Dietary Adherence and Associated Glycemic Control in Families of Young Children with Type 1 Diabetes
Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, CS Mott Childrnen's Hospital, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. Journal of the American Dietetic Association
(Impact Factor: 3.92).
02/2007; 107(1):46-52. DOI: 10.1016/j.jada.2006.10.012
This study examined the dietary intake, dietary adherence, and associated daily glycemic control of young children (mean age 5.6+/-1.6 years) with type 1 diabetes in 33 families.
This was a one-sample cross-sectional study. Children's nutrient and energy intakes were measured using 3-day diet diaries. Children's mean daily blood glucose levels were assessed prospectively for 2 weeks using the FreeStyle (TheraSense, Inc, Alameda, CA) home blood glucose meter.
Means, standard deviations, and frequencies described the sample. Associations between dietary adherence and glycemic control were examined by one-tailed Pearson correlations.
Mean nutrient intakes were less than the Dietary Reference Intake for children's intake of vitamin B-12 and calcium. Children's dietary deviations revealed better-than-predicted adherence to the number and timing of feedings per day and number of carbohydrate units consumed per meal. In contrast, children's daily carbohydrate intake was approximately 80%+/-21% of the recommended levels based on their weight and age. In addition, children's energy intake was only 78%+/-18% of the recommended levels based on age. Correlations revealed a positive association between poor dietary adherence and higher blood glucose levels.
Young children with type 1 diabetes are likely to have adequate dietary intake of most micronutrients. However, their adherence to specific carbohydrate and energy intake recommendations may be lower. Because the preschool years represent a period of rapid growth, diet plans for preschoolers with diabetes need to be revised often for optimal management of type 1 diabetes. Close adherence to dietary recommendations is one behavior that may improve blood glucose control in young children with diabetes.
Available from: Tonja Nansel
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to review the literature on usual dietary intake in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and to discuss approaches to promote dietary change with potential efficacy.
Search strategies included a MEDLINE search for English-language articles that estimated usual dietary intake in children with T1D and a screening of the reference lists from original studies. The keywords used were diet, dietary intake, nutrition, type 1 diabetes, children, adolescents, and youth. Studies were included if they were observational, contained a sample of children with T1D, and estimated usual dietary intake.
Nine studies fulfilled the criteria (6 US, 3 European). Of the 4 studies with a control group, 3 reported that both total fat and saturated fat intake were higher in the children with T1D. Six studies examined the percent of total calories from saturated fat; mean intake ranged from 11 to 15%, exceeding ADA recommendations (< 7%). Fruit, vegetable, and fiber intakes were low among children with T1D. No prior studies have addressed dietary change in this population. The behavior-change literature suggests that nutrition education alone is unlikely to be adequate, but that incorporation of behavioral approaches offers potential efficacy in promoting healthful dietary change.
Children with T1D are not meeting dietary guidelines, and in some areas their diets are less healthful than children without diabetes. As these dietary behaviors may affect the risk of long-term complications, the incorporation of behavioral approaches promoting healthy eating into routine clinical practice is warranted.
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ABSTRACT: The degree of needs for high quality test pattern sets for delay faults becomes more serious as VLSI chips have more complex structures and higher performance. In spite of its importance, it is more difficult to find complete test pattern sets for delay faults than for stuck-at faults. It thus takes much time to generate high quality test pattern sets. To acquire high quality test pattern sets for delay faults as fast as possible, the authors take an approach that executes a test pattern generation process for delay faults on the very high speed logic simulation processor `SP'. As a result, to apply ISCAS'89 benchmark circuits, the authors achieved a fault coverage rate of 85% in two minutes testing for a circuit which has about 1000 gates. They confirmed that this system is effective as a pre-processing method to exclude many faults at very highspeed
Available from: hig.diva-portal.org
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