Comparison of the intakes of sugar by young children with and without dental caries experience

ArticleinJournal of the American Dental Association (1939) 138(1):39-46 · February 2007with13 Reads
DOI: 10.14219/jada.archive.2007.0019 · Source: PubMed
Relationships among sugars and dental caries in contemporary societies are unclear. The authors describe young children's intakes of nonmilk extrinsic (NME) and intrinsic/milk sugars and relate those intakes to dental caries. The authors conducted cross-sectional analyses of dietary data collected from the Iowa Fluoride Study using three-day diaries for subjects at ages 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 years and for subjects aged 1 through 5 years according to dental caries experience at 4.5 to 6.9 years of age. They categorized foods and beverages as containing NME or intrinsic/milk sugars. Subjects' total, NME, food NME and intrinsic/milk sugars intakes at ages studied did not differ between subjects with and without caries experience. Beverage NME sugars intakes at age 3 years predicted caries (P < .05) in logistic regression models adjusted for age at dental examination and for fluoride intake. Dental caries is a complex, multifactorial disease process dependent on the presence of oral bacteria, a fermentable carbohydrate substrate and host enamel. A simple NME-intrinsic/milk sugars categorization appears insufficient to capture the complex dietary component of the caries process. Cariogenicity is more likely a function of the food and/or beverage vehicle delivering the sugar and the nature of exposure-that is, frequency and length of eating events-than of the sugar's categorization.
    • "This reduces the chances of dental caries and helps the parents to brush their child's teeth prior going to bed. It is found helpful in breaking the habit of using a feeding bottle which is usually advocated for children up to 12 months of age (Marshall et al., 2007). Most of the mothers preferred to continue breastfeeding from twelve to twenty four months of child age while only few mothers stopped breastfeeding after six months. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) and factors leading to it among 71 months of age children or younger in Karachi, Pakistan. ECC is a preventable chronic disease affecting infants and children worldwide. The early detection of ECC can reduce pain and life threatening conditions and help growth and development of infant and children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Karachi, Pakistan. About 650 mothers of children (71 months of age or younger) were randomly selected and interviewed using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire. The dental examination was performed by the dentist, who was calibrated against a standard examiner using World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. The data was entered and analysed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 16 software. ECC was found in 23.5% of children with mean decayed missing and filled teeth (dmft) of 0.67. The factors identified were age of the child, mother educational and occupational status, sweetened drink consumption at night and not utilizing routine dental health care services. This study concluded that high proportion of ECC was found among children (71 months of age children or younger) and factors identified were all preventable and needs attention to promote dental health education and routine dental visits.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Oral health & preventive dentistry
    • "There is evidence that lactose is the least cariogenic sugar [2] and that milk may have caries-protective properties [1]. However, in the present study, lactose cariogenicity was similar to sucrose. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of presence of different fermentable carbohydrates in the biomass and acidogenicity of biofilm formed by Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 in association with Actinomyces naeslundii ATCC 19039. Material and Methods: Single and dualspecies biofilms were grown on wells of microtiter plates at equal concentration for 24 h at 37 ºC. Carbohydrates were added at 2%: maltose, sucrose, glucose and lactose and as negative control, BHI Broth (0.2% glucose) was used. The pH of each culture was measured to assess acidogenicity after 24 h, immediately after changing the culture medium and 30 min, 1 h and 2 h after. Crystal violet was used as indicator of the total attached biofilm biomass after 24 h incubation and the absorbance was measured at 590 nm. Tukey Multiple Comparison Test was performed for all the statistical analysis. Results: Higher amount of biomass was formed by dualspecies than single-species biofilm in the presence of all carbohydrates, except to glucose. S. mutans biofilms showed statistically significant higher acidogenicity than control group only after 24 h. In dual-species biofilms the highest acidogenicity were found after 24 h for sucrose, lactose, maltose and the control group. Conclusion: The findings indicate that the type of biofilm (single or dual-species) and the carbohydrate used may influence amount of biomass formed and rate of the pH reduction.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015
    • "Moreover, since the drinking water in Israel is fluoridated, drinking tap water between meals may decrease the development of new carious lesions and increase the differences between tap-and bottled-water drinkers. The present results are in accordance with others who found that consuming sugary drinks was positively related to a higher risk for caries development (Ismail et al, 1984; Vnobbergen et al, 2001; Marshall et al, 2007). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate the effect of preventive oral hygiene measures on the development of new carious lesions. Materials and methods: Children regularly and irregularly attending recall appointments in a paediatric dental clinic were interviewed regarding their preventive measures performance. Newly developed carious lesions were also recorded. The files of 651 children were analysed. Results: A significant negative correlation was found between newly developed carious lesions and total number (P < 0.001) and frequency (interval in months to the next dental examination) of recall appointments (P = 0.021), regular toothbrushing twice a day (P < 0.0001), regular brushing in the evening (P < 0.001), high fluoride concentration in toothpaste (P < 0.0001) and drinking water between meals (P = 0.015), but not with regular brushing in the morning or eating more than 6 times a day. Multivariate analysis revealed three of the variables independently correlated with the development of new carious lesions: brushing regularly twice a day, concentration of fluoride in the toothpaste greater than 1100 ppm and frequency of follow-ups. Conclusions: Regular toothbrushing twice a day is of high importance for caries prevention. Fluoride concentration of > 1100 ppm in toothpaste should be recommended for children (considering the child's age) in order to maximise the fluoride protective effect. The importance of attending periodic recall appointments in order to maintain long term oral health should be emphasised.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014
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