Agricultural exposures and gastric cancer risk in Hispanic farm workers in California
Cancer Registry of Central California, 1320 E. Shaw Ave., Suite 160, Fresno, CA 93710, USA. Environmental Research
(Impact Factor: 4.37).
07/2007; 104(2):282-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2006.11.008
Previous studies have indicated that farm workers may be at increased risk of gastric cancer. Meta-analyses, ecological, case-control, and cohort studies suggest that some aspects of the agricultural environment may be implicated in the elevated risk. Hispanic farm workers in California are exposed to a multitude of potentially toxic substances in the work site, including excessive sunlight, fertilizers, diesel fumes, and pesticides. A previous analysis of a cohort of California farm workers who had been members of a farm labor union, the United Farm Workers of America (UFW) found a proportionate cancer incidence ratio for stomach cancer of 1.69 when using the California Hispanic population as the standard. The aim of the current study was to further evaluate associations between gastric cancer and the types of crops and commodities UFW members cultivate and the associated pesticide use as recorded by the California Department of Pesticide Regulation (DPR).
Available from: Adam Hege
- "Latino immigrant workers are employed in construction or hotel cleaning occupations, which are associated with skin conditions or disorders, respiratory illnesses, cognitive and mental disorders, impaired fertility, increased risks of birth defects or other poor birth outcomes, and various forms of cancer (Hansen and Donohoe, 2003; Mills and Yang, 2007; Quandt et al., 2013). Construction laborers experience elevated risks for hazardous noise exposure that could lead to hearing complications (Tak et al., 2009). "
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ABSTRACT: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the literature pertaining to occupational health disparities experienced by Latino immigrant workers in the USA and to advance a general framework based on systems science to inform epidemiological and intervention research. Design/methodology/approach - Using papers and other sources from 2000 to the present, the authors examined the employment conditions and health outcomes of Latino immigrant workers and critically analyzed the pervasive evidence of health disparities, including causal mechanisms and associated intervention programs. Findings - The occupations, including the work environment and resultant living conditions, frequently performed by Latino immigrants in the USA represent a distinct trigger of increased injury risk and poor health outcomes. Extant intervention programs have had modest results at best and are in need of more comprehensive approaches to address the complex nature of health disparities. Practical implications - An integrated, systems-based framework concerning occupational health disparities among Latino immigrant workers allows for a holistic approach encompassing innovative methods and can inform high-leverage interventions including public policy. Originality/value - Reductionist approaches to health disparities have had significant limitations and miss the complete picture of the many influences. The framework the authors have provided elucidates a valuable method for reducing occupational health disparities among Latino immigrant workers as well as other populations.
Available from: Mustafa Yıldırım
- "Leeuwen et al. (1999) found that nitrate level was negatively correlated with gastric cancer incidence in their study in which they were examining the relationship between drinking water contamination with atrazine and nitrate, which are pesticides, and gastric cancer; and they demonstrated that atrazine levels were positively correlated with gastric cancer incidence (Leeuwen et al., 1999). Mills and Yang demonstrated that gastric cancer risk increased in agricultural workers who were exposed to pesticides in the study they conducted on Hispanic farm workers in California (Mills et al., 2007). Just like it was in our study, the fact that these studies were based on population-based cancer registry and other potential confounding variables were not evaluated, was one of the important limitations (Jowa et al., 2011). "
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Esophageal and gastric cancer generally have a poor prognosis and may share common risk factors. It has been demonstrated that the pesticide usage may contribute to development of many cancer types. In this study, the relation between amount of pesticides used in agriculture and esophageal and gastric cancer incidence was researched.
Materials and methods:
Findings from the data bank of the Ministry of Health Provincial Health Directorate Cancer Records Center between the years of 1998-2010 were used. All patients who were diagnosed with gastric and esophageal cancer histopathologically were included. Data for annual pesticide usage were obtained from Provincial Agriculture Directorate for the same time period. Statistical analysis was performed using the Spearman test.
One thousand eight hundred and ninety-six patients were involved in the study, 1,233 males (65%) and 663 females (35%), 230 with esophageal cancer (12.1%) and 1,666 with gastric cancer (87.9%). No statistically significant relation was apparent between pesticide amount used and esophageal cancer (p: 0.87).
In our study, there was no relationship between pesticide usage and esophageal or gastric cancer. However, the time between pesticide usage and cancer development was not known, qualifying the comparison.
Available from: Yu Zhan
- "Furthermore, the declines of amphibian populations in California has been found to highly correlate with pesticide use in upwind croplands (Davidson, 2004). Exposure to pesticides has been associated with gastric cancer among farm workers (Mills and Yang, 2007) and neurodevelopment anomalies among children (Bouchard et al., 2010). "
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ABSTRACT: Farmers, policy makers, and other stakeholders seek tools to quantitatively assess pesticide risks for mitigating pesticide impacts on ecosystem and human health. This paper presents the Pesticide Use Risk Evaluation (PURE) decision support system (DSS) for evaluating site-specific pesticide risks to surface water, groundwater, soil, and air across pesticide active ingredient (AI), pesticide product, and field levels. The risk score is determined by the ratio of the predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) to the toxicity value for selected endpoint organism(s); except that the risk score for the air is calculated using the emission potential (EP), which is a pesticide product property for estimating potential volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by California Environmental Protection Agency (CEPA). The risk scores range from 0 to 100, where 0 represents negligible risk while 100 means the highest risk. The procedure for calculating PEC in surface water was evaluated against monitoring data for 41 pesticide AIs, with a statistically significant correlation coefficient of r=0.82 (p<0.001). In addition, two almond fields in the Central Valley, California were evaluated for pesticide risks as a case study, where the commonly acknowledged high-risk pesticides gained high risk scores. Simazine, one of the most frequently detected pesticides in groundwater, was scored as 74 (the moderate high risk class) to groundwater; and chlorpyrifos, one of the frequently detected pollutants in surface water, was scored as 100 (the high risk class) to surface water. In support of pesticide risk quantitative assessment and use of reduced-risk pesticide selection, the PURE-DSS can be useful to assist growers, pesticide control advisors, and environmental protection organizations in mitigating pesticide use impacts on the environment.
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