Prognostic Factors and Clinical Features in Liveborn Neonates with Hydrops Fetalis
The purpose of this study was to delineate the etiology and the clinical features of liveborn neonates with hydrops fetalis, and to explore the prognostic factors for survival. Medical records of 28 liveborn neonates with hydrops fetalis between April 1995 and March 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. Demographic data, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and outcomes were analyzed. Most patients presented with pleural effusions (21 of 28) and ascites (22 of 28). The majority of patients had hydrops due to cardiovascular diseases (seven of 28), hematologic disorders (six of 28), lymphatic malformations (six of 28), and idiopathic origins (six of 28). The overall survival rate was 50% and was highest (83%) in infants with lymphatic malformations. By univariate analysis, risk factors for mortality are earlier ages at diagnosis and at birth, low Apgar scores, need for resuscitation in the delivery room, low serum albumin level, and severe acidemia. After using stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis, the most significant factors associated with fatality were younger gestational age at birth and lower serum albumin level. Hydrops fetalis remains a complex condition with a high mortality rate. Hydrops resulting from lymphatic malformations has a favorable outcome. Preterm birth at less than 34 weeks and serum albumin concentration lower than 2 g/dL are two poor prognostic factors for survival.