Fresh Frozen Plasma Should be Given Earlier to Patients Requiring Massive Transfusion

University of Houston, Houston, Texas, United States
The Journal of trauma (Impact Factor: 2.96). 01/2007; 62(1):112-9. DOI: 10.1097/01.ta.0000250497.08101.8b
Source: PubMed


Acidosis, hypothermia, and coagulopathy were identified more than 20 years ago as a deadly triad for patients presenting with exsanguinating hemorrhage. This led to fundamental changes in initial management of severely injured patients. Despite major advances, hemorrhage remains a leading cause of early death in trauma patients. Recent studies report most severely injured patients to be coagulopathic at admission, before resuscitation interventions, and that traditional massive transfusion practice grossly underestimates needs. The hypothesis for this study is that our pre-intensive care unit (ICU) massive transfusion (MT) protocol does not adequately correct coagulopathy, and that early uncorrected coagulopathy is predictive of mortality.
Data maintained in our Trauma Research Database were reviewed. Univariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the association of early ICU international normalized ratio (INR) and outcomes, including survival.
Ninety-seven of 200 patients admitted during 51 months (ending January 2003) and resuscitated using our standardized ICU shock resuscitation protocol received MT (> or =10 units packed red blood cells [PRBC]) during hospital day 1 (age, 39 +/- 2; ISS, 29 +/- 1; survival, 70%.) All patients required emergency operating room and/or interventional radiology procedures and arrived in the ICU 6.8 +/- 0.3 hours after admission. Coagulopathy, present at hospital admission (pre-ICU INR, 1.8 +/- 0.2), persisted at ICU admission (initial ICU INR, 1.6 +/- 0.1). Pre-ICU resuscitation, 9 +/- 1 L crystalloid fluid, 12 +/- 1 units PRBC, 5 +/- 0.4 units fresh frozen plasma (FFP), was consistent with our MT protocol by which FFP was not given until after 6 units PRBC. ICU resuscitation involved 11 +/- 1 L lactated Ringer's solution (LR) and 10 +/- 1 units PRBC. Mean pH was normal within 8 hours. Mean temperature increased from approximately 35 degrees C to >37 degrees C within 4 hours. In the ICU during resuscitation, patients received 10 +/- 1 units FFP for coagulopathy; the ratio of FFP:PRBC was 1:1. Mean INR decreased to 1.4 +/- 0.03 within 8 hours and remained nearly constant for the remaining 16 hours of ICU resuscitation, indicating moderate coagulopathy. Statistical analysis found severity of coagulopathy (INR) at ICU admission associated with survival outcome (p = 0.02; area under receiver operator curve [ROC] = 0.71.)
These data indicate acidosis and hypothermia to be well managed. Coagulopathy was not corrected in the ICU despite adherence to pre-ICU MT and ICU protocols, likely because of inadequate pre-ICU intervention. More aggressive pre-ICU intervention to correct coagulopathy may be effective in decreasing PRBC requirement during ICU resuscitation, and, because of the association with increased mortality, could improve outcome. We have revised our pre-ICU MT protocol to emphasize early FFP in a FFP:PRBC ratio of 1:1. We think that treatment of coagulopathy can be improved with the development of standardized protocols, both empiric and data driven.

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Available from: Bruce A. McKinley, Mar 05, 2015
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    • "A reduction in the time to first plasma transfusion during DCR significantly reduces mortality [95]. However, fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and FP24 require up to 60–75 min preparation that significantly delays plasma availability [96]. In contrast, stored thawed plasma, which retains acceptable levels of all coagulation factors for up to 5 days [97] [98] [99] [100] can be transfused immediately. "
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    ABSTRACT: The early recognition and management of hemorrhage shock are among the most difficult tasks challenging the clinician during primary assessment of the acutely bleeding patient. Often with little time, within a chaotic setting, and without sufficient clinical data, a decision must be reached to begin transfusion of blood components in massive amounts. The practice of massive transfusion has advanced considerably and is now a more complete and, arguably, more effective process. This new therapeutic paradigm, referred to as damage control resuscitation (DCR), differs considerably in many important respects from previous management strategies for catastrophic blood loss. We review several important elements of DCR including immediate correction of specific coagulopathies induced by hemorrhage and management of several extreme homeostatic imbalances that may appear in the aftermath of resuscitation. We also emphasize that the foremost objective in managing exsanguinating hemorrhage is always expedient and definitive control of the source of bleeding. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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    • "Recently, there has been increasing evidence that early and intensive replacement of coagulation factors and platelets may improve outcome in patients with massive haemorrhage because of trauma (Borgman et al., 2007; Gonzalez et al., 2007; Teixeira et al., 2009). Although the optimal ratios of red blood cells to FFP to platelets have not yet been determined, transfusion of products in a balanced ratio as part of massive transfusion protocol have been developed in a number of trauma centres. "
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    ABSTRACT: A massive transfusion response (MTR) was introduced in 2007 to provide blood and blood products in a timelier manner. Aim of this study was to determine whether implementation of the MTR was associated with a change in clinical practice or mortality. All MTR activations from 2008 to 2011 were included in the study. Patients who had received a massive transfusion (MT ≥ 10 units RBC in 24 h) as part of the MTR (MT-MTR) were compared with a historical group of MT patients (MT-Pre-MTR) from 2004 to 2006. Blood product usage including fresh frozen plasma (FFP) : RBC and platelet : RBC ratios and mortality were compared between the two groups. Out of 169 MTR activations, 13 patients (8%) did not use any blood products, 73 (43%) used <10 units of RBC in a 24-h period and 83 received a MT. The median number of units of FFP and platelets transfused in the MT-MTR group were 10 [interquartile range (IQR) 7-17] vs 6 (5-10) [P < 0·001] and 3 (IQR 2-4) vs 2 (IQR 1-3) [P < 0·001] in the MT-Pre-MTR group of patients, respectively. The MT-MTR group received a higher 24-h FFP : RBC ratio (1 : 1·4 vs 1 : 2·4, P < 0·001). Overall mortality between the MT-MTR and MT-Pre-MTR groups (29% vs 23%, P = 0·43) and 90-day mortality was 25% vs 29% (P = 0·40), respectively. Although there has been a significant change in transfusion practice in MT patients using a MTR, no change in mortality could be documented using such a protocol.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Transfusion Medicine
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    • "This aggressive use of FFP may substantially increase the risks of adverse complications. One study attempting to correct the INR to 1.3 in the ICU documented a high rate of severe ARDS [48,49]. Isolated PT/INR levels are poor predictors of clinical bleeding in trauma patients, and thrombin generation is generally preserved or even increased after significant blood loss because of dysregulation, with loss of clotting factors balanced by loss of regulatory inhibitors [50]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Care of the polytrauma patient does not end in the operating room or resuscitation bay. The patient presenting to the intensive care unit following initial resuscitation and damage control surgery may be far from stable with ongoing hemorrhage, resuscitation needs, and injuries still requiring definitive repair. The intensive care physician must understand the respiratory, cardiovascular, metabolic, and immunologic consequences of trauma resuscitation and massive transfusion in order to evaluate and adjust the ongoing resuscitative needs of the patient and address potential complications. In this review, we address ongoing resuscitation in the intensive care unit along with potential complications in the trauma patient after initial resuscitation. Complications such as abdominal compartment syndrome, transfusion related patterns of acute lung injury and metabolic consequences subsequent to post-trauma resuscitation are presented. Methods A non-systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews up to May 2012. Results and conclusion Polytrauma patients with severe shock from hemorrhage and massive tissue injury present major challenges for management and resuscitation in the intensive care setting. Many of the current recommendations for “damage control resuscitation” including the use of fixed ratios in the treatment of trauma induced coagulopathy remain controversial. A lack of large, randomized, controlled trials leaves most recommendations at the level of consensus, expert opinion. Ongoing trials and improvements in monitoring and resuscitation technologies will further influence how we manage these complex and challenging patients.
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