Article

Supra dietary levels of vitamins C and E enhance antibody production and immune memory in juvenile milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forsskal) to formalin-killed Vibrio vulnificus

Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture, 75 Santhome High Road, R.A. Puram, Chennai 600028, India.
Fish & Shellfish Immunology (Impact Factor: 2.67). 08/2007; 23(1):154-63. DOI: 10.1016/j.fsi.2006.09.014
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Juveniles of milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forsskal), were fed two independent supra dietary levels of vitamins C (500 and 1500 mg kg(-1) feed, T1 and T2) and E (50 and 150 mg kg(-1), T3 and T4). Milkfish fed diets with supra (in addition to the vitamins present in the control diet) and normal levels (T5 containing 90 and 1.2mg of vitamins C and E, respectively, kg(-1) of feed) of vitamins were immunized (ip) with formalin-killed Vibrio vulnificus (FKVV). Priming and booster antibody responses to the injected bacterin were significantly (P<0.05) better in the milkfish juveniles fed supra dietary levels. Survival response of the experimental fish fed supra dietary levels of vitamins (T1, T2 and T3) was significantly (P<0.01) better than that of the control set. Protective response against virulent bacterial challenge of the vaccinated fish fed vitamin-supplemented diets (T2 and T3) was better than the control (T5) and T1 and T4. Memory factor reflecting immunological memory was superior in the fish fed vitamin-supplemented diets. Diets supplemented with either 1500 mg of Vitamin C or 50mg of Vitamin E kg(-1) produced the best antibody responses, final survival and protective response upon challenge. No conclusive inferences could be drawn on the growth responses from the experiment.

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    • "Vitamin C or ascorbic acid (AA) insufficiency impairs several biological processes. AA-deficient fish are more susceptible to stress (Ren et al. 2010) and suffer from impaired immune systems (Dabrowski 2001; Xie et al. 2006; Azad et al. 2007 ). The dietary requirements of AA for normal physiological functions in animals, including fish, has been widely studied (Maeland & Waagbø 1998; Wang et al. 2006; Darias et al. 2011). "
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    • "00 ). This denotes the high resistance of this species against prolonged AA deficiency . A dietary AA of 79 mg / kg resulted in the maximum concentration of soluble collagen in the muscle of Atlantic salmon , whereas levels as low vitamins are required by fish in tropical aquaculture due to increased physiological stress ( Montero et al . , 1999 ; Azad et al . , 2007 ) . An interesting species is the sturgeon , Acipenser fulvescens , because of its ability to synthesize L - ascorbic acid as they possess in their kidney L - gulono - 1 , 4 - lactone oxidase , the enzyme catalyzing the last step of AA biosynthesis . Moreau et al . ( 1999 ) estimated by in vitro kinetics data a theoretically biosyntheti"
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamins D and C are essential in many physiological functions. Vitamin D, a fat soluble vitamin, is crucial to preserve calcium and phosphate homeostasis and to protect the skeletal integrity. This hormone functions through the vitamin D receptor (VDR) inducing the expression of various calcium binding and transport proteins in the intestine to stimulate active calcium uptake, thus preserving normocalcemia and, indirectly, maintaining bone mineralization. Besides, vitamin D also acts directly on osteoblasts, the resident bone-forming cells of the skeleton, to inhibit proliferation, modulate differentiation, and regulate mineralization of the extracellular matrix. Vitamin C, a water soluble vitamin, acts as a co-substrate for hydroxylase and oxygenase enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of pro-collagen, carnitine and neurotransmitters, among other numerous physiological functions such as antioxidant or pro-oxidant. Both vitamins should be supplied by the diet because fish are unable to synthesize them. However, their wide range of action makes it difficult to adjust the adequate amount of these vitamins to achieve an optimal fish performance. Besides, the dietary vitamin needs of fish depend on several factors such as developmental stage, physiological, environmental/ecological and genetic conditions. In this sense, vitamin requirements of flatfish do not necessarily meet those of pelagic fish and depends also on their feeding habits (carnivorous, planktivorous or detritivorous); the dietary vitamin demands of an adult fish differ from those of a larva; and even within the same fish species and developmental stage, the environmental conditions would also influence the vitamin needs (i.e., under stress conditions, high vitamin C levels have been demonstrated to improve stress resistance and, consequently, growth). The present paper gives a general overview about the requirements of vitamins D and C in fish and specifically reviews the role of these vitamins in fish skeletogenesis and their influence in the development of skeletal deformities. In addition, new insights on the molecular pathways involving these vitamins in the skeletal ossification process are provided.
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    • "Ortuño et al. (2003) reported that short-term dietary administration of high doses of vitamins C (3 g/kg) reduced stress in sea bream. Similar results were also reported by Smith et al. (2004), Zhou et al. (2005), and Azad et al. (2007) for spiny lobster, Jasus edwardsii, soft-shelled turtle, Pelodicus sinensis, and milkfish, Chanos chanos, respectively. Although ascorbyl acid 2-sulfate (a stable derivative of ascorbic acid) has been found in Artemia cysts and nauplii (Dabrowski 1991; Merchie et al. 1995), the amount of the free form varied between different batches, strains, and geographically separated populations (Lavens et al. 1989; Merchie et al. 1995). "
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