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Insulin secretory actions of extracts of Asparagus racemosus root in perfused pancreas, isolated islets and clonal pancreatic -cells

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Abstract

Asparagus racemosus root has previously been reported to reduce blood glucose in rats and rabbits. In the present study, the effects of the ethanol extract and five partition fractions of the root of A. racemosus were evaluated on insulin secretion together with exploration of their mechanisms of action. The ethanol extract and each of the hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate partition fractions concentration-dependently stimulated insulin secretion in isolated perfused rat pancreas, isolated rat islet cells and clonal beta-cells. The stimulatory effects of the ethanol extract, hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate partition fractions were potentiated by glucose, 3-isobutyl-1-methyl xanthine IBMX, tolbutamide and depolarizing concentration of KCl. Inhibition of A. racemosus-induced insulin release was observed with diazoxide and verapamil. Ethanol extract and five fractions increased intracellular Ca(2+), consistent with the observed abolition of insulin secretory effects under Ca(2+) -free conditions. These findings reveal that constituents of A. racemosus root extracts have wide-ranging stimulatory effects on physiological insulinotropic pathways. Future work assessing the use of this plant as a source of active components may provide new opportunities for diabetes therapy.

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... The effects of S. platensis on insulin release from BRIN-BD11 cells and isolated mouse islets were assessed as described previously (27) . A range of concentrations of plant extract or butanol fraction or known modulators of insulin secretion were incubated with BRIN-BD11 cells in the presence or absence of glucose (1·1, 5·6 or 16·7 mM) during 40-or 20-min incubation at 37°C. ...
... A range of concentrations of plant extract or butanol fraction or known modulators of insulin secretion were incubated with BRIN-BD11 cells in the presence or absence of glucose (1·1, 5·6 or 16·7 mM) during 40-or 20-min incubation at 37°C. Islets were isolated from the pancreas of NIH Swiss mice (27) . Groups of ten islets were cultured for 24-48 h in Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) media prior to pre-incubation in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate (KRB) buffer at 1·4 mM glucose for 60 min. ...
... This study has examined the insulinotropic effects of S. platensis using the perfused rat pancreas, isolated mouse islets and the clonal BRIN-BD11 β-cell line. The results suggest that the antihyperglycaemic effects are partly mediated through stimulating the insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells (27) , which is further supported by observation of incremental increases in serum and pancreatic insulin after 28 d of chronic treatment. Both the ethanol extract and butanol fraction dose-dependently enhanced insulin release from isolated islets and clonal BRIN-BD11 cells. ...
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Spirulina platensis (S. platensis) has previously been shown in both animals and humans to be useful in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The present study aims to elucidate the effects of ethanol extract and butanol fraction of S. platensis on insulin release and glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetic rats, together with their mechanism of actions. Both in vitro and in vivo methods were used including cellular studies to determine potential role of ion channels and cAMP in the insulinotropic actions of the extracts. The ethanol extract and butanol fraction stimulated insulin release from mouse islets and pancreatic β-cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The butanol fraction also similarly stimulated insulin release from perfused rat pancreas. The insulin releasing action was augmented by glucose, isobutyl methylxanthine, tolbutamide and a depolarizing concentration of KCl. The insulin secretory effect was attenuated with diazoxide and verapamil and by omission of extracellular Ca2+. Butanol fraction was found to significantly inhibit DPP-IV enzyme activity. Moreover, butanol fraction improved glucose tolerance following oral glucose administration (2.5 g/kg b.w.). The butanol fraction was tested on 24 h starved rats given an oral sucrose load (2.5 g/kg b.w.) to examine possible effects on carbohydrate digestion and absorption. S. platensis substantially decreased post-prandial hyperglycemia after oral sucrose load and increased unabsorbed sucrose content throughout the gut. During in situ intestinal perfusion with glucose, the butanol fraction reduced glucose absorption and promoted gut motility. Finally, chronic oral administration of butanol fraction for 28 days significantly decreased blood glucose, increased plasma insulin, pancreatic insulin stores, liver glycogen and improved lipid profile. The characterization of active compounds from butanol fraction revealed the presence of p-coumaric acid, β-carotene, catechine and other antioxidant polyphenols. These findings indicate that S. platensis could be a novel adjunctive therapy for the management of type 2 diabetes.
... Asparagus racemosus is consistently used by the tribal communities for the treatment of diabetes (Rana et al., 1996;Rana et al., 1999) as well as in modern medicine. As describe above metformin drug for diabetes increase Ca++ level in mitochondria, same mechanism was evaluated by Hannan et al., (2007). Hannan et al., (2007) revealed that constituents of A. racemosus root extracts have wideranging stimulatory effects on physiological insulinotropic pathways. ...
... As describe above metformin drug for diabetes increase Ca++ level in mitochondria, same mechanism was evaluated by Hannan et al., (2007). Hannan et al., (2007) revealed that constituents of A. racemosus root extracts have wideranging stimulatory effects on physiological insulinotropic pathways. They found that ethanol extract and each of the hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate partition fractions concentration-dependently stimulated insulin secretion in isolated perfused rat pancreas, isolated rat islet cells and clonal beta-cells. ...
... Antidiebetic activity Hypoglycaemic activity Increased intracellular Ca (2+) Hannan et al., 2007Booth et al., 2006Balami,N.P., 2004Kar et al, 2003Rana et al., 1999Gray & Flatt 1997 Anti anemic Vitamin K coagulate blood Folic acid produce new blood cells Dr.Satish Kulkarni,2009 ...
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Tuberous plants are the vital source of medicinal drugs. Among these Asparagus racemosus is an important herb which is well known for its pharmacological applications. A lot of medicinally importance attributes have been assigned to this herb. It has been used by tribes located in distinct area of India from primeval time. Key component of this herb is saponins. Recent developments in transgenic research have opened up the possibility of the metabolic engineering of biosynthetic pathways to produce these high-value secondary metabolites. The present review is a pragmatic approach to accrue the findings on this very important herb.
... Perfused rat pancreas, BRIN-BD11 cells, Rat pancreatic islets Activation of Ca +2 channels, K ATP Closure, ↑ cAMP [27] Ichnocarpus frutescence (L.) R.Br. ...
... This outcome was validated by using insulin secretagogues and inhibitors. Thus, AR root extract antihyperglycemic activity was an effect of stimulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells [27]. ...
... As stated in earlier reports, various plants have shown their anti-diabetic effect by insulin secretagogue activity via different mechanisms, among these quinazoline alkaloids from Lupinus termis and Lupinus angustifolius stimulated insulin release by change in potassium and calcium ions concentration across the cell membrane by specific blockade/reduction of K+ permeability in the β-cell membrane [13]. The same K+-ATP channel dependent insulin release was demonstrated by Enicostemma littorale [21], Ocimum sanctum [25], Desmodium gangecticum [26], Asparagus racemosus [27], Ginseng Radix Rubra [30], Tabernanthe iboga [37], Sambucus nigra [61] and Ficus deltoidia [4]. β-cell protective effect by reducing cytotoxic NO and/or oxidative stress was shown by Scoparia dulcis [23], Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino [14] and Abutilon indicum [5]. ...
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Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from lack of insulin secretion or insulin sensitivity or both. Enhancement of insulin levels and insulin sensitivity is the primary target in the treatment of diabetes. Current treatment options, such as dietary modifications, oral hypoglycemic drugs and insulin have limitations of their own. In view of this, several medicinal plants have been studied for anti-diabetic activity using various in vitro and in vivo methods. Therefore, researchers have been focusing research to find an effective and safe antihyperglycemic drug for clinical use from natural sources. The present review emphasizes on phytochemicals and medicinal plant extracts with insulinotropic activity to reduce hyperglycemia. This review also categorized phytochemicals and plant extracts based on their mode of action like insulin secretagogues, insulin mimetics and both. The comprehensive literature presented in this article indicates the role of plants and phytochemicals as potential insulinotropic agents in diabetes.
... A. racemosus has already been reported to be modulating the cellular insulin action in the diabetic models. [26,27] Evaluation of different extraction processes and quantification of phytoconstituents has already been carried out for the AR roots, yet a correlation for its activity based on the method of extraction was not reported earlier. ...
... These results were analogous to the previous studies for the concentration-dependent insulin release which was obtained from A. racemosus extracts on pancreatic Human β-cells. [26] Therefore, there is a need to further explore the possible mechanism behind the β-cell protective effect of A. racemosus extract. The upper concentrations were related to the drop in cellular viability (Fig. 10b). ...
Article
Asparagus racemosus root extracts were prepared by supercritical fluid (CO2), soxhlet, and maceration-based methods also with various pretreatments. Thereafter, these root extracts were analyzed by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography, along with the chemometric study of the disparate phenolic groups. Among these, supercritical fluid (CO2) based extract has a larger number of polar compounds and the antioxidant activity (98.54 ± 0.22 µM Trolox equivalent mg⁻¹). It also has the best cell viability (94.37 ± 1.12%) and insulin release (0.82 ± 1.12 ng mL⁻¹) on β-pancreatic RINm-5F cells whereas, the best extractive yield (75.80 ± 3.44% w/w) was observed for pretreated aqueous soxhlet-based extract.
... The origins, characteristics and use of this rat beta cell line for study of insulin secretion and beta cell function have been described previously (McClenaghan et al., 1996). Insulin release from isolated rat pancreatic islets was evaluated as described by Hannan et al. (2007b). After test incubations, the supernatant samples were stored at −20°C until assay using Rat Insulin ELISA Kit (Crystal Chem™, USA). ...
... Interestingly, both liver and pancreas mass increased significantly after 28 days' treatment. This may be due to regeneration of pancreatic β-cell mass, decreased fat deposition or increased liver glycogen content (Hannan et al., 2007b). EHRS also induced a remarkable reduction in food and fluid intake. ...
... Asparagus racemosus (AR) Linn. is commonly known in Bengali Shatamuli belongs to Liliaceae family which is indigenous in Bangladesh, India, Asia, Australia and Africa [30]. With numerous succulent roots, AR is spinous under shrub growing at a height of 1500 m. ...
... In the present study, treatment with EEAR in male Wister albino rats produced significant glucose lowering activity when compared to disease control rats and monotherapy of antidiabetic drug rats. Hannan et al., reported that the extract of Asparagus racemosus roots improved insulin secretion from perfusing pancreas, isolated islets and clonal pancreatic β-cells [30]. In our study, after 2 weeks of treatment it was found that combination of EEAR with gliclazide and pioglitazone produced a significant decrease in the blood glucose level which was greater than that produced by monotherapy of antidiabetic drugs. ...
... Ghew kumara Leaf 40-50 g of fresh leaf pulp taken once a day for 10-12 weeks in empty stomach [11,14] Antidiabetic effect of leaf extracts on STZinduced rats was observed [29] Aloresin A [30] Aloe emodin-8-O-glycoside [31] Inhibits α-glucosidase and suppress insulin resistance; stimulates glucose transport and glycogen storage [11,14,32] Ethanolic extracts of shoots and roots showed hypoglycemic activity in diabetic rats [33,34] No record found _ ...
... Asparagus racemosus: Oral administration of ethanolic extract showed hypoglycemic, antioxidant as well as hypolipidemic activities in diabetic rats [118] . Insulin secreting action of root extracts in perfused pancreas, isolated islets and clonal pancreatic β-cells was also experimentally demonstrated in rats [34] . ...
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Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas, a part of Eastern Himalayan Hotspot, is characterized by its richness of plant diversity. Herbal medicine has been one of the most popular and reliable healing practices among the different ethnic groups of this region for ages. However, the lack of documentation practice by the traditional healers has led to obscurity regarding the efficacy of herbal medicine among the present generation, though they have to depend on the same quite often. Meanwhile, several reviews have attempted to document the plants used for the treatment of diabetes from this region, but interestingly, very few research works can be obtained regarding the characterization of antidiabetic properties of the plants of this region. Therefore, it demands a better understanding of the potentiality of these plants in the purview of scientific evidence. This review article reports 55 such plant species which have been reported to be frequently used in the treatment of hyperglycemia and our objective was to validate the potentiality of the plants in the light of recent phytochemical and pharmacological researches being carried out locally or elsewhere.
... 4,5 A number of medicinal plants exhibit antidiabetic activity, including Acacia arabica, Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Annona squamosa, Asparagus racemosus, Bougainvillea spectabilis, Brassica nigra, and Coccinia indica, among others. [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13] Bioactive compounds, such as flavonoids, antioxidants, and phenolic substances, have been found in medicinal plants and are believed to be the key agents responsible for the medicinal properties of these plants. Medicinal plants have been widely used as traditional remedies, as pharmaceutical materials and in trade. ...
... Medicinal plants have been widely used as traditional remedies, as pharmaceutical materials and in trade. [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13] Pouteria sapota is an attractive plant that has many medicinal properties. It belongs to the Sapotaceae family and is a common species found in Mexico and South America. ...
Article
Background: Medicinal plants and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have proven to be potent source effective agents in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The present study is focused on the green synthesis of AgNPs from aqueous leaf extract of Pouteria sapota (P. sapota) in order to evaluate the in-vitro and in-vivo anti-diabetic property of aqueous extracts and their synthesized AgNPs. Methods: AgNPs were biologically synthesized under ambient conditions from an aqueous leaf extract of P. sapota using hot percolation method and were characterized. The in-vitro antidiabetic activity of aqueous leaf extract and AgNPs was confirmed by using methods such as non-enzymatic glycosylation of haemoglobin, glucose uptake by yeast cells (5mM and 10mM) and inhibition of alpha-amylase. Further, in-vivo antidiabetic activity was assessed in streptozotocin- induced rats. Rats were treated with aqueous leaf extract (100 mg/kg b.w) and AgNPs (10 mg/kg b.w) for 28 days. Following treatment, the rats were euthanized for biochemical and histopathological analysis of kidney and liver samples. Results: A Significant reduction in blood sugar levels were noted in rats treated with leaf extract and AgNPs indicating both the extract as well the biologically synthesized AgNPs possess antidiabetic activity. Conclusion: The aqueous leaf extract of P. sapota and AgNPs proved to deliver efficient antidiabetic activity in the rat model of diabetes. Therefore, it would bear a potential to be formulated as felicitous medicine for medical applications in the future.
... The potentiated insulin release might be an effect of enhanced intracellular cAMP. [17] The calcium-dependent effect of APME was demonstrated by studies with calcium rich extracellular media, nifedipine, and EGTA. Treatment of APME augmented insulin release from β cells than the normal media. ...
... These suggest that APME exhibits its insulin secretagogue effect through common pathways. [16,17] ...
Article
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Aim: Abrus precatorius leaves methanolic extract (APME) was evaluated for in vivo antihyperglycemic activity and in vitro insulinotropic effect. Materials and methods: In vivo antihyperglycemic and insulin secretagogue activities were assessed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by oral administration of APME (200 mg/kg body weight [bw]) for 28 days. In vitro insulin secretion mechanisms were studied using mouse insulinoma beta cells (MIN6-β). In vivo body weight and blood glucose and in vivo and in vitro insulin levels were estimated. Results: In diabetic rats, APME treatment significantly restored body weight (26.39%), blood glucose (32.39%), and insulin levels (73.95%) in comparison to diabetic control rats. In MIN6-β cells, APME potentiated insulin secretion in a dependent manner of glucose (3-16.7 mM) and extract (5-500 μg/mL) concentration. Insulin secretagogue effect was demonstrated in the presence of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl xanthine, glibenclamide, elevated extracellular calcium, and K(+) depolarized media. Insulin release was reduced in the presence of nifedipine, ethylene glycol tetra acetic acid (calcium blocking agents), and diazoxide (potassium channel opener). Conclusion: The study suggests that APME antihyperglycemic activity might involve the insulin secretagogue effect by pancreatic beta cells physiological pathways via K(+)-ATP channel dependent and independently, along with an effect on Ca(2+) channels. Summary: Abrus precatorius leaves methanolic extract (APME) showed a significant anti hyperglycemic and insulin secretagogue activities in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Also demonstrated a potent In vitro insulin secretagogue effect in mouse insulinoma beta cells (MIN6-β)APME treatment significantly restored body weight (26.39%), reduced blood glucose (32.39%) and enhanced circulatory insulin levels (73.95%) in diabetic ratsAPME demonstrated glucose and extract dose dependent insulin secretionInsulin secretagogue effect was demonstrated in the presence of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl xanthine, glibenclamide, elevated extracellular calcium and K+ depolarized media. Insulin release was reduced in the presence of nifedipine and ethylene glycol tetra acetic acid (Calcium blocking agents), diazoxide (potassium channel opener)The insulinotropic effect of APME involves a physiologic effect on K+-ATP channel and Ca(2+) channels Abbreviations Used: ANOVA: Analysis of variance, CMC: Carboxy methyl cellulose, cAMP: Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, CaCl: Calcium chloride, AP: Abrus precatorius, APME: Abrus precatorius methanolic extract, DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium, DMSO: Dimethyl sulphoxide, EGTA: Ethylene glycol tetra acetic acid, FCS: Fetal calf serum, IBMX: 3-Isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, KCl: Potassium chloride, KRB: Kreb's Ringer buffer, MIN6: Mouse insulinoma cell line, MTT: 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide, STZ: Streptozotocin.
... Prevalence of diabetes is rising and studies show that about 300 to 328 million individual suffer from diabetes. If this condition continues, its prevalence will be likely to reach to 592 million individual in 2035 [4,5]. ...
... Recently, more attention has been paid to herbs and their secondary metabolites to treat diabetes and approximately 75% of people around the world used the traditional medicine [8,13]. Extensive researches in the field of medicinal plants suggest that the plants have a potential to treat and control diabetes complications [4,13]. Thus, it has been reported as the common drugs for treatment of diabetes, such as metformin obtained from the plants [14]. ...
Article
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Objective: To study the effect of hydroalcoholic leaves extract of Citrullus colocynthis (C. colocynthis) on insulin secretion in isolated Langerhans islets of rat. Methods: The islets were isolated from male adult Wistar rats’ pancreas by enzymatic digestion method. After isolation, the islets were incubated in different doses of hydroalcoholic leaves extract of C. colocynthis (0.01, 0.10 and 1.00 mg/mL Hanks’ balanced salt solution for 30 min and then calculated insulin level by ELISA method. Results: The result showed that C. colocynthis has a potential effect on insulin secretion. It was found that dose of 0.1 mg/mL Hanks’ balanced salt solution extract has best affect on induction of insulin secretion. Conclusions: It is suggested that further studies should be done on insulin releasing effect of secondary metabolites (flavones and flavonoids) isolated from C. colocynthis.
... This implies the role of K ATP channels in the insulin release by CZME. However, the extract has also potentiated insulin secretion under depolarizing conditions (KCl 30 mM) which signifies K ATP channel independent effects of the extract [26]. This may be an effect of intracellular actions on exocytosis. ...
... This may be an effect of intracellular actions on exocytosis. CZME treatment along with IBMX resulted increase in insulin secretion might be an effect of in-crease in intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels [25] [26]. ...
Article
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Since ancient times, traditional medicines have been in the usage for the treatment of Diabetes mellitus. An edible fruit from traditional medicinal plant Capparis zeylanica (CZ) was studied for its anti diabetic, insulin secretagogue activities and mechanisms involved in it. In Streptozotocin induced diabetes rats, oral administration of Capparis zeylanica methanolic extract (CZME) (200 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days showed a significant reduction in blood glucose levels by 35.53% and enhanced circulating insulin levels by 81.82% than the diabetic control rats. The insulin se-cretagogue activity mechanisms of the extract were evaluated by using mouse insulinoma beta cell line (MIN6-β). The extract stimulated insulin release in dependent manner of glucose concentration (3-16.7 mM) and extract dose (5-500 μg/mL). The insulin releasing effect of the extract was significantly enhanced by 3-isobutyl-1-methyl xanthine, glibenclamide, elevated extracellular calcium and K + depolarized media. This insulin release was significantly reduced in calcium blocking conditions (by nifedipine and EGTA), in the presence of potassium channel opener (diazoxide). Hence, anti diabetic activity of CZME might be a result of its stimulatory effect on insulin release from pancreatic beta cells via K ATP channel dependent and independent ways. These results indicate that CZ fruits have the potential to use in diabetes therapy.
... The root extracts of Asparagus racemosus have insulinotropic activity. Dose dependent insulin secretions in isolated beta cells were observed by ethanol extract, chloroform, hexane in root part of Asparagus racemosus [16] . ...
Article
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common and metabolic disorder throughout the world. In recent years, there have been various types of research and survey works are studied. Bangladesh is the land of beauty whereas the natural plants have exclusive medicinal ayurvedic activity against Insulin Dependent Diabetic Mellitus (IDDM) and Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetic Mellitus (NIDDM). Among many medications and other alternative medicines, several herbs have been known to cure and control diabetes; additionally they have no side effects. In the last few years, there has been an exponential growth in the field of herbal medicine and gaining popularity both in developing and developed countries because of their natural origin and less side effects. In this review work, we just figure out some potential herbal plants (25) antidiabetic activity in Bangladesh. A comprehensive review of the present paper is an attempt to list of the plants with anti-diabetic and related beneficial effects originating from different parts of world. History showed that medicinal plants have been used in traditional healing around the world for a long time to treat diabetes; this is because such herbal plants have hypoglycemic properties and other beneficial properties, as reported in scientific literature. This work enhanced the future researchers for further research on the potential use of medicinal plants having antidiabetic potential including hypoglycemic activity, insulin mimetic activity and antioxidant activity.
... The antihyperglycemic activity of Asparagus racemosus roots has been shown to be partly mediated by inhibition of carbohydrate digestion and absorption, and enhancement of cellular insulin action (Hannan et al., 2011). In perfused pancreas, isolated islets, and clonal pancreatic beta-cells, insulin secretory actions of extracts of roots of the plant have been demonstrated (Hannan et al., 2007). Anti-oxidant effect of Tinospora cordifolia extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats has been shown (Sivakumar and Rajan, 2010). ...
Article
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An ethnomedicinal survey was carried out among folk medicinal practitioners of four villages in Natore and Rajshahi districts of Bangladesh. The four folk medicinal practitioners interviewed were observed to use a total of 89 plants in their different formulations. These plant species were distributed into 48 families. The practitioners treated a diverse variety of ailments including skin disorders, respiratory tract disorders, ear infections, gastrointestinal disorders, hypertension, sexual problems, menorrhagia, pain, eye problems, diabetes, osteoporosis, arthritis, sexually transmitted diseases, urinary problems, fever, paralysis, cuts and wounds, chicken pox, weakness, kidney problems, jaundice, broken bones, and hepatitis B. Plants were also used as moisturizer, for relaxing uterine muscle, for treatment of snake bite, and as snake repellent. By far, from the number of plants used, the major problems of the village communities surveyed appeared to be skin disorders, respiratory tract disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, sexual problems, pain, and diabetes. Seven plants were used for treatment of diabetes. Plants used for treatment of diabetes (Stevia rebaudiana, Cycas pectinata, Diospyros ebenum, Cinnamomum tamala, Asparagus racemosus, Tinospora cordifolia, and Corchorus aestuans) are particularly interesting for further pharmacological studies, for diabetes is a debilitating disease affecting millions of persons throughout the world, and cannot be cured with allopathic medicine. As such, any drugs that can be discovered from the anti-diabetic plants obtained in the present survey can possibly alleviate the sufferings of millions of diabetic patients and can be really beneficial for human beings. The plants used for treatment of osteoporosis, hepatitis B, and arthritis are also interesting for further studies. These plants can provide a cheaper alternative to the existing allopathic drugs and which may be more affordable to the rural people of Bangladesh, who lack both access to modern clinics as well as cannot afford the prices of allopathic drugs.
... A significant number of reports exist in the literature indicating that hydroxytyrosol, a natural exist in olive oil, exerts antioxidative actions which are effective in preventing or reducing the deleterious effects of oxygen-derived free radicals associated with many diseases (11,12). In fact hydroxytyrosol has various biological activities, such as, preventing human erythrocytes from oxidative damage induced by hydrogen peroxide in rats (13), and human (14), inhibiting LDL oxidation in vitro, and anti-inflammatory (15)(16)(17). ...
Article
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The present study aims to investigate the effect of hydroxytyrosol in insulin secretion and the antioxidant activity in liver slices in vitro. For this, pancreas and liver slices were incubated in presence of 1g/l or 4g/l glucose (± hydroxytyrosol (HT)) during 40 minutes. We interest to evaluate the action of HT in insulin secretion, antioxidant enzymes activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX)), reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and histological changes in pancreas and liver slices. For the first time, our results show that hydroxytyrosol significantly induces insulin secretion in pancreas incubation. Besides, the present work prove that HT has a good antioxidant activity by preventing the decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and gluthation peroxidase (GPX) activities and the reducing glutathione content (GSH) in hepatic slices incubated in high glucose concentration (HG) (4g/l). En parallel, a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation rate and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity are observed after hydroxytyrosol administration in liver slices. Theses beneficial actions of HT are confirmed by histological changes in hepatic and pancreatic tissues. Conclusion: HT supplementation in diabetic can induces insulin secretion and prevents glucose toxicity in pancreas and liver.
... AR had proved antidiarrheal 11 , anti-inflammatory 12 , neuroprotective 13 , Immunomodulatory 14 , antidiabetic 15 , ulcer protecting and healing 16 , glucose homeostasis 17 , galactogogue and treatment of female reproductive system 9 , enhances memory 18 , antioxidant 19 , antihypercholesterolemic 20 etc. properties. The therapeutic components present in the root of Asparagus racemosus i.e. phytosterols, saponins, polyphenols, flavonoids and ascorbic acid 21 . ...
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Now days, herbal medicines are widely used to treat, manage and cure the kidney diseases as well as reduce uremia, acute nephritis & nephritic syndrome. The present study was to evaluate the antiuremic and antioxidative effect of Asparagus racemosus (AR) on acetaminophen induced uremic male rats. The study was designed with 36 male albino rats which were randomly divided into 6 groups. Group I animals were provided normal food and water ad libitum, Group II, III, IV, V and VI received acetaminophen intraperitoneally at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight/day for 10 days. Methanol, aqueous, hydromethanol, and hexane extract of AR at the dose of 500mg/kg body weight/day were fed orally on the 11 th day and continue for next 15 days to group III, IV, V and VI respectively. After 25 days, group-II animals showed significantly increased (p<0.05) plasma urea, creatinine, sodium. Elevation of lipid peroxidation was noted by measuring Malondialdehyde level in both plasma and kidney tissues than Group I, III, and V. Plasma Potassium, plasma and tissue superoxide dismutase and catalase levels were significantly decreased (p<0.05) in animals of Group III and V as Group I. So it was concluded that the methanol and hydromethanol extract of AR conferred nephroprotective and antioxidative properties against acetaminophen induced uremia.
... Consistent with these studies, our results indicated significant stimulation of insulin-release by the aqueous and acetone extracts of M. oleifera leaves from BRIN-BD11 cells. BRIN-BD11 cell-line was generated by electrofusion of RINm5F cells with New England Deaconess Hospital rat pancreatic islet cells (McClenaghan et al, 1996) and has been used extensively to characterize insulinotropic effects of several agents, including crude plant extracts (Hannan et al, 2007), amphibian skin peptides (Ojo et al, 2011) and synthetic analogues of various endogenous peptides such as GIP and GLP-1 (Irwin et al, 2010). ...
... Moreover, they increased intracellular levels of calcium ions. 73 In another study it was observed that, A. racemosus extract, when administered orally together with glucose, improved glucose tolerance in normal as well as in diabetic rats. Postprandial hyperglycaemia after sucrose ingestion was significantly suppressed by the extract, and reversibly increased unabsorbed sucrose content throughout the gut. ...
... A. racemosus roots have been reported to PAGE | 483 | reduce blood glucose level in rats, and rabbits [72,73]. Hannan et al. [74], evaluated the effects of the ethanol extract and five partition fractions of the root of A. racemosus on insulin secretion together with exploration of their mechanisms of action. The ethanol extract and each of the hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate partition fractions concentration dependently stimulated insulin secretion in isolated perfused rat pancreas, isolated rat islet cells, and clonal β-cells. ...
... 15 Various in vivo and in vitro studies showed that different species of Asparagus exhibit antiinflammatory effects, 16 anti-microbial activity, 17 reduce writhing and pain, 18 and lower glucose and cholesterol levels in the blood. [19][20][21][22] Here in we tested AA, CA and EA toxicity in vitro on hepatocytes cell line (HepG2) and THP-1 macrophages derived cells in mono and co-culture. Their cytostatic effect is also discussed. ...
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www.phcogcommn.org Original Article © Copyright 2015 EManuscript Services, India Pharmacognosy Communications Volume 5 | Issue 3 | Jul-Sep 2015 ABSTRACT Introduction: Herbal-based medicines are widely used for the prevention and treatments of diverse diseases especially in growing countries as well as many developed countries. Although some of herbal-based medicines have promising therapeutic properties, many of them remain untested and their safety and efficacy were not scientifically assessed. Based on knowledge from traditional Greco-Arab herbal medicine, this in vitro study aims to evaluate cytotoxic and cytostatic effects of three traditionally used anti-diabetic and anti-cancer medicinal plants. Out of the traditional medicinal plants, Asparagus aphyllus, Crataegus aronia, and Ephedra alata are widely used in many Mediterranean countries as natural remedies. Methods: Human THP-1- derived macrophages, HepG2 cells and their co-cultures were used in this in vitro study. Cells were treated for 24h (cytotoxic effects) and 72h (cytostatic effects) with increasing concentrations (0-1000 μg/ml) of water/ethanol extracts from Asparagus aphyllous (AA-extract), Crataegus aronia (CA-extract) and Ephedra alata (EA-extract). Cytotoxic and cytostatic effects were assessed using MTT assay and LDH assay. Results: No significant cytotoxic effects were seen with the three extracts up to concentration of 500 μg/ml. A slight cytotoxic effect was observed with CA-extractin HepG2 monocultures at concentrations higher than 500 μg/ml. Significant cytostatic effects were measured with CA-extract and EA-extract in monocultures and cocultures. The cytostatic activity of the extracts was more potent in co-cultures reaching IC50 of 178 μg/mL and 380 μg/mL for CA-extract and EA-extract, respectively. Conclusion: These results indicate that the traditionally known anti-cancer effects of CA-extract and EA-extract might be mediated in part through cytostatic effects.
... Nuestro país es el segundo mayor productor y exportador de Asparagus officinalis en el mundo (12) , poseyendo esta especie gran actividad biológica como antimutagénica (13) e hipolipemiante (14,15) en el jugo; es antioxidante (16,17) y antitumoral (18) en el tallo; y antifúngica (19) , hipoglicemiante (20,21) , inmunoprotectora (22) y hepatoprotectora (23) en las raíces; esto debido a la actividad de sus componentes bioactivos como glutatión (24) , flavonoides (16,25) , saponinas esteroideas (16,26) y polisacáridos (16,27) . La mayoría de las investigaciones previas con esta especie han utilizado extractos etanólicos, metanólicos e hidroalcohólicos; sin embargo, en nuestro medio, la forma tradicional de consumir el espárrago verde es consumir la parte del tallo previamente cocinada, razón por la cual utilizamos en nuestra investigación el extracto acuoso del tallo de Asparagus officinalis con el objetivo de evaluar efecto hepatoprotector en daño inducido por fármacos antituberculosos de primera línea. ...
Article
Objetivos. Evaluar el efecto hepatoprotector del extracto acuoso del Asparagus officinalis (AO)en daño inducido por fármacos antituberculosos. Materiales y métodos. Diseño experimental, seutilizó ratas Holtzman macho (n= 32) y tallos de AO. Se conformó cuatro grupos de ratas (n=8):G1: control con solución salina fisiológica (SSF) por vía oral (VO), G2, G3 y G4 con AO a dosisde 25, 50 y 100 mg/kg respectivamente; todos los grupos recibieron isoniazida (I) y rifampicina(R) a razón de 50 mg/kg durante 21 días. Se realizó punción cardiaca para evaluación seriadade enzimas hepáticas; finalmente, las ratas fueron sacrificadas para análisis histopatológico. Seevaluó la variación de peso, cambios en heces y orinas. Niveles de transaminasas (ALT y AST),bilirrubina total (BT), evaluación macroscópica de hígado y estructura hepatocelular. Se aplicó laprueba paramétrica de ANOVA y post-hoc Sheffe, y las no paramétricas de Kruskal-Wallis y MannWhitney. El análisis se realizó con el paquete estadístico SPSS V20 y se consideró significativo unp<0,05. Resultados. El peso disminuyó 8,06% en el grupo G1. Las heces y orinas fueron de colormarrón oscuro en mayor porcentaje en G1. Los niveles de ALT y AST resultaron mayores en G1 alos días 11 y 21 con respecto a G2, G3 y G4 (prueba ANOVA [p< 0,01], Scheffe (p< 0,01)). El GrupoG1 presentó severa infiltración de células inflamatorias, marcada congestión alrededor de venacentrolobulillar y severa dilatación de sinusoides a diferencia de G2, G3 y G4. Conclusiones. Encondiciones experimentales el extracto acuoso del Asparagus officinalis tiene efecto hepatoprotectorante el daño inducido por fármacos antituberculosos (I + R).
... We observed enhanced hydrolysate induced insulin secretion in KCl depolarised β cells suggesting that the hydrolysate can also induce insulin secretion via a K-ATP independent pathway. Similar insulin secretion findings were reported from the natural bioactives in Ocimum Sanctum leaf extract (Hannan et al., 2006) and Asparagus racemosus root extract (Hannan et al., 2007). ...
Article
Lupin seed proteins have been reported to exhibit hypoglycaemic effects in animals and humans following oral administration, however little is known about its mechanism of action. This study investigated the signalling pathway(s) responsible for the insulinotropic effect of the hydrolysate obtained from lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) seed extracts utilizing BRIN-BD11 β-cells. The extract was treated with digestive enzymes to give a hydrolysate rich in biomolecules ≤7 kDa. Cells exhibited hydrolysate induced dose-dependent stimulation of insulin secretion and enhanced intracellular Ca²⁺ and glucose metabolism. The stimulatory effect of the hydrolysate was potentiated by depolarizing concentrations of KCl and was blocked by inhibitors of the ATP sensitive K⁺ channel, Gαq protein, phospholipase C (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC). These findings reveal a novel mechanism for lupin hydrolysate stimulated insulin secretion via Gαq mediated signal transduction (Gαq/PLC/PKC) in the β-cells. Thus, lupin hydrolysates may have potential for nutraceutical treatment in type 2 diabetes.
... 7,8 Further reports indicate the pharmacological activities of A. racemosus root that include antiulcer and antidiabetic activities. 9,10 In the present investigation we aimed to study the free radical induced in vitro antioxidant scavenging activity and macromolecule damage protective effects of A. racemosus aqueous and methanolic extract against H 2 O 2 induced DNA damage of human colon and mice muscle cells, AAPH induced protein and hepatic tissue damage. ...
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Introduction: The present study was designed to investigate the in vitro antioxidant and macromolecule damage protective effects of Asparagus racemosus water (AWE) and methanolic (AME) fractions of roots. Methods: The in vitro antioxidant activity of AWE/AME was estimated by free radical scavenging assays. The DNA damage of HT29 and C2C12 cells was analyzed by comet assay. The plasmid DNA damage and protein oxidation were carried out by agarose gel electrophoresis and SDS-PAGE analysis respectively, where as lipid peroxidation was performed by TBARS assay. Results: Both the extracts showed scavenging activity with IC50 values of 417.4 ± 19.5 / 298 ± 13.5, 381 ± 18.2 / 235 ± 11.9, 54.8 ± 2.95 / 31.6 ± 1.52, 28.9 ± 1.73 / 19.7 ± 1.55 μg/mL for DPPH, metal chelating, ABTS and Nitric oxide scavenging activities respectively. Similarly the methanolic extract showed more potent reducing power and total antioxidant activities over water fraction. The AME showed 56.8% and 41.2% protection against H2O2 (Hydrogen peroxide) induced DNA damage of HT29 human colon cells and C2C12 murine myoblasts. The extract also showed protection against H2O2 induced plasmid DNA damge, AAPH induced protein oxidation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lipid peroxidation of rat hepatic tissue. Conclusion: Over all this study showed remarkable antioxidant and macromolecule damage protective effects of A.racemosus. The observed biological properties may be attributed to the high content phenols and flavonoids in the methanolic extract A. racemosus over water extract.
... beta-D-glucopyranoside; three diterpenoids: andrograpanin, neoandrographolide and andrographolide; two phenylpropanoids: trans-cinnamic acid and 4-hydroxy-2-methoxycinnamaldehyde; and oleanolic acid, beta-sitosterol and beta-daucosterol[8];Emblica ribes: With: embelin, volatile oil, fixed oil, resin, tannin, christembine (alkaloid), phenolic acids like caffeic acid, vanillic acid, chrorogenic acid, cinnamic acid, o-cumaric acid[9];Asparagus racemosus: With: inulin, asparagusic acid, and eight fructo-oligosaccharides, officinalisnin-I and officinalisnin-II, b-sitosterol, sarsasapogenin, asparagamine A[10];Withania somnifera: Biologically active chemical constituents are alkaloids (isopellertierine, anferine), steroidal lactones (withanolides, withaferins), saponins containing an additional acyl group (sitoindoside VII and VIII), and withanoloides with a glucose at carbon 27 (sitonidoside XI and X)[11]. ...
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The consumption of a particular food or beverage does not mean automatically that all the nutrients are bioequivalence or bioavailability for the human body, where they should be used or stored. Sometimes they just pass by through the gastrointestinal tract without being assimilated, and sometimes they are broken down immediately by the liver and excreted by the kidneys. Nutrients have to go through a series of obstacles, starting from the moment they are ingested and until used or stored. The bioavailability of a particular nutrient refers to its ability to go through one or more of these obstacles, so that it gets absorbed by the body and become available for use or storage.
... WHO ISSN: 2581-6608 reported that about 80 percent of the people ponder folk medicines for the treatment of several diseases, including diabetes and its complications worldwide, predominantly by considering the use of medicinal plants [6][7][8][9]. The use of medicinal plants gaining more interest due to owing bioactive constituents; phytochemicals, which hostile oxidative stress [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17]. Aloe vera is an attractive plant that belongs to the Liliaceae family that has many medicinal properties. ...
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Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are recently used for their biomedicinal applications as an alternative in many industries. Particularly biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles have proven to be an effective source in the treatment of diabetes. Whereas diabetic hepatopathy is perhaps less common where oxidative stress plays a key role in its pathogenesis. Therefore, the present study focused on the role of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (AV-AgNPs) on hepatic toxicity in diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Wistar male albino rats (200 ± 20 g) were categorized into five groups (n=10) and designated as, Group I-Control (no treatment); Group II-Diabetic control (35 mg/kg single dose of streptozotocin, IP); Group III-Diabetic treated with AVLE (100 mg/kg); Group IV-Diabetic treated with AV-AgNPs (10 mg/kg); Group V-Diabetic treated with glibenclamide (600 μg/kg) orally. Rats were euthanized after 28 days of treatment, blood and liver specimens were collected to perform biochemical, antioxidant, and histological examinations. Results exhibited that STZ persuades diabetes and hepatic impairments indicated by significantly raised (p<0.05) levels of blood glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase, (ALP), and malondialdehyde (MDA) with decreased catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione reductase (GSH) enzymes activities. AV-AgNPs treatment reversed and restored the liver enzymes, antioxidant status, and histological changes but also impede deleterious effects on hepatocellular damages induced by STZ. In general, these outcomes suggested that AV-AgNPs may have antioxidant potentials and proved to be hepatoprotective therefore; they could be used for the treatment of diabetic hepatopathy and other liver injuries.
... Principle compound constituents of asparagus racemosus region unit endocrine saponins. Iso flavones, asparagine, racemol, polysaccharides nutrient A, B, C, E, metallic component, and folic acids region unit blessing inside the roots [42].The root concentrates of the Asparagus racemosus have insulin tropic movement [43]. ...
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) could be a typical disturbed throughout the globe. As of late, there are changed sorts of examinations and overview works region units considered. The individuals' Republic of Pakistan is that the place where there is magnificence while the common plants have selective meditative ayurvedic movement against inside emission Subordinate Diabetic Mellitus (IDDM) and Non-Insulin Subordinate Diabetic Mellitus (NIDDM). Among a few meds furthermore distinctive different meds, numerous herbs are praised to fix and the board diabetes; to boot they need no aspect impacts inside the prior some of the years, there must be an exponential development inside the arena of prescription then increasing quality each inside creating including created nations owing to their common source and fewer feature impacts during this audit work, we will in general essentially observe some potential plants therapeutic medication movement in the Individuals' Republic of Pakistan. A far-reaching audit of this paper is preliminary to a rundown of the plants with hostile to diabetic and associated valuable impacts beginning from entirely unexpected parts of the world. History indicated that meditative plants are utilized in old recuperating around the world for an all-inclusive chance to manage diabetes; here is frequently because of such herbs must manifestation characteristics moreover distinctive valuable features, while announced into logical writing. This effort increased this since quite a while ago run analyzers for extra exploration of the potential utilization of meditative plants having therapeutic medication potential just as indication action, inward emission mimetic movement, and cancer prevention agent action.
... Possibly, the phytoconstituents of Asparagus root extract reduced the blood glucose through its insulin secretory activity and complemented the activity of enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidant. Thus establishing its hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties (Hannan et al., 2007). ...
... They were glucosedependent and mediated primarily through β-cell membrane NoneNone P-1 P-2 P-3 P-4 P-5 P-6 P-7 P-8 P-9 P-10 P-11 P-12 P-13 depolarisation and influx of Ca ions which trigger insulin release. Blockage of secretory effects of C. sinensis by the K ATP channel opener, diazoxide (42) , and the voltage-dependent Ca channel blocker, verapamil (43) , implicates direct actions on these ion channels mediated by polar small molecules in the leaf extract. However, insulinotropic effects persisted in cells depolarised by 30 mM KCl or tolbutamide and in the absence of extracellular Ca 2þ , possibly indicating an ability to activate other pathways such as a direct effect on exocytosis or phosphatidylinositol (PI3) or adenylate cyclase/cAMP (44) . ...
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Antidiabetic actions of Camellia sinensis leaves, used traditionally for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) treatment, have been determined. Insulin release, membrane potential and intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) were studied using the pancreatic beta-cell line, BRIN-BD11, and primary mouse pancreatic islets. Cellular glucose-uptake/insulin action by 3T3-L1 adipocytes, starch digestion, glucose diffusion, DPP-IV activity and glycation were determined together with in vivo studies assessing glucose homeostasis in high fat fed (HFF) rats. Active phytoconstituents with insulinotropic activity were isolated using RP-HPLC, LCMS and NMR. Hot water extract of Camellia sinensis, increased insulin secretion in concentration dependent manner. Insulinotropic effects were significantly reduced by diazoxide, verapamil and under calcium-free conditions, being associated with membrane depolarization and increased intracellular Ca2+. Insulin releasing effects were observed in presence of KCl, tolbutamide and IBMX, indicating actions beyond K+ and Ca2+channels. Extract also increased glucose uptake/insulin action in 3T3L1 adipocyte cells and inhibited protein glycation, DPP-IV enzyme activity, starch digestion and glucose diffusion. Oral administration of extract enhanced glucose tolerance and insulin release in HFF rats. Extended treatment (250mg/5ml/kg orally) for 9 days, led to improvements of body weight, energy intake, plasma and pancreatic insulin, and corrections of both islet size and β-cell mass. These effects were accompanied by lower glycaemia and significant reduction of plasma DPP-IV activity. Compounds isolated by HPLC/LCMS, isoquercitrin and rutin (464.2 Da & 610.3 Da), stimulated insulin release and improved glucose tolerance. These data indicate that Camellia sinensis leaves warrant further evaluation as an effective adjunctive therapy for T2DM and source of bioactive compounds.
... A study is conducted on isolated perfused rat pancreas, isolated rat islet cells, and clonal β-cells to determine insulin secretory action of different fraction of Asparagus racemosus. Nonpolar fraction (ethanol, ethylacetate, chloroform) showed a significant effect on insulin secretion as compared to polar fraction that is an aqueous fraction [31]. ...
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Asparagus racemosus is commonly known as Shatavari having a place in the family Asparagaceae that is extensively present in tropical and subtropics of Asia, Australia, and Africa. Traditionally it was used as a galactagogue, aphrodisiac, Rasayana, antiepileptic, adaptogenic, general health tonic, and in numerous female reproductive system problems. Now a day's extensive research has been done for phytochemical investigation and to explore its effects to treat and manage different diseases. It has specific steroids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, and glycosides. Extract of different parts of the plant has been approved for its both in vitro and in vivo activities. It has an immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anticancer, hepatic, and neuroprotective effect, antimicrobial, antiurolithiatic, aphrodisiac, memory-enhancing the property, antitussive effect, etc. This review elaborated on all of its pharmacological effect, active constituents that are more responsible for multi-facet actions of Asparagus racemosus.
... Other folk medicinal properties generally attributed to this plant include emollient, cooling, nerve tonic, constipating , galactogogue, aphrodisiac, diuretic, rejuvenating, carminative, immunostimulant, gastroprotective and antiseptic effects (Patel and Patel, 2013; Ravishankar et al., 2012; Battuand Kumar, 2010). In literature, extensive work has been done on various pharmacological properties like phytoestrogen effects (Sharma et al., 1996), adaptogenic effect (Rege et al., 1999 ), hypolipidemic effect (Visavadiya and Narasimhacharya, 2005), immunomodulatory effects (Diwanay et al., 2004), antibacterial activity (Mandal et al., 2000; Patel and Patel, 2013; Ravishankar et al., 2012; Battu and Kumar, 2010), antidepressant (Singh et al., 2009; Meena et al., 2011), memory enhancing activity (Ojha et al., 2010), antidiabetic effects (Kanwar et al., 2010; Hannan et al., 2007 Hannan et al., , 2011), and antiulcer (Bhatnagar et al., 2005; Sairam et al., 2003). We designed a preliminary study to explore its antibacterial activity of its active constituents. ...
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Asparagus racemosus is a medical extensively used in traditional medicine for various disorders including its use in infectious. So far work has been done to identify its active constituents responsible for antiseptic folk use of this plant. In the current investigation, we have made an effort to identify its chemical constituents that might be partly responsible for antimicrobial properties. Extraction and isolation of plant extract lead to isolation of two nor-lignans and two steroidal triterpenes (compound 1 to 4). All compound showed considerable antibacterial activities against E. coli and S. aureus while no significant activity was observed against S. typhi. This study highlighted the potential of A. racemosus to be further explored as a source of bioactive natural products.
... Ahangarpour [125] showed that the leaf extract from Morus nigra produced a significant increase in insulin production in isolated mouse islets. Hannan and co-authors established the insulin secretagogue activity of Ocimum sanctum leaves [126] and Asparagus racemosus roots [127] using all three models demonstrating the compatibility of these models for screening potential insulin secretagogues from plants. ...
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Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus has reached epidemic proportions as a result of over-nutrition and increasingly sedentary lifestyles. Current therapies, although effective, are not without limitations. These limitations, the alarming increase in the prevalence of diabetes, and the soaring cost of managing diabetes and its complications underscores an urgent need for safer, more efficient and affordable alternative treatments. Over 1200 plant species are reported in ethnomedicine for treating diabetes and these represents an important and promising source for the identification of novel antidiabetic compounds. Evaluating medicinal plants for desirable bioactivity goes hand-in-hand with methods in analytical biochemistry for separating and identifying lead compounds. This review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of current methods used in antidiabetic plant research to form a useful resource for researchers beginning in the field. The review summarises the current understanding of blood glucose regulation and the general mechanisms of action of current antidiabetic medications, and combines knowledge on common experimental approaches for screening plant extracts for antidiabetic activity and currently available analytical methods and technologies for the separation and identification of bioactive natural products. Common in vivo animal models, in vitro models, in silico methods and biochemical assays used for testing the antidiabetic effects of plants are discussed with a particular emphasis on in vitro methods such as cell-based bioassays for screening insulin secretagogues and insulinomimetics. Enzyme inhibition assays and molecular docking are also highlighted. The role of metabolomics, metabolite profiling, and dereplication of data for the high-throughput discovery of novel antidiabetic agents is reviewed. Finally, this review also summarises sample preparation techniques such as liquid–liquid extraction, solid phase extraction, and supercritical fluid extraction, and the critical function of nuclear magnetic resonance and high resolution liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry for the dereplication, putative identification and structure elucidation of natural compounds from evidence-based medicinal plants.
... It also raised the urinary concentration of magnesium, which is considered as one of the suppressors of crystallization [96]. Aqueous and butanol fractions displayed less prominent effects on the release of, especially at lower glucose concentration [97]. Asparagus racemosus Willd. ...
... This effect was enhanced further with the increase in glucose concentration from 3 to 11 mM. Thus, the extract is increasing glucose sensitivity that leads into the increased insulin release and causes hypoglycemia [46]. ...
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Nigella sativa seeds are traditionally reputed as possessing anti-diabetic properties. As a result, we aim to explore the mechanism of its anti-hyperglycemic activity. The present study uses various experimental designs including gastrointestinal (GI) motility, intestinal disaccharidase activity and inhibition of carbohydrate digestion and absorption in the gut. The animals used as type 2 diabetic models were induced with streptozotocin to make them as such. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed to confirm that the animals were indeed diabetic. The extract reduced postprandial glucose, suggesting it interfered with glucose absorption in the gut. It also improved glucose (2.5g/kg, b/w) tolerance in rats. Furthermore, treatment with N. sativa produced a significant improvement in GI motility, while reduced disaccharidase enzyme activity in fasted rats. The extract produced a similar effect within an acute oral sucrose (2.5g/kg, b/w) load assay. Following sucrose administration, a substantial amount of unabsorbed sucrose was found in six different parts of the GI tract. This indicates that N. sativa has the potentiality to liberate GI content and reduce or delay glucose absorption. A potential hypoglycemic activity of the extract found in insulin release assay, where the extract significantly improved insulin secretion from isolated rat islets. These concluded present findings give rise to the implication that N. sativa seeds are generating postprandial anti-hyperglycemic activity within type 2 diabetic animal models via reducing or delaying carbohydrate digestion and absorption in the gut as well as improving insulin secretion in response to the plasma glucose.
... Extracts and formulations prepared from exhibited various immunopharmacological actions such as an increase in white cell counts, haemagglutinating and haemolytic antibody titres in cyclophosphamide (CP)-treated mouse ascitic sarcoma [45]. Therefore, A. racemosus is a potent immunostimulant [46][47] that also has significant stimulatory effects on insulin secretion mediated through physiological pathways [48]. The immunostimulant properties of Centella asiatica have been reported to be comparable to recombinant interferon α-2b injection [49]. ...
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The authors aimed to document the medicinal plants used by the traditional healers (TH) of Noakhali district in the treatment of eye infections, as well as to include their scientific evidence relevant to the immunopharmacology towards further exploring of potential natural medicine based ocular immune system development; their question being: Do these plants have the potential for further exploration of ocular immune-modulatory activities against eye infections? And if so, is their consumption safe? This empirical ethnopharmacological study was carried out among the TH of Noakhali district, Bangladesh, with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field walk method. In-depth information regarding medicinal plant type, preparation of medicines and parts used were obtained from the TH. Plant samples were later identified at the Bangladesh National Herbarium and a number of scientific literature were reviewed for immunostimulating activities that were frequently found in the reported plant species. The collected information indicates that the following 12 medicinal plants, Spondias dulcis, Croton caudatus, Tagetes erecta, Ervatamia divaricata, Sesbania grandiflora, Curcuma longa, Mangifera indica, Asparagus racemosus, Centalla asiatica, Terminalia chebula, Ocimum gratissimum and Lawsonia inermis are commonly used by TH to treat eye infections. A review study on several available scientific evidences attributed to the in vivo and in vitro immunomodulation properties of these species. No relevant information was found regarding the immunostimulatory activity of Croton caudatus and Ervatamia divaricata. Toxicological studies of the remaining plants (except L. inermis, S. dulcis, E. divaricata) were done to evaluate the safety index for human consumption. The rural inhabitants of Bangladesh mostly depend on the medicinal plants for the treatment of various bacteria, virus and fungus associated eye infections i.e., conjunctivitis, keratitis, endopthalmitis etc. Plant based Immunomodulators can become a better choice to enhance ocular immune system because of their minimal or no side effects. So, as the body of existing ethnomedicinal knowledge can be a thriving source for natural immunomodulatory bioactive compounds, it is very important to evaluate further scientific research for the exploration of new compounds that could act as ocular immunostimulatory drugs in the future treatment of eye infections.
... Several studies have reported that constituents of Tiandong (Radix Asparagi Cochinchinensis) root extracts can enhance insulin secretion from a perfused pancreas, isolated islets and clonal pancreatic beta-cells. 25 The constituents had wide-ranging stimulatory effects on physiological insulinotropic pathways, which could reduce blood glucose in rats and rabbits. Huanglian (Rhizoma Coptidis) mainly consists of berberine, which can increase the action of glucose transporter type 4 and glucose uptake, decrease peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) δ mRNA levels, and reduce IR in insulin-resistant theca-cells. ...
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Objective: To observe the effect of Sancaijiangtang powders on plasma nitric oxide and endothelin-1 levels. We sought to identify the common pathological link and mechanism of action for Traditional Chinese medicine in type 2 diabetes mellitus and vascular dementia, and to explicate the material basis for treating the different diseases with the same method in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Methods: In total, 168 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and vascular dementia were enrolled in the study, and randomly divided into two groups by simple randomization. Patients in the treatment group received oral Sancaijiangtang powders with pioglitazone hydrochloride three times daily, while patients in the control group received pioglitazone hydrochloride alone. The treatment course was for 12 weeks. Mini-mental state examinations (Chinese version) and Montreal Cognitive Assessments (Beijing version) were performed, and fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, hemoglobin A1c, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, plasma nitric oxide and endothelin-1 levels were measured before and after the treatment. Results: The post-treatment levels for all measurements in both groups were better than pre-treat- ment levels (P < 0.05). The post-treatment levels for all measurements in the treatment group were better than the levels measured in the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Type 2 diabetes mellitus and vascular dementia have common pathological mechanisms for insulin resistance and endothelium dysfunction. Sancaijiangtang powders could improve the release of nitric oxide and inhibit the secretion of endothelin-1. Therefore, the material basis exists for treating the different diseases with the same method in Traditional Chinese Medicine.
... The analgesic action reportedly involves both central and peripheral mechanisms. Extracts of Asparagus racemosus (used by Kaviraj 5 for treatment of meho) reportedly demonstrated insulin secretory actions in perfused pancreas, isolated islets and clonal pancreatic b-cells (Hannan, 2007), suggesting that the plant can play a useful role as an anti-diabetic agent. Azadirachta indica, used by Kaviraj 1 for treatment of pain reportedly demonstrated antinociceptive action in mice models (Khanna, 1995), thus validating its traditional use. ...
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Folk medicinal practitioners (Kavirajes) provide primary health care to the rural population of around 86,000 villages in Bangladesh. Every village has at least one or more practicing Kavirajes. The Kavirajes rely almost exclusively on medicinal plants for treatment of various ailments. It was of interest to find out whether differences exist among the Kavirajes of the same as well as adjoining villages in the type of ailments treated and the species of medicinal plants used for treatment of any specific ailment. Interviews were conducted of the folk medicinal practitioners with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and using the guided field-walk method. Plant specimens as pointed out by the practitioners were collected and pressed on the field and identification completed at the Bangladesh National Herbarium. The survey was conducted among the five Kavirajes practicing in the adjoining villages of Uttar Musrat Madati and Kisasat Madati in Lalmonirhat district, Bangladesh. The five Kavirajes of the two surveyed villages used 85 plant species distributed in to 51 families for treatment of various ailments. While some similarity was noted in the plant species and formulations used for treatment of a specific ailment, overall, the Kavirajes differed considerably as to the selection of plants and the formulations used for treatment. Each Kaviraj also specialized in his own unique list of ailments, which ailments were not treated by the other Kavirajes. Each Kaviraj seemed to have his own unique repertoire of plant species for treatment of ailments, a knowledge which was not shared usually with other Kavirajes. Moreover, available scientific literature validated the traditional use of a number of plants and indicated that they can be potential sources of newer drugs.
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The present study has been made to reveal the regulatory action of Asparagus racemosus on inorganic lead induced toxicity in the Swiss albino mice (Mus Musculus). The experiment design with thirty-six male Swiss albino mice with the average weight 29 g, were divided into six experimental groups and each group with six mice. Group I - (Control; Without any treatment), Group II- (Lead nitrate;20 mg/Kg body weight, orally), Group III- (ARRE; 50mg/Kg body weight, orally), Group IV-(ARRE;150mg/Kg body weight, orally), Group V- (Lead nitrate;20 mg/Kg body weight, orally+ ARRE; 50mg/Kg body weight, orally), Group VI- (Lead nitrate;20 mg/Kg body weight, orally +ARRE; 150mg/Kg body weight, orally) respectively treated for 45 days. Administration of lead nitrate for 45 days increased the plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and LDL-cholesterol; however VLDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol values are low in lead exposed subjects. Individual and simultaneous administration of ARRE along with lead for the both doses, Asparagus racemosus showed the positive amelioration in lipid profile at different levels to some extent with all variables. The findings of present study suggest the possible hypercholestramic abnormalities induced by lead can be neutralized by Asparagus racemosus in the lead exposed population.
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Introduction: Diabetes is one of the top ten causes of mortality in Malaysia. Several antidiabetic studies using palm oil (Elaeis guinemsis) have been explored in recent years. The oil palm friut itself has not been investigated and hence this study was conducted to evaluate its effects in stimulating insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cell. Methods: The insulinotropic activity of oil palm h i t aqueous extract (OPF) on clonal pancreatic β-cell line was investigated using BRIN BD11 cell line. The cell lines were incubated with different concentrations of OPF to evaluate the stirnulatory effect of OPF toward insulin secretion from BRIN BD11 cells using the Rat Insulin ELISA Assay Kits. Results: OPF concentrations (100-1000μg/ml) were shown to significantly induce insulin secretion by a multiple of 1.97-2.58 in the BRIN BD11 cells. The highest insulin secretion increase (2.58-fold, p<0.001) was induced by 500 μg/ml in the OPF treated group. Evaluation of the possible mechanisms involved suggested that the mechanisms of insulin secreting activity of the 500 pg/ml OPF extract may involve the K+ATP channel-dependent pathway which exerts an insulin secretion effect through depolarising the membrane of pancreatic β-cells. Conclusion: The present study has revealed the presence of insulinotropic activity in Elaeis guineensis fruit. Future work assessing its use as a source of active components is recommended.
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In the present investigation we aimed to study the free radical induced in vitro antioxidant scavenging activity and macromolecule damage protective effects of A. racemosus aqueous and methanolic extract against H2O2 induced DNA damage of human colon and mice muscle cells, AAPH induced protein and hepatic tissue damage.
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Asparagus racemosus a well-known female tonic species, a well-known home grown herb in India, that belong to the Asparagus genus of the Asparagaceae family. The Asparagus racemosus roots, stems, flowers and leaves are employed in herbal therapy, and also used as a food and nutraceutical supplement. Pharmacological and therapeutic research, phytochemistry of the Asparagus racemosus and its active components are presented in this overview. KEYWORDS- Asparagus racemosus, Asparagaceae, Pharmacology, Marketed formulations, Phytochemistry
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Use of plants as a source of medicine has been inherited and is an important component of the health care system in India. Among these plants Asparagus race mosus is an important medicinal plant which has been used worldwide. A lot of medicinally importance attributes have been assigned to this herb. It has been used by tribes located in distinct area of India from primeval time. Key component of this herb is saponins. Recent developments in transgenic research have opened up the possibility of the metabolic engineering of biosynthetic pathways to produce these high-value secondary metabolites. The present review is a pragmatic approach to accrue the findings on this very important herb.
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This section of the four part article looks at saffron, shatavari, shilajit, triphala, turmeric, tamarind and terminalia arjuna. A review of all citations on PubMed regarding these naturoceuticals was done. We found entries as follows: saffron: 737 entries dating back to 1946; shatavari: 13 entries dating back to 1969; shilajit: 32 entries dating back to 1965; tamarind: 364 entries dating back to 1945 ; terminalis arjuna: 141 entries dating back to 1982; triphala: 84 entries dating back to 1963 and turmeric: 2554 entries dating back to 1945. Other pertinent scientific articles and studies with evidence based data were also reviewed.
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This study discusses the effectiveness of methanolic extract and fractions (butanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane) of H. sabdariffa Linn fruit towards antidiabetic activities (in vitro). In order to test the efficacy, toxicity and insulin secretion capacity of rat pancreatic β-cell lines (BRIN-BD11) were tested with the methanolic extract and fractions. The outcomes showed that both the extract and the fractions demonstrated significantly lower levels of cytotoxic activities. Furthermore, the methanolic extract and fractions displayed varied sensitivity levels towards insulin release after an incubation period of 30 min. The methanolic extract, at a concentration of 300 µg/mL, significantly stimulated secretion of insulin by 2.85-fold (p<0.001). In addition, butanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane fractions revealed a gradual increase in insulin secretion. The stimulated insulin secretion for these fractions had been recorded at 2-fold (p<0.01), 2.67-fold, and 2.31-fold (p<0.001), respectively, at the highest concentrations. The methanolic extract and fractions also appeared to stimulate secretion of insulin with all modulators present, for example, potassium chloride (KCl), insulin secretion inhibitor (verapamil and diazoxide), as well as insulin secretagogue (tolbutamide and isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX)). These results indicate that H. sabdariffa Linn fruit methanolic extract and fractions could indeed be beneficial for future development of antidiabetic drugs.
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This chapter presents clinical evidence, pre-clinical evidence, mechanisms of action, interactions, contraindications, information about adverse effects and dosage of Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus). Shatavari is an important Ayurvedic herb, used especially in women, as a galactagogue (to increase the production of breast milk), relieve pre-menstrual syndrome, increase fertility, reduce uterine bleeding and alleviate menopausal symptoms. It is considered a Rasayana (general tonic and adaptogen) and is also used for the prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal disturbances, including dyspepsia, diarrhoea and gastric ulcers, as an aphrodisiac, in nervous disorders including dementia and many others. The major active constituents of shatavari are steroidal saponins, the shatavarins I-IV, shatavarosides A and B, immunoside and filiasparoside C. A. racemosus roots are used in traditional medicine systems throughout its range, including in India, tropical Africa, and northern Australia.
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Effect of bio fertilizers and environmental stresses on medicinal plants (problems, benefits and solutions)‏
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The Asparagus racemosus was evaluated for its antidiabetic activities and hypolipidemic activity against alloxan induced hyperglycemia in rats. Thirty rats were used divided into 2 groups, normal control: Composed from 10 rats and diabetic group composed from 20 rats I.P. injection. of alloxan by dose 120mgm/kg b. w, This group subdivided into 2 subgroup: Alloxan group: 10 rats as control negative. Asparagus treated group: 10 rats administrated Asparagus racemosus powder by dose 500 mg/kg b. Wt. daily P.O. for 30days. (Kumar et al., 2011and Sara et al., 2013) Diabetes is recognized as a group of heterogeneous disorders with the common of hyperglycaemia and glucose intolerance, due to insulin deficiency, impaired of insulin action, or both (Harris and Zimmet, 1997). Diabetes mellitus type 1 is caused by insufficient or non-existent production of insulin, while type 2 is primarily due to a decreased response to insulin in the tissues of the body which called insulin resistance. Both types of diabetes, if untreated, result in too much glucose remaining in the blood which defined as hyperglycemia and many of the same complications. Also, too much insulin and/or exercise without enough corresponding food intake in diabetics can result in low blood sugar which named as hypoglycemia (Hsu et al., 2007). Daily administration of Asparagus racemosus to diabetic rats by dose (500 mg/kg b. wt.) for 30 days decreased serum glucose. These findings indicate that anti hyperglycemic activity of Asparagus racemosus mediated by inhibition of carbohydrate digestion andabsorption, together with enhancement of insulin secretion and action in the peripheral tissue
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Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases in nearly all countries, and continuously increasing in numbers and significance, as changing lifestyles lead to reduced physical activity. Diabetes is the leading cause of blindness, renal failure, and lower limb amputation. Diabetes is also now one of the leading causes of death, largely because of a markedly increased risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Due to the existing synthetic drugs have many limitations, the medicine from plants is drawing ever-increasing attention worldwide, due to their low toxicity and few side effects. The present review is providing data of some important medicinal plants species possessing antihyperglycemic and antidiabetic activity. It would provide a handbook for the research related to diabetes. Further, efforts should be made to implement these plants based drugs in clinical trials.
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The Himalayan region is the treasure house of natural wealth, particularly of medicinal and aromatic plants. These plants are used by the Indian traditional healers for the past many centuries to treat various ailments such as skin disorders, asthma, diabetes, snake bite, fever, pain, eye diseases, diarrhoea, indigestion, jaundice, burn, wound, liver disorder, CNS disorders and urinary tract infection. The indigenous traditional knowledge of medicinal plants and therapies of various local communities has been lost due to changes in traditional culture and the introduction of modern technologies. Therefore, it is essential to explore the traditional knowledge of the indigenous medicinal plants mainly in such areas where there is a severe threat to natural vegetation owing to human inhabitation. The present study aimed to explore the medicinal plants of Chakrata region (Jaunsar–Bawar Hills), Uttarakhand, India used in the folk medicine for the management of diabetes by Jaunsari Tribe. In a comprehensive field survey, the information about the medicinal plants have been mainly collected from the traditional healers and other elderly people belong to the tribal community. All the information about the medicinal plants of the study area was documented in a field book. Various tools have been used to collect the samples for identification purpose and the authentication of the plants was done with the help of taxonomists. The literature on these plants was also searched from online (PubMed and Scopus) as well as from some textbooks and Ayurvedic classical texts. The present survey-based work described a total of 54 plants belonging to 47 genera and 30 families used in the traditional medicine for the management of diabetes in Chakrata region. The information gathered from the local community revealed that the plants are effective in diabetes and one can use most of them without consulting a practitioner or traditional healer. The literature revealed that most of the surveyed plants are already used in the preparation of various antidiabetic formulations such as Chandraprabha vati, Nishamalaki chunra, Amritamehari churna and Nisakathakadi kashayam along with various patent drugs which are frequently prescribed by the Ayurvedic practitioners in India. The present study explored the traditional as well as scientific knowledge on the antidiabetic plants used by the tribal community. The documented information on these plants can be further used by the scientific community to develop new drugs/formulations with the help of modern techniques.
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Ethnopharmacological relevance Diabetes mellitus remains the most lethal metabolic disease of contemporaneous times and despite the therapeutic arsenal currently available, research on new antidiabetic agents remains a priority. In recent years, the revitalization of Thai Traditional Medicine (TTM) became a clear priority for the Thai government, and many efforts have been undertaken to accelerate research on herbal medicines and their use in medical services in various hospitals. Additionally, and particularly in rural areas, treatment of diabetes and associated symptomatology frequently relies on herbal preparations recommended by practitioners of TTM. In the current work, medicinal plants used in Thailand for treating diabetes, as well as their hypoglycaemic pharmacological evidences and potential therapeutic use for diabetes-related complications were reviewed. Materials and methods Ethnopharmacological information on the plant materials used in TTM for diabetes treatment was collected through literature search in a range of scientific databases using the search terms: diabetes, folk medicine, Thailand medicinal plants, traditional medicine. Information regarding scientific evidence on the antidiabetic effects of surveyed species was obtained considering not only the most common taxonomic designation, but also taxonomic synonyms, and including the keywords ‘diabetes’ and ‘hypoglycaemic effect’. Results A total of 183 species known to be used for diabetes management in TTM were reviewed, with 30% of them still lacking experimental evidences to support claims regarding the mechanisms and phytochemicals underlying their antidiabetic properties. Moreover, a total of 46 bioactives displaying effective antidiabetic effects have been isolated from 24 species, their underlying mechanism(s) of action being fully or partially disclosed. Conclusions We deliver the most extensive survey dealing with the ethnomedicinal knowledge of Thai medicinal plants utilized on diabetes management. We are certain that the current review will spark further research on Thai plants for the development of new standardized phytomedicines through drug discovery programmes.
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Recently in many industries biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles are used as an alternative for their biomedicinal applications predominantly demonstrated as an effective agent in the diabetes treatment. On the other hand, oxidative stress crucially associated with the pathogenesis of diabetic comorbidities like diabetic hepatopathy, which is less common. Thus, the existing study explored the protective role of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (AV-AgNPs) against hepatic toxicity persuaded by streptozotocin (STZ) in rats. Wistar male albino rats (200 ± 20 g) were segregated into five groups (n=10) and designated as, Group I-Control (no treatment); Group II-Diabetic control (35 mg/kg single dose of streptozotocin, IP); Group III-Diabetic treated with AV-AgNPs (10 mg/kg); Group IV-Diabetic treated with aloe vera leaves extract (AVLE) (100 mg/kg); Group V-Diabetic treated with glibenclamide (GLB) (600 μg/kg) orally. After treatment of 28 days, animals were euthanized and collected blood and liver specimens for investigations of biochemical, oxidative stress, antioxidant, and histological parameters. Outcomes of the study exhibited that STZ persuades diabetes and hepatic impairments indicated by significant raised (p<0.05) in the levels of blood glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase, (ALP), and malondialdehyde (MDA) with decreased catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione reductase (GSH) enzymes activities. AV-AgNPs treatment reverted and reestablished the liver enzymes levels, antioxidant enzymes, and histological damages of the liver persuaded by STZ near to normal. In general, these results suggested that AV-AgNPs may have antioxidant potentials and proved to be hepatoprotective therefore, they could be used for the treatment of diabetic hepatopathy and other liver injuries.
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To estimate the global number of excess deaths due to diabetes in the year 2000. We used a computerized generic formal disease model (DisMod II), used by the World Health Organization to assess disease burden through modeling the relationships between incidence, prevalence, and disease-specific mortality. Baseline input data included population structure, age- and sex-specific estimates of diabetes prevalence, and available published estimates of relative risk of death for people with diabetes compared with people without diabetes. The results were validated with population-based observations and independent estimates of relative risk of death. The excess global mortality attributable to diabetes in the year 2000 was estimated to be 2.9 million deaths, equivalent to 5.2% of all deaths. Excess mortality attributable to diabetes accounted for 2-3% of deaths in poorest countries and over 8% in the U.S., Canada, and the Middle East. In people 35-64 years old, 6-27% of deaths were attributable to diabetes. These are the first global estimates of mortality attributable to diabetes. Globally, diabetes is likely to be the fifth leading cause of death.
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Antifungal activity was detected in the crude saponin fraction obtained from the bottom cut of Asparagus officinalis L. This activity was specific to certain fungi, for example Candida, Cryptococcus, Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton. Attempts were made to isolate the active principles from this fraction; in this way a new saponin (AS-1) was isolated, and its structure was estimated to be 3-O-[{β-d-glucopyranosyl(1 → 2)}{β-d-xylopyranosyl(1 → 4)-β-d-glucopyranosyl]-(25S),5β-spirostan-3β-ol. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranged from 0.5/μg/ml to more than 8/μg/ml depending upon the nature of the fungi. On the basis of the work carried out here, it is probable that asparagus will contain additional antifungal principles.
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We studied the inhibition by oxidised low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) of the production of NO and gene expression of NO synthase (NOS) in mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and protection by the polysaccharide kreskin (PSK). This was done by measuring nitrite in media and messenger RNA(mRNA) for NOS in macrophages. Exposure of mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPM) to Ox-LDL inhibited NO production stimulated by LPS, but exposure of MPM to native LDL and acetylated LDL did not do so. PSK, injected peritoneally into mice, protected their macrophages from the inhibition of NO production caused by Ox-LDL. Results from slot hybridisation showed that Ox-LDL lowered the content of mRNA for NOS in macrophages induced by LPS, while PSK protected macrophages from the decline of mRNA in macrophages caused by Ox-LDL.
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The crude polysaccharide was extracted from Spirulina maxima with hot water, and precipitated by ethanol after deproteinization. Two portions of refined polysaccharides (SPS I and SPS II) were prepared after further purification on DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column chromatography, and their homogeneity was examined with Sephadex G-150 column chromatography. The ultraviolet spectra showed their characteristic absorption at 195.00 nm. In order to estimate the antioxidation activity of SPS I and SPS II , three systems of generating superoxide radical (O-.2), lipid radical (R·) and hydroxyl radical (OH·) respectively in vitro were designed. The results showed that both SPS I and SPS II from S. maxima had significant capacity of scavenging OH· (P < 0.05), but no effect on O-.2 (P > 0.1) ; and that SPS I could scavenge R· under lower concentration of polysaccharides (P < 0.05), while the capacity of scavenging R· of both SPS I and SPS II decreased in higher concentration (P > 0.2). These results demonstrated that the significant antioxidation activity of polysaccharides from S. maxima was focused on scavenging OH·, the most highly reactive one of the oxygen radicals.
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A group of 13 compounds were tested for in vitro cytotoxicity in four test systems; MIT-24 test, inhibition of cell growth (protein method), inhibition of cell growth (vital dye method) and cloning efficiency. In general, all four assays tended to rank compounds in a similar order for toxicity. The length of the exposure period appeared to be important for some compounds. The cytotoxicity of a variety of water samples was examined in two tests; inhibition of cell growth (vital dye method) and cloning efficiency. Under the conditions in which the assays were carried out, the latter proved to be the more sensitive test. River water samples gave little or no indication of cytotoxicity, samples of domestic sewage effluent gave some evidence of cytotoxicity, while an industrial effluent was markedly cytotoxic.
Article
Antifungal activity was detected in the crude saponin fraction obtained from the bottom cut of Asparagus officinalis L. This activity was specific to certain fungi, for example Candida, Cryptococcus, Trichophyton, Microspomm and Epidermophyton. Attempts were made to isolate the active principles from this fraction; in this way a new saponin (AS-1) was isolated, and its structure was estimated to be 3-O-[{β-D-glucopyranosyl(1 →2)}{β-D-xylopyranosyl(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25S), 5β-spirostan-3β-ol. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranged from 0.5μg/ml to more than 8μg/ml depending upon the nature of the fungi. On the basis of the work carried out here, it is probable that asparagus will contain additional antifungal principles.
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The oxidation of lipids, lipid peroxidation, is usually assayed with thiobarbituric acid (TBA). We compare the TBA assay measuring TBA-reactive substances (TBARS), and a new gas chromatography–mass spectrometric (GC–MS) assay measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) with unsaturated fatty acids and biological samples. The extent of oxidation to different unsaturated fatty acids is related to the total number ofbis-allylic positions, the position of the first double bond from the methyl terminus, and the lipid chain length. The extent of oxidation of different biological samples or organs is related to the component polyunsaturated fatty acids. Both the GC–MS and TBA assays give parallel results for oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids and biological samples. The GC–MS assay is about two- to sixfold more sensitive than the TBA assay for oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. In contrast, the TBA assay gives about two- to sixfold higher TBARS than MDA by GC–MS assay in biological samples, possibly due to the nonspecificity and artifactual formation of derivatives in the acid-heating step of the TBA assay. The GC–MS assay is shown to be useful in oxidation-related cell culture studies with as few as 250,000 neural cells. These results suggest that the GC–MS assay is a useful, sensitive, and specific assay for lipid peroxidation. The TBA assay is also quite useful because of its sensitivity and simplicity, if one clearly understands its nonspecificity.
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The crude saponins from the shoots (edible part of asparagus) of asparagus (asparagus crude saponins; ACS) were found to have antitumor activity. The ACS inhibited the growth of human leukemia HL-60 cells in culture and macromolecular synthesis in a dose and time dependent manner. The ACS at 75–100μg/ml range was cytostatic. ACS concentrations greater than 200 μg/ml were cytocidal to HL-60 cells. The ACS at 6 and 50 μg/ml inhibited the synthesis of DNA, RNA and protein in HL-60 cells by 41, 5, and 4, respectively, or by 84, 68 and 59%, respectively. The inhibitory effect of ACS on DNA synthesis was irreversible.
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Before the introduction of insulin in 1922 treatments for diabetes mellitus relied mainly on dietary measures including traditional medicines derived from plants. During this century the dietary recommendations for diabetes have turned full circle, with the renewed appreciation that carbohydrate-rich high-fibre diets can benefit the control of glycaemia and improve certain diabetic complications (Nutrition Sub-committee of the British Diabetic Association, 1980; Mann, 1984; Vinik & Jenkins, 1988). Traditional plant medicines for diabetes, which were abandoned in occidental societies as conventional drugs emerged, are now receiving renewed interest as adjuncts to conventional treatments and as potential sources of new hypoglycaemic compounds (Day & Bailey, 1988~; Day, 1990). Most of these traditional medicines are prepared from herbs, spices and plants which do not form part of the normal diet (Day & Bailey, 1988b; Bailey & Day, 1989). However, several common components of the diet are traditionally recommended for regular consumption, and some are additionally taken as infusions, decoctions or alcoholic extracts. The present review considers the dietary adjuncts which are used as traditional treatments for diabetes in the UK (Table 1). and describes studies to evaluate their
Article
Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari) is used in Ayurveda for dyspepsia (amlapitta) and as a galactogogue. It was hence compared with a modern drug, metoclopramide, which is used in dyspepsia to reduce gastric emptying time. Gastric emptying half- time (GE t1/2) was studied in 8 healthy male volunteers using a cross-over design. The basal GE t1/2 in volunteers was 159.9 +/- 45.9 min (mean +/- SD) which was reduced to 101 +/- 40.8 min by Shatavari (p less than 0.001) and to 85.3 +/- 21.9 by metoclopramide (p less than 0.001). Metoclopramide and Shatavari did not differ significantly in their effects.
About 80% of the juices from twenty vegetables and fruits showed antimutagenic activity when tested in the presence of the mutagen and carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene using the Ames' Salmonella/microsome assay. In a standardized test system juices from raw celeriac, broccoli, red cabbage, carrots, green, peppers, lettuce, asparagus, apricots, red-currants, gooseberries, raspberries, and pineapple showed more than 50% inhibition. Leek, kohlrabi, cucumber, zucchini, French beans, fennel leaves, rhubarb, and sweet cherries were less effective. No antimutagenic activity was detected in onions, Chinese cabbage, radish, and white cabbage. Cooking considerably reduced the antimutagenic activity of celeriac, leek, broccoli, French beans, carrots, asparagus, cherries, and pineapple, but was ineffective or only moderately effective with kohlrabi, zucchini, cucumber, fennel leaves, lettuce, apricots, red-currants, gooseberries, and raspberries.
Article
This review summarises the literature on the antidiabetic activity of 343 medicinal plants reputed in the indigenous system of medicine or in which the pharmacological activity has been scientifically demonstrated. The data are presented in tabular form. The table reflects the plant parts involved, the nature of the extracts used and the names of the active principles with their structures where known. The pharmacological activities of some of the extracts or of the active principles isolated from these plants are also described.
Article
The present paper reviews the active, natural principles and crude extracts of plants which have been experimentally studied for hypoglycemic activity in the last ten years. Phytoconstituents with known structures have been classified in appropriate chemical groups and the active crude extracts have been listed alphabetically according to genus. Data are reported on their pharmacological activity, mechanism of action, toxicity and other properties.
Article
The protective effects of Asparagus racemosus (AR) and Tinospora cordifolia (TC) against myelosuppression induced by single doses of cyclophosphamide (CP) have been previously reported. Presented here are the results of a comparative study between AR, TC, glucan and lithium carbonate against the myelosuppressive effects of single and multiple doses of cyclophosphamide in mice. Cyclophosphamide was administered as a single dose 200 mg/kg subcutaneously to one group of mice, while a second group received 3 doses of 30 mg/kg intraperitoneally. Both groups received AR, TC and lithium orally for 15 days before CP. Glucan was administered intravenously in 3 doses, before cyclophosphamide in the first group and together with cyclophosphamide in the second group. In both groups peripheral and differential WBC counts were done before and after drug treatment and serially after cyclophosphamide injection. All four drugs produced leucocytosis with neutrophilia. When compared to control group, all 4 drugs prevented, to varying degrees, leucopenia produced by cyclophosphamide. We conclude, therefore, that both indigenous plants, AR and TC, are potent immunostimulants, with effects comparable to lithium and glucan. They need further evaluation in patients receiving cytotoxic drugs.
Article
Non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM) was obtained in adult rats following a neonatal streptozotocin injection. Rats with NIDDM exhibited slightly lowered plasma insulin, slightly elevated basal plasma glucose values (less than 200 mg/dl), and low pancreatic insulin stores (50% of the controls). Insulin secretion was studied in this model using the isolated perfused pancreas technique. Insulin response to glucose stimulation over the range 5.5-22 mM was lacking, thus indicating complete loss of B-cell sensitivity to glucose. Even in presence of theophylline, the B-cells remained insensitive to glucose. In contrast, glyceraldehyde elicited an insulin release as important as that obtained in the control pancreata. This could possibly suggest that the B-cell dysfunction in rats with NIDDM involves a block in glucose metabolism in the early steps of glycolysis prior to the triose-phosphate. Mannose stimulated insulin secretion less in the diabetics than in the controls. The insulin secretion obtained in response to isoproterenol indicated that the ability of the adenylcyclase to generate cAMP in the B-cells of the diabetics was not decreased. The insulinotropic actions of acetylcholine and tolbutamide were normal and increased, respectively, as compared with the controls. In the absence of glucose, the B-cells of the diabetics were unexpectedly hypersensitive to arginine and leucine. The alpha-ketoisocaproate effect in the diabetics was not significantly different from that obtained in the controls. The possibility that enhancement of insulin response to leucine in the diabetics might be related to a more active conversion of leucine to ketoisocaproate along the first steps of intraislet leucine metabolism is proposed.
Article
To investigate the effect of the ob gene in the heterozygous condition, plasma glucose and insulin responses of adult heterozygous lean (ob/+) mice were compared with mice of the homozygous lean (+/+) and homozygous obese (ob/ob) genotypes. The ob/+ mice consumed 24% more food than +/+ mice although body weights were similar. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were respectively 16% and 176% higher in ob/+ mice than +/+ mice in the freely fed state, and 44% and 88% higher during glucose tolerance tests. In 24 hour fasted ob/+ mice, plasma glucose concentrations were 23% higher than +/+ mice but plasma insulin concentrations were not significantly different. Arginine produced a greater insulin response (172%) and a greater fall in glycaemia (200%) in ob/+ mice. A significant difference in the hypoglycaemic effect of insulin in ob/+ and +/+ mice was not observed. These results demonstrate an effect of the ob gene on glucose homeostasis in heterozygous lean (ob/+) mice. The abnormalities were qualitatively similar but considerably less severe than those in ob/ob mice, suggesting that ob/+ mice might prove useful to study factors predisposing to inappropriate hyperglycaemia.
Article
A novel insulin-secreting cell line (BRIN-BD11) was established after electrofusion of RINm5F cells with New England Deaconess Hospital rat pancreatic islet cells. Wells of cell fusion mixture with insulin output 5-10 times greater than parent RINm5F cells were subcultured with eventual establishment of clones, including BRIN-BD11. Morphological studies established that these cells grow as monolayers with epithelioid characteristics, maintaining stability in tissue culture for > 50 passages. Culture of these cells for 24 h at 5.6-33.3 mmol/l glucose revealed a 1.8- to 2.0-fold increase of insulin output compared with 1.4 mmol/l glucose. Dynamic insulin release was recorded in response to 16.7 mmol/l glucose, resulting in a rapid threefold insulin secretory peak followed by a sustained output slightly above basal. In acute 20-min tests, 4.2-16.7 mmol/l glucose evoked a stepwise two- to three-fold stimulation of insulin release. 3-Isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (1 mmol/l) served to increase basal and glucose-stimulated insulin release, shifting the threshold from 4.4 to 1.1 mmol/l glucose. Stimulation of insulin secretion with 16.7 mmol/l glucose was abolished by mannoheptulose or diazoxide (15 or 0.5 mmol/l). In contrast, glyceraldehyde (10 mmol/l) and 25 mmol/l K+ evoked 1.7- to 9.0-fold insulin responses. L-Alanine (10 mmol/l) evoked a twofold secretory response, which was potentiated 1.4-fold by increasing the Ca2+ concentration from 1.28 to 7.68 mmol/l. Forskolin (25 mumol/l) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (10 nmol/l) both increased insulin secretion in the presence of L-alanine (1.4- and 1.8-fold, respectively). Western blotting confirmed that BRIN-BD11 cells expressed the GLUT2 glucose transporter. This, coupled with a high glucokinase/hexokinase ratio in the cells, confirms an intact glucose sensing mechanism. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis demonstrated that insulin was the major product secreted under stimulatory conditions. Collectively, these data indicate that the BRIN-BD11 cell line represents an important stable glucose-responsive insulin-secreting beta-cell line for future studies.
Article
The effect of Indian herbs namely, Asparagus racemosus, Tinospora cordifolia, Withania somnifera and Picrorhiza kurrooa on the functions of macrophages obtained from mice treated with the carcinogen ochratoxin A (OTA) was investigated. The chemotactic activity of murine macrophages was significantly decreased by 17 weeks of treatment with OTA compared with controls. Production of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was also markedly reduced. Treatment with Asparagus racemosus, Tinospora cordifolia, Withania somnifera and Picrorhiza kurrooa significantly inhibited OTA-induced suppression of chemotactic activity and production of IL-1 and TNF-alpha by macropahges. Moreover, we found that Withania somnifera treated macrophage chemotaxis and that Asparagus racemosus induced excess production of TNF-alpha when compared with controls.
Article
Four Sitavirya plants viz. Satavari (fresh root juice, 1250 mg/kg), Yastimadhu (water decoction of root, 600 mg/kg), Kutaja and Aswattha (water decoctions of bark; 400 and 500 mg/kg respectively) were studied for their effects on different models of gastroduodenal ulcers in rats, when given orally for 3 days. All of them were found to protect the animals against 2 hr cold restraint stress and pylorus ligation-induced gastric and cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcers. However, they were ineffective against acute aspirin-induced gastric ulcers. The antiulcerogenic effect could be due to their inhibitory effect on offensive acid-pepsin secretion and augmentation of mucosal defensive factors in terms of enhanced mucin secretion and decreased cell shedding.
Article
Plants from all over the world such as Eleutherococcus senticosus, Panax ginseng, Raponticum carthamoides, Rhodiola rosea, Withania somnifera and Ocimum sanctum have been extensively evaluated for their adaptogenic potential. However, none of them has been successfully introduced as an adaptogen in the clinic. This paper discusses some of the problems in evaluation of adaptogens which have precluded their inclusion as clinically useful drugs. We further discuss our results with six rasayana plants from Ayurveda, which were studied for their adaptogenic potential.
Article
Herba Epimedii is a traditional Yang invigorating Chinese herb widely used in clinic. The experimental results have shown that ESPS obviously increases superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity of red cells and liver in aged mice and rats, and increases glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px) activity of red cells in aged mice. On the other hand, ESPS obviously helps to reduce the content of serum and liver lipoperoxide(LPO) in aged mice and rats, as well as the content of lipofuscin(LF) in cardiac muscle of aged mice. The results suggest that being helpful in increasing SOD and GSH-Px activities and inhibiting the formation of LPO and LF, ESPS may be a good antiageing agent.
Article
In the industrialised world, type 1 diabetes rarely results in death from ketoacidosis. The same is not true in many countries in the developing world where insulin availability is intermittent, and insulin may not even be included on national formularies of essential drugs. The life expectancy for a newly diagnosed patient with type 1 diabetes in some parts of Africa may be as short as 1 year. The World Bank has identified 40 highly indebted poor countries (HIPCs) whose national debt substantially exceeds any possibility of repayment without heavy impact on health and social programmes. Incidence and prognosis of type 1 diabetes in HIPCs are lower than in most industrialised countries, and 0.48% of the world's current use of insulin is estimated to be sufficient to treat all type 1 diabetic patients in these countries. A proposal is made for the major insulin manufacturers to donate insulin, at an estimated cost of US$3-5 million per year, as part of a distribution and education initiative for type 1 diabetic patients in the HIPCs. No type 1 diabetic patient in the world's poorest countries need then die because they, or their government, cannot afford insulin.
Article
The possible antioxidant effects of crude extract and a purified aqueous fraction of Asparagus racemosus against membrane damage induced by the free radicals generated during gamma-radiation were examined in rat liver mitochondria. gamma-Radiation, in the dose range of 75-900 Gy, induced lipid peroxidation as assessed by the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH). Using an effective dose of 450 Gy, antioxidant effects of A. racemosus extract were studied against oxidative damage in terms of protection against lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, depletion of protein thiols and the levels of the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase. An active fraction consisting of polysaccharides (termed as P3) was effective even at a low concentration of 10 microg/ml. Both the crude extract as well as the P3 fraction significantly inhibited lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation. The antioxidant effect of P3 fraction was more pronounced against lipid peroxidation, as assessed by TBARS formation, while that of the crude extract was more effective in inhibiting protein oxidation. Both the crude extract and P3 fraction also partly protects against radiation-induced loss of protein thiols and inactivation of superoxide dismutase. The inhibitory effects of these active principles, at the concentration of 10 microg/ml, are comparable to that of the established antioxidants glutathione and ascorbic acid. Hence our results indicate that extracts from A. racemosus have potent antioxidant properties in vitro in mitochondrial membranes of rat liver.
Article
The effect of methanolic extract of Asparagus pubescens root on experimentally-induced diarrhoea and ulceration was investigated in rats. The extract (500-1500 mg/kg) dose-dependently, reduced significantly the intestinal propulsive movement, castor oil-induced diarrhoea and intestinal fluid accumulation. Yohimbine an alpha(2)-adrenoceptor blocker attenuated the antidiarrhoeal effect of the extract. The extract also reduced the ulcer indices induced by indomethacin and ethanol in a dose-related manner. The results indicate that its antidiarrhoeal and antiulcerogenic effects might in part be due to its alpha(2)-adrenoceptor stimulation and its active constituents respectively.
Article
Asparagus racemosus is an Ayurvedic rasayana, which finds mention in ancient Indian texts for treatment of gastric ulcers. The ulcer protective effect of methanolic extract of fresh roots of A. racemosus (ARM), 25-100 mg/kg given orally, twice daily for 5 days, was studied on different gastroduodenal ulcer models. ARM 50 mg/kg, twice daily, orally (total saponins 0.9%) showed significant protection against acute gastric ulcers induced by cold restraint stress (CRS), pyloric ligation, aspirin plus pyloric ligation, and duodenal ulcers induced by cysteamine. ARM in the above dose also significantly healed chronic gastric ulcers induced by acetic acid after 10 days treatment. However, ARM was ineffective against aspirin- and ethanol-induced gastric ulcers. Further, gastric juice and mucosal studies showed that ARM significantly increased the mucosal defensive factors like mucus secretion, cellular mucus, life span of cells and also possessed significant anti-oxidant effect, but had little or no effect on offensive factors like acid and pepsin.
Article
Cytoplasmic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) and membrane potential changes were measured in clonal pancreatic beta cells using a fluorimetric imaging plate reader (FLIPR). KCl (30 mM) produced a fast membrane depolarization immediately followed by increase of [Ca(2+)](i) in BRIN-BD11 cells. l-Alanine (10 mM) but not l-arginine (10 mM) mimicked the KCl profile and also produced a fast membrane depolarization and elevation of [Ca(2+)](i). Conversely, a rise in glucose from 5.6 mM to 11.1 or 16.7 mM induced rapid membrane depolarization, followed by a slower and delayed increase of [Ca(2+)](i). GLP-1 (20 nM) did not affect membrane potential or [Ca(2+)](i). In contrast, acetylcholine (ACh, 100 microM) induced fast membrane depolarization immediately followed by a modest [Ca(2+)](i) increase. When extracellular Ca(2+) was buffered with EGTA, ACh mobilized intracellular calcium stores and the [Ca(2+)](i) increase was reduced by 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate but not by dantrolene, indicating the involvement of inositol triphosphate receptors (InsP(3)R). It is concluded that membrane depolarization of beta cells by glucose stimulation is not immediately followed by elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) and other metabolic events are involved in glucose induced stimulus-secretion coupling. It is also suggested that ACh mobilizes intracellular Ca(2+) through store operated InsP(3)R.
Article
Chronic diseases are the largest cause of death in the world. In 2002, the leading chronic diseases--cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease, and diabetes--caused 29 million deaths worldwide. Despite growing evidence of epidemiological and economic impact, the global response to the problem remains inadequate. Stakeholders include governments, the World Health Organization and other United Nations bodies, academic and research groups, nongovernmental organizations, and the private sector. Lack of financial support retards capacity development for prevention, treatment, and research in most developing countries. Reasons for this include that up-to-date evidence related to the nature of the burden of chronic diseases is not in the hands of decision makers and strong beliefs persist that chronic diseases afflict only the affluent and the elderly, that they arise solely from freely acquired risks, and that their control is ineffective and too expensive and should wait until infectious diseases are addressed. The influence of global economic factors on chronic disease risks impedes progress, as does the orientation of health systems toward acute care. We identify 3 policy levers to address these impediments elevating chronic diseases on the health agenda of key policymakers, providing them with better evidence about risk factor control, and persuading them of the need for health systems change. A more concerted, strategic, and multisectoral policy approach, underpinned by solid research, is essential to help reverse the negative trends in the global incidence of chronic disease.
Article
Adults with diabetes are thought to have a high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), irrespective of their age. The main aim of this study was to find out the age at which people with diabetes develop a high risk of CVD, as defined by: an event rate equivalent to a 10-year risk of 20% or more; or an event rate equivalent to that associated with previous myocardial infarction. We did a population-based retrospective cohort study using provincial health claims to identify all adults with (n=379,003) and (n=9,018,082) without diabetes mellitus living in Ontario, Canada, on April 1, 1994. Individuals were followed up to record CVD events until March 31, 2000. The transition to a high-risk category occurred at a younger age for men and women with diabetes than for those without diabetes (mean difference 14.6 years). For the outcome of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke, or death from any cause, diabetic men and women entered the high-risk category at ages 47.9 and 54.3 years respectively. When we used a broader definition of CVD that also included coronary or carotid revascularisation, the ages were 41.3 and 47.7 years for men and women with diabetes respectively. Diabetes confers an equivalent risk to ageing 15 years. However, in general, younger people with diabetes (age 40 or younger) do not seem to be at high risk of CVD. Age should be taken into account in targeting of risk reduction in people with diabetes.
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