Eur Urol. 2004;46:466-471.