Evidence in favor of linkage to human chromosomal regions 18q, 5q and 13q for bicuspid aortic valve and associated cardiovascular malformations
Center for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA. Human Genetics
(Impact Factor: 4.82).
05/2007; 121(2):275-84. DOI: 10.1007/s00439-006-0316-9
The aim of this study was to identify regions of the genome that harbor genes influencing inheritance of bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and/or associated cardiovascular malformation (CVM). Aortic valve disease is an important clinical problem, which often results in valve replacement, the second most common cardiac surgery in the United States. In every age group, a majority of cases of valve disease involves a BAV. BAV is the most common CVM with a reported prevalence of 1-2%. Heritability studies indicate that BAV determination is almost entirely genetic. We used a family-based genome-wide linkage analysis with microsatellite markers. Parametric and nonparametric analyses were performed with the software GENEHUNTER and SOLAR (Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines). Thirty-eight families (353 subjects) with BAV and/or associated CVM were assessed. Each participant underwent a standardized echocardiographic examination. The highest LOD score, 3.8, occurred on chromosome 18q between markers D18S68 and D18S1161. Two other chromosomal regions, 5q15-21 (between D5S644 and D5S2027) and 13q33-qter (between D13S1265 and 13qter), exhibited suggestive evidence of linkage (LOD > 2.0). Further, two previously reported linkage peaks on 9q34 and 17q24 were replicated in family specific analyses. No significant X chromosome linkage peaks were identified. In this genome-wide scan we demonstrate for the first time, that BAV and/or associated CVM exhibit linkage to chromosomes 18q, 5q and 13q. These regions likely contain genes whose mutation results in BAV and/or associated CVM indicating their important role in valvulogenesis and cardiac development.
Available from: Ratnasari Padang
- "e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / y j m c c malformations have suggested linkage to chromosomes 18q, 5q and 13q; however, the causal gene(s) have yet to be identified . In mice, deficiency of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (Nos3) and Nkx2-5 haploinsufficiency are associated with a higher incidence of BAV  ; however, neither of these genes has shown an association with human cases of BAV  . "
Available from: Petra Werner
- "e expressivity of the car - diac phenotype even for known LSCD disease - related gene mutations ( Garg et al . , 2005 ) . Such observations highlight the complex nature of these disorders and support a mul - tigenic model whereby specific genetic variants may place one at risk for , without being sufficient to cause LSCD ( McBride et al . , 2005 ; Martin et al . , 2007 ) . As such the observed inheritance of potential disease - related CNVs from a reportedly unaffected parent does not necessarily negate their association with disease . Numerous studies have affirmed the utility of array CNV analysis in syndromic patients with CHD , given that a pathogenic CNV is identified in approximately 20% of syn "
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We sought to characterize the landscape of structural variation associated with the subset of congenital cardiac defects characterized by left-sided obstruction.
Cases with left-sided cardiac defects (LSCD) and pediatric controls were uniformly genotyped and assessed for copy number variant (CNV) calls. Significance testing was performed to ascertain differences in overall CNV incidence, and for CNV enrichment of specific genes and gene functions in LSCD cases relative to controls.
A total of 257 cases of European descent and 962 ethnically matched, disease-free pediatric controls were included. Although there was no difference in CNV rate between cases and controls, a significant enrichment in rare LSCD CNVs was detected overall (p=7.30 × 10(-3) , case/control ratio=1.26) and when restricted either to deletions (p=7.58 × 10(-3) , case/control ratio=1.20) or duplications (3.02 × 10(-3) , case/control ratio=1.43). Neither gene-based, functional nor knowledge-based analyses identified genes, loci or pathways that were significantly enriched in cases as compared to controls when appropriate corrections for multiple tests were applied. However, several genes of interest were identified by virtue of their association with cardiac development, known human conditions, or reported disruption by CNVs in other patient cohorts.
This study examines the largest cohort to date with LSCD for structural variation. These data suggest that CNVs play a role in disease risk and identify numerous genes disrupted by CNVs of potential disease relevance. These findings further highlight the genetic heterogeneity and complexity of these disorders.
Available from: Jose M García-Pinilla
- "The inheritance pattern of BAV has been considered to be autosomal dominant with variable penetrance in some studies  or polygenic in others  . Although some loci and genes have been associated with BAV in the final years    , the epigenetic influences and mechanism of inheritance are not yet known. "
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To study the following characteristics of bicuspid aortic valves (BAVs): 1) the recurrence rate in our population, 2) patterns of hereditary transmission in different BAV morphologies and 3) the aortic dimensions of BAVs in first-degree relatives (FDRs).
A cross-sectional, prospective study of 100 consecutive families of BAV patients attending a university hospital. The following aortic valve morphologies were analysed and categorised: fusion of the right and left coronary cusps (BAV type A), right and noncoronary cusps (type B) and of the left and noncoronary cusps (type C).
There were 553 subjects studied, 100 cases with a BAV (46.8±15 years, 66% male, type 67% A, 32% B and 1% C; 42% with aortic dilatation), 348 FDRs (44.8% male), and 105 healthy control subjects (50% male). We detected 16 BAVs among 348 FDRs. The recurrence rates were 15% for families, 4.6% for FDRs, 7.05% in men and 2.60% in women. The morphologic concordance in family members was 68.8%. The aortic dimensions in 270 adult FDRs with a tricuspid aortic valve were significantly smaller compared with BAV patients (sinus index diameter 1.60±0.19 cm/m(2) vs. 1.82±0.29 cm/m(2), p<0.001; tubular index diameter 1.51±0.23 cm/m(2) vs. 2.00±0.45 cm/m(2), p<0.001) and similar to 103 control subjects(sinus index diameter 1.60±0.19 cm/m(2) vs. 1.59±0.17 cm/m(2), p=0.600 and tubular index diameter 1.51±0.23 cm/m(2) vs. 1.53±0.18 cm/m(2), p=0.519).
In our population, the BAV recurrence rate in FDRs was low (4.6%). The hereditary transmission of morphologic BAV types seems by chance, and the aortic dimensions in tricuspid FDRs are normal.
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