Kinematical Analysis of the Snatch in Elite Male Junior Weightlifters of Different Weight Categories

Laboratory of Biomechanics, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Department of Sport and Physical Education, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research (Impact Factor: 2.08). 12/2006; 20(4):843-50. DOI: 10.1519/R-55551.1
Source: PubMed


The purpose of this study was to analyze the differences in the technical pattern of the snatch in elite junior weightlifters of different weight categories. The sample was a group of 33 men weightlifters from different weight categories. The comparative study included 2 groups, taking into account weight categories. Group A included 17 weightlifters from the lightest categories, 56 and 62 kg; group B included 16 weightlifters from the heaviest categories, 85 and 105 kg. Three-dimensional photogrammetry technique was utilized. Regarding group differences, we can conclude that lifters belonging to heavier categories are more efficient, as they manage to have longer barbell propulsion trajectories, which allows them to exert actions on the barbell for a longer period, especially in the initial lifting phase. They attain greater barbell vertical velocity (p = 0.029), a longer vertical bar trajectory normalized on first pull (p = 0.011), and a greater, although limited, bar height loss on the catch (p = 0.008). Besides, intergroup differences evidence that heavier category lifters observe a different temporal organization of the movement based on a longer first pull (p = 0.000), a shorter transition (p = 0.030), and a longer turnover (p = 0.049). No significant differences were found in the analyzed angular parameters during the first and second pull. We believe the intergroup differences found not to be determining enough to consider a technical model adapted to the characteristics of each body weight category. This confirms that a successful lift is multifactor based and individual dependent. Given its transcendence, this evidence should be taken into account in the technical training of young lifters.

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Available from: José Campos, Nov 22, 2014
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    • "The analysis of the snatch technique performed by adolescent lifters is extremely interesting due to the fact that the weightlifters are in initial phase of high performance (Campos et al., 2006). Therefore, determining the effects of the increased barbell load on the snatch technique in adolescent weightlifters is especially important to manipulate training in order to help them lift heavier loads. "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to compare the linear kinematics of the barbell and the angular kinematics of the lower limb during the snatch lifts of two different barbell weights in elite male adolescent weightlifters. In the national team level, nine elite male adolescent weightlifters participated in the study. The snatch lifts were recorded by two video cameras under competitive conditions in preparation period before the European Junior Championship (Sony MiniDv PAL- 50 field/s) and the two heaviest successful lifts were selected for kinematic analysis. The little toe, ankle, knee, hip, and shoulder on the body and one point on the barbell were digitized using Ariel Performance Analysis System (APAS, San Diego, CA, USA). Significant decreases were found in the maximum barbell height, the relative power output during the second pull, and the maximum vertical velocity of the barbell during the second pull of the heaviest lift (p < 0.05). Maximum extension velocity of the hip joint significantly increased during the first pull of the heaviest lift (p < 0.05). As the mass of the barbell increased, the maximum vertical velocity and the maximum height of the barbell and relative power output during the second pull decreased in the heaviest lift performed by adolescent weightlifters. Coaches should pay attention to assistant exercises to increase explosive strength during the second pull with maximum strength in male adolescent weightlifters. Key pointsThe results demonstrate that the maximum strength of the extensor muscles of the hip during the first pull and their explosive strength during the second pull must be improved.Coaches should pay attention to assistant exercises to increase explosive strength during the second pull with maximum strength in male adolescent weightlifters.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Journal of sports science & medicine
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    • "Considering none of the mechanical characteristics to introduce the best pattern is the disadvantage of this criterion. Also the researchers accept the dependency of the optimal barbell trajectory to specific personal parameters such as anthropometric and physical characteristics (Campos, 2006). On the other hand these empirically optimal patterns have not the ability to improve the performance of elite weightlifters themselves, because you cannot compare a good pattern with itself to reach to better performance. "

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2010
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    ABSTRACT: Weightlifting is a dynamic strength and power sport in which two, multijoint, whole-body lifts are performed in competition; the snatch and clean and jerk. During the performance of these lifts, weightlifters have achieved some of the highest absolute and relative peak power outputs reported in the literature. The training structure of competitive weightlifters is characterized by the frequent use of high-intensity resistance exercise movements. Varied coaching and training philosophies currently exist around the world and further research is required to substantiate the best type of training programme for male and female weightlifters of various age groups. As competitive weightlifting is contested over eight male and seven female body weight categories, the anthropometric characteristics of the athletes widely ranges. The body compositions of weightlifters are similar to that of athletes of comparable body mass in other strength and power sports. However, the shorter height and limb lengths of weightlifters provide mechanical advantages when lifting heavy loads by reducing the mechanical torque and the vertical distance that the barbell must be displaced. Furthermore, the shorter body dimensions coincide with a greater mean skeletal muscle cross-sectional area that is advantageous to weightlifting performance. Weightlifting training induces a high metabolic cost. Although dietary records demonstrate that weightlifters typically meet their required daily energy intake, weightlifters have been shown to over consume protein and fat at the expense of adequate carbohydrate. The resulting macronutrient imbalance may not yield optimal performance gains. Cross-sectional data suggest that weightlifting training induces type IIX to IIA fibre-type transformation. Furthermore, weightlifters exhibit hypertrophy of type II fibres that is advantageous to weightlifting performance and maximal force production. As such, the isometric peak force and contractile rate of force development of weightlifters is ~15–20% and ~13–16% greater, respectively, than in other strength and power athletes. In addition, weightlifting training has been shown to reduce the typical sex-related difference in the expression of neuromuscular strength and power. However, this apparent sex-related difference appears to be augmented with increasing adult age demonstrating that women undergo a greater age-related decline in muscle shortening velocity and peak power when compared with men. Weightlifting training and competition has been shown to induce significant structural and functional adaptations of the cardiovascular system. The collective evidence shows that these adaptations are physiological as opposed to pathological. Finally, the acute exercise-induced testosterone, cortisol and growth hormone responses of weightlifters have similarities to that of following conventional strength and hypertrophy protocols involving large muscle mass exercises. The routine assessment of the basal testosterone: cortisol ratio may be beneficial when attempting to quantify the adaptive responses to weightlifting training. As competitive weightlifting is becoming increasingly popular around the world, further research addressing the physiological responses and adaptations of female weightlifters and younger (i.e. ≤17 years of age) and older (i.e. ≥35 years of age) weightlifters of both sexes is required.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Sports Medicine
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