Effect of high-intensity interval training and detraining on extra VO2 and on the VO2 slow component

Université d'Artois, Arras, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France
Arbeitsphysiologie (Impact Factor: 2.19). 05/2007; 99(6):633-40. DOI: 10.1007/s00421-006-0386-3
Source: PubMed


To examine the effect of 6-week of high-intensity interval training (HIT) and of 6-week of detraining on the VO2/Work Rate (WR) relationship and on the slow component of VO2, nine young male adults performed on cycle ergometer, before, after training and after detraining, an incremental exercise (IE), and a 6-min constant work rate exercise (CWRE) above the first ventilatory threshold (VT1). For each IE, the slope and the intercept of the VO2/WR relationship were calculated with linear regression using data before VT1. The difference between VO2max measured and VO2max expected using the pre-VT1 slope was calculated (extra VO2). The difference between VO2 at 6th min and VO2 at 3rd min during CWRE (DeltaVO2(6'-3')) was also determined. HIT induced significant improvement of most of the aerobic fitness parameters while most of these parameters returned to their pre-training level after detraining. Extra VO2 during IE was reduced after training (130 +/- 100 vs. -29 +/- 175 ml min(-1), P = 0.04) and was not altered after detraining compared to post-training. DeltaVO2(6'-3') during CWRE was unchanged by training and by detraining. We found a significant correlation (r2 = 0.575, P = 0.02) between extra VO2 and DeltaVO2(6'-3') before training. These results show that an alteration of extra VO2 can occur without any change in the VO2 slow component, suggesting a possible dissociation of the two phenomena. Moreover, the fact that extra VO2 did not change after detraining could indicate that this improvement may remain after the loss of other adaptations.

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    • "While studies using a two week six session HIT protocol did not see an increase in maximal oxygen uptake, protocols lasting four to eight weeks did find an increase in maximal oxygen uptake with HIT (Burgomaster et al, 2008; Harmer et al, 2000; Krustrup et al, 2004; MacDougall et al, 1998; McKenna et al, 1997). All of the studies mentioned above trained with cycling exercise but one study using running HIT found no change in maximal oxygen uptake over the course of six weeks of training (Marles et al, 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether high-intensity interval training (HIT) would increase respiratory muscle strength and expiratory flow rates more than endurance training (ET), 15 physically active, healthy subjects (untrained) were randomly assigned to an ET group (n = 7) or a HIT group (n = 8). All subjects performed an incremental test to exhaustion (VO2max) on a cycle ergometer before and after training. Standard pulmonary function tests, maximum inspiratory pressure (PImax), maximum expiratory pressure (PEmax), and maximal flow volume loops were performed pre training and after each week of training. HIT subjects performed a 4-week training program, 3 days a week, on a cycle ergometer at 90% of their VO2max final workload, while the ET subjects performed exercise at 60-70% VO2max. The HIT group performed five 1-min bouts with 3-min recovery periods and the ET group cycled for 45 min continuously. A five-mile time trial (TT) was performed prior to, after 2 weeks, and after completion of training. Both groups showed improvements (P < 0.05) in VO2max (~8-10%) and TT (HIT 6.5 ± 1.3%, ET 4.4 ± 1.8%) following training with no difference (P > 0.05) between groups. Both groups increased (P < 0.05) PImax post training (ET ~ 25%, HIT ~ 43%) with values significantly higher for HIT than ET. There was no change (P > 0.05) in expiratory flow rates with training in either group. These data suggest that both whole-body exercise training and HIT are effective in increasing inspiratory muscle strength with HIT offering a time-efficient alternative to ET in improving aerobic capacity and performance.
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    • "The athletes in our study were tested immediately after the off-season and the obtained values can indirectly reflect some degree of detraining (Marles et al., 2007; Caldwell et al., 2009). Limited aerobic capacity was also shown by Metaxas et al. (2009) in a comparative study of soccer and basketball athletes of distinct levels at the beginning of the pre-season. "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine possible differences in cardio respiratory functional capacity between perimeter and post elite basketball players. The subjects included 42 highly trained basketball players subdivided into groups of perimeter and post players. Point guards, shooting guards and small forwards were involved in the group of perimeter players, while power forwards and centers represented the group of post players. All players performed a standardized exercise test to evaluate maximal oxygen uptake using a cycle ergometer and automated breath-by-breath system VMAX229C. Collected data of power, heart rate, pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange were compared between the groups of perimeter and post players. Significant differences in anthropometric features between the investigated subgroups were observed. Post players were heavier and taller. Therefore, the perimeter players had significantly higher values of VO2max and relative power. VO2max was related to relative power. Relations between those variables can be described by linear regression. Given regressions can be used as a source of typical values for male basketball players. The results indicate that the empirical repartition of basketball players into perimeter and post players has not only a morphological but a physiological basis as well.
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    • "). The fact that [La -] peak remained unchanged following both TC and RT is consistent with that described by Marles et al. (2007), who found no changes in [La -] peak following 6-wk of RT in recently trained subjects. Other published results have showed that LDH activity increases following TC periods (Costill et al., 1985; Claude and Sharp, 1991; Neufer et al., 1987). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study analyzed changes in physiological parameters, hormonal markers and kayaking performance following 5-wk of reduced training (RT) or complete training cessation (TC). Fourteen top-level male kayakers were randomly assigned to either a TC (n = 7) or RT group (n = 7) at the end of their competitive season (T1). Subjects undertook blood sampling and an incremental test to exhaustion on a kayak ergometer at T1 and again following 5 weeks of RT or TC (T2). Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and oxygen uptake at second ventilatory threshold (VT2) significantly decreased following TC (-10.1% and -8.8%, respectively). Significant decreases were also observed in RT group but to a lesser extent (-4.8% and - 5.7% respectively). Heart rate at VT2 showed significant increases following TC (3.5%). However, no changes, were detected in heart rate at VO2max in any group. Peak blood lactate remained unchanged in both groups at T2. Paddling speed at VO2max declined significantly at T2 in the TC group (-3.3%), while paddling speed at VT2 declined significantly in both groups (-5.0% and -4.2% for TC and RT, respectively). Stroke rate at VO2max and at VT2 increased significantly only following TC by 5.2% and 4.9%, respectively. Paddling power at VO2max and at VT2 decreased significantly in both groups although the values observed following RT were higher than those observed following TC. A significant decline in cortisol levels (-30%) was observed in both groups, while a higher increase in testosterone to cortisol ratio was detected in the RT group. These results indicate that a RT strategy may be more effective than complete TC in order to avoid excessive declines in cardiovascular function and kayaking performance in top-level paddlers.
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