Diakowski, W., Grzybek, M. & Sikorski, A.F. Protein 4.1, a component of the erythrocyte membrane skeleton and its related homologue proteins forming the protein 4.1/FERM superfamily. Folia Histochem. Cytobiol. 44, 231-248

Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Wrocław, Wrocław, Poland.
Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica (Impact Factor: 1.36). 02/2006; 44(4):231-48.
Source: PubMed


The review is focused on the domain structure and function of protein 4.1, one of the proteins belonging to the membrane skeleton. The protein 4.1 of the red blood cells (4.1R) is a multifunctional protein that localizes to the membrane skeleton and stabilizes erythrocyte shape and membrane mechanical properties, such as deformability and stability, via lateral interactions with spectrin, actin, glycophorin C and protein p55. Protein 4.1 binding is modulated through the action of kinases and/or calmodulin-Ca2+. Non-erythroid cells express the 4.1R homologues: 4.1G (general type), 4.1B (brain type), and 4.1N (neuron type), and the whole group belongs to the protein 4.1 superfamily, which is characterized by the presence of a highly conserved FERM domain at the N-terminus of the molecule. Proteins 4.1R, 4.1G, 4.1N and 4.1B are encoded by different genes. Most of the 4.1 superfamily proteins also contain an actin-binding domain. To date, more than 40 members have been identified. They can be divided into five groups: protein 4.1 molecules, ERM proteins, talin-related molecules, protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPH) proteins and NBL4 proteins. We have focused our attention on the main, well known representatives of 4.1 superfamily and tried to choose the proteins which are close to 4.1R or which have distinct functions. 4.1 family proteins are not just linkers between the plasma membrane and membrane skeleton; they also play an important role in various processes. Some, such as focal adhesion kinase (FAK), non-receptor tyrosine kinase that localizes to focal adhesions in adherent cells, play the role in cell adhesion. The other members control or take part in tumor suppression, regulation of cell cycle progression, inhibition of cell proliferation, downstream signaling of the glutamate receptors, and establishment of cell polarity; some are also involved in cell proliferation, cell motility, and/or cell-to-cell communication.

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Available from: Aleksander F. Sikorski
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    • "4.1R is involved in maintaining the biconcave shape, elasticity, and mechanical stability of human erythrocytes, and defects in 4.1R are one cause of hereditary erythrocyte elliptocytosis [15,16]. 4.1R is a member of a family of proteins that contain an N-terminal FERM domain, which regulates local cell shape by acting as a coordinator for protein-protein interactions [17]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Plasmodium falciparum parasites export more than 400 proteins into the cytosol of their host erythrocytes. These exported proteins catalyse the formation of knobs on the erythrocyte plasma membrane and an overall increase in erythrocyte rigidity, presumably by modulating the endogenous erythrocyte cytoskeleton. In uninfected erythrocytes, Band 4.1 (4.1R) plays a key role in regulating erythrocyte shape by interacting with multiple proteins through the three lobes of its cloverleaf-shaped N-terminal domain. In P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes, the C-lobe of 4.1R interacts with the P. falciparum protein mature parasite-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (MESA), but it is not currently known whether other P. falciparum proteins bind to other lobes of the 4.1R N-terminal domain. In order to identify novel 4.1R interacting proteins, a yeast two-hybrid screen was performed with a fragment of 4.1R containing both the N- and α-lobes. Positive interactions were confirmed and investigated using site-directed mutagenesis, and antibodies were raised against the interacting partner to characterise it’s expression and distribution in P. falciparum infected erythrocytes. Yeast two-hybrid screening identified a positive interaction between the 4.1R N- and α-lobes and PF3D7_0402000. PF3D7_0402000 is a member of a large family of exported proteins that share a domain of unknown function, the PHIST domain. Domain mapping and site-directed mutagenesis established that it is the PHIST domain of PF3D7_0402000 that interacts with 4.1R. Native PF3D7_0402000 is localized at the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM), and colocalizes with a subpopulation of 4.1R. The function of the majority of P. falciparum exported proteins, including most members of the PHIST family, is unknown, and in only a handful of cases has a direct interaction between P. falciparum-exported proteins and components of the erythrocyte cytoskeleton been established. The interaction between 4.1R and PF3D7_0402000, and localization of PF3D7_0402000 with a sub-population of 4.1R at the PVM could indicate a role in modulating PVM structure. Further investigation into the mechanisms for 4.1R recruitment is needed. PF3D7_0402000 was identified as a new binding partner for the major erythrocyte cytoskeletal protein, 4.1R. This interaction is consistent with a growing body of literature that suggests the PHIST family members function by interacting directly with erythrocyte proteins.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Malaria Journal
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    • "FRMD7 also has a central FERM-adjacent (FA) domain that is found in a subset of FERM domain proteins, and which has been found to regulate protein function through modifications such as phosphorylation (13). Many FERM domain proteins have been shown to bind directly to actin or to other components of the actin cytoskeleton, usually via their divergent non-FERM-domain regions and are thought to be involved in localized regulation of actin dynamics (reviewed in 14). "
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    ABSTRACT: Idiopathic infantile nystagmus (IIN) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder of eye movement that can be caused by mutations in the FRMD7 gene that encodes a FERM domain protein. FRMD7 is expressed in the brain and knock-down studies suggest it plays a role in neurite extension through modulation of the actin cytoskeleton, yet little is known about its precise molecular function and the effects of IIN mutations. Here, we studied four IIN-associated missense mutants and found them to have diverse effects on FRMD7 expression and cytoplasmic localization. The C271Y mutant accumulates in the nucleus, possibly due to disruption of a nuclear export sequence located downstream of the FERM-adjacent domain. While overexpression of wild-type FRMD7 promotes neurite outgrowth, mutants reduce this effect to differing degrees and the nuclear localizing C271Y mutant acts in a dominant-negative manner to inhibit neurite formation. To gain insight into FRMD7 molecular function, we used an IP-MS approach and identified the multi-domain plasma membrane scaffolding protein, CASK, as a FRMD7 interactor. Importantly, CASK promotes FRMD7 co-localization at the plasma membrane, where it enhances CASK-induced neurite length, whereas IIN-associated FRMD7 mutations impair all of these features. Mutations in CASK cause X-linked mental retardation. Patients with C-terminal CASK mutations also present with nystagmus and, strikingly, we show that these mutations specifically disrupt interaction with FRMD7. Together, our data strongly support a model whereby CASK recruits FRMD7 to the plasma membrane to promote neurite outgrowth during development of the oculomotor neural network and that defects in this interaction result in nystagmus.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Human Molecular Genetics
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    • "However, its theoretical molecular weight is ∼100 kDa. This discrepancy results from the unstructured state of the HP region [23] "
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    ABSTRACT: Membrane skeletal protein 4.1R is the prototypical member of a family of four highly paralogous proteins that include 4.1G, 4.1N, and 4.1B. Two isoforms of 4.1R (4.1R(135) and 4.1R(80)), as well as 4.1G, are expressed in erythroblasts during terminal differentiation, but only 4.1R(80) is present in mature erythrocytes. One goal in the field is to better understand the complex regulation of cell type and isoform-specific expression of 4.1 proteins. To start answering these questions, we are studying in depth the important functions of 4.1 proteins in the organization and function of the membrane skeleton in erythrocytes. We have previously reported that the binding profiles of 4.1R(80) and 4.1R(135) to membrane proteins and calmodulin are very different despite the similar structure of the membrane-binding domain of 4.1G and 4.1R(135). We have accumulated evidence for those differences being caused by the N-terminal 209 amino acids headpiece region (HP). Interestingly, the HP region is an unstructured domain. Here we present an overview of the differences and similarities between 4.1 isoforms and paralogs. We also discuss the biological significance of unstructured domains.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · International Journal of Cell Biology
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