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Social anxiety spectrum and diminished positive experiences: Theoretical synthesis and meta-analysis

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Abstract

Until recently, there has been limited recognition that diminished positive psychological experiences are important to understanding the nature of social anxiety. Meta-analytic techniques were used to evaluate the strength, consistency, and construct specificity of relations between the social anxiety spectrum with positive affect and curiosity. The social anxiety spectrum had significant inverse relations with positive affect (r=-.36; 95% CI: -.31 to -.40) and curiosity (r=-.24; 95% CI: -.20 to -.28). Relations between social anxiety and positive affect were stronger in studies sampling from clinical populations. Specificity findings (e.g., statistically controlling for depressive symptoms and disorders) further confirmed negative associations with positive affect (r=-.21; 95% CI: -.16 to -.26) and curiosity (r=-.21; 95% CI: -.08 to -.32). The literature on social rank, self-presentation concerns, self-regulatory resources, and experiential avoidance is reviewed and integrated to elaborate a framework of how, why, and when social anxiety may be inversely related to positive experiences. The specificity of theory and data to social interaction anxiety is supported by an examination of existing work on social performance/observation fears and other anxiety conditions. Overall, these findings highlight the importance of diminished positive psychological experiences in understanding excessive social anxiety.

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... Research has shown that the characteristic emotional profile of social anxiety (SA) and its clinical counterpart, Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD), consists of more than just heightened fear and arousal within social contexts. Indeed, the emotional signature of SAD is also characterized by decreased trait PA (see Kashdan, 2007), suggesting that a prototypical characterization of SAD includes not only someone appearing highly distressed in anticipation of social interaction but also someone laughing less with their friends, smiling less with their partner, and feeling less connected to the world around them. ...
... A power analysis was conducted using G*Power software Version 3.1.9.3 based on effect sizes drawn from Kashdan's (2007) meta-analysis of the impact of SA on PA. In that meta-analysis, effect sizes reflecting the magnitude of the relationship between SA and PA were generally stronger for clinical samples than nonclinical samples, with a mean correlation of À.41 in the former and À.35 in the latter. ...
... f = .25), and 48 participants (n = 12 per cell) were required for larger effect sizes consistent with estimates for nonclinical populations reported in Kashdan's (2007) meta-analysis (r = .35, f = .37). ...
Article
Prior research has shown that Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is associated with significantly diminished positive affect (PA). Few studies have examined PA reactivity to pleasant experimental stimuli in individuals with SAD and whether emotional responses might be moderated by social context. Here, we investigated repeated measures of PA reactivity among individuals with SAD (n = 46) and healthy controls (HC; n = 39) in response to standardized neutral images, pleasant music, and social versus nonsocial guided imagery. Primary analyses revealed that SAD and HC participants did not differ in their PA reactivity when PA was conceptualized as a unitary construct. Exploratory analyses examining discrete subfacets of PA revealed potential deficits for SAD participants in relaxed and content PA, but not activated PA. Although participants with SAD reported relatively lower levels of relaxed and content PA overall compared with controls, they exhibited normal increases in all PA subfacets in response to pleasant music as well as pleasant social and nonsocial stimuli. These findings support a more nuanced conclusion about PA deficits in SAD than is described in the extant literature, suggesting that detecting PA deficits in SAD may depend upon how PA is conceptualized, evoked, and measured. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... Does social anxiety strengthen the association between genital self-image and distraction? Social anxiety, characterized by fear and avoidance of social situations in which an individual may be negatively evaluated (Kashdan, 2007), might also strengthen associations between genital self-image, distraction, and pleasure. While social anxiety and general anxiousness are similar constructs, they differ in focus. ...
... Socially anxious individuals are hypervigilant for negative evaluations (B€ ogels & Mansell, 2004), whereas generally anxious individuals are hypervigilant for threats across a wide range of situations. Social anxiety is associated with the typical symptoms of anxiety (i.e., negative affect, threat sensitivity, withdrawal tendencies; Kashdan, 2007); but unlike general anxiousness, social anxiety is associated with decreased sensitivity to reward cues. Because socially anxious women are less sensitive to reward cues, we theorize that, during sex, the sexual meanings attached to stimuli may not be strong enough to hold attentional focus, and in turn, this may impede sexual pleasure and arousal. ...
... Across several of our analyses, both confirmatory and exploratory, social interaction anxiety strengthened indirect effects of genital self-image via appearance-based distraction and embarrassment. Women who are anxious about social interactions may be especially susceptible to the impact of negative genital self-image because they are less sensitive to the rewards of positive social situations and are hypervigilant for threats (Kashdan, 2007). This threat sensitivity and undervaluing of positive experiences may interfere with attending to erotic cues and lead to beliefs that one's partner negatively perceives one's genitals, appearance, and sexual performance. ...
Article
Women with negative genital self-image are more likely to experience sexual dysfunction , but the processes underlying this association are unknown. We theorized that this association is mediated by distraction from the arousing sexual cues that foster pleasure and orgasm . In a sample of 1,619 women who had sex in the previous four weeks, women with negative genital self-image were more likely to be distracted by self-critical concerns (i.e., appearance- and performance-based distraction and embarrassment) during sex, and in turn, experienced less sexual pleasure and worse sexual function. Additionally, this indirect effect via appearance-based distraction was strongest among women with trait-level anxiousness and social anxiety. We found a similar pattern of results when investigating the indirect effect of genital self-image on sexual function. Implications for understanding sexual function and therapeutic approaches are discussed.
... More recently, however, it is also recognized that individuals with SAD have less positive emotional experiences compared to individuals with other anxiety disorders (Richey et al., 2019). There is also evidence of links between SAD and anhedonia, not explained by depression, indicating that motivation and reward functioning may be disrupted in SAD (Kashdan, 2007). ...
... We expected higher levels of general anxiety and depression would correspond with greater social anxiety severity. Additionally, in light of links between social anxiety and anhedonia (Kashdan, 2007), we hypothesized higher levels of anhedonia would be related to greater social anxiety severity. For comprehensiveness, we also evaluated melancholic symptoms, although we did not expect such symptoms would correspond to severity of SAD symptoms due to lack of evidence. ...
... As anticipated, higher levels of anhedonia, the reduction of the ability to feel pleasure, but not melancholy was related to social anxiety severity. Social anxiety is associated with diminished positive experiences, not explained by depression, which may be due to an amplified negative valence system and corresponding expenditure of regulatory resources to manage fear or a more general impairment in reward-related processes (Kashdan, 2007). Our results provide further support that anhedonia is a feature of SAD. ...
Article
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Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common heterogeneous disorder characterized by excessive fear and deficient positive experiences. Case-control emotion processing studies indicate that altered amygdala and striatum function may underlie SAD; however, links between these regions and symptomatology have yet to be established. Therefore, in the current study, 80 individuals diagnosed with SAD completed a validated emotion processing task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Anatomy-based regions of interest were amygdala, caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens. Neural activity in response to angry>happy faces and fearful>happy faces in these regions were submitted to multiple linear regression analysis with bootstrapping. Additionally, multiple linear regression analysis was performed to explore clinical features of SAD. Results showed greater putamen activity and less amygdala activity in response to angry>happy faces were related to greater social anxiety severity. In the model consisting of caudate and amygdala activity in response to angry>happy faces, results were marginally related to social anxiety severity and the pattern of activity was similar to the regression model comprising putamen and amygdala. Nucleus accumbens activity was not related to social anxiety severity. There was no correspondence between brain activity in response to fearful>happy faces and social anxiety severity. Clinical variables revealed greater levels of anhedonia and general anxiety were related to social anxiety severity, however, neural activity was not related to these features of SAD. Neuroimaging findings suggest that variance in dorsal striatal and amygdala activity in response to certain social signals of threat contrasted with an approach/rewarding social signal may contribute to individual differences in SAD. Clinical findings indicate variance in anhedonia and general anxiety symptoms may contribute to individual differences in social anxiety severity.
... Despite these advances, the majority of research on emotion preferences has focused on the function of emotion preferences in depression and research has yet to expand emotion preference models to other clinical phenomena, in particular to the study of emotion in anxiety. Anxiety, too, is characterized by elevated levels of negative affect and reduced levels of positive affect (Watson et al., 1988;Brown, 2007;Kashdan, 2007). Therefore, the primary aim of the current study is to examine the relation between emotion and emotion preferences to better understand emotion dysfunction in anxiety. ...
... As such, an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) framework was utilized to investigate the dynamics of emotions and emotion preferences over time in real-world settings. In light of prior research showing that anxiety is associated with dysfunction across multiple emotion categories (Brown, 2007;Kashdan, 2007), a broad approach towards the measurement of emotional experiences was used in the current study. Separate models were run to assess the role of emotion preferences in understanding anger, fear, sadness, and happiness as they relate to individual differences in trait anxiety and anxiety symptom severity. ...
... The current data demonstrate that only anxiety preferences explain unique variance in trait anxiety and anxiety symptom severity when considering all emotion preferences simultaneously. Although anxiety is characterized by broad emotion dysfunction (Brown, 2007;Kashdan, 2007), this unique relation may reflect the notion that state anxiety is the predominant emotional experience for people high with high trait anxiety or anxiety symptom severity; thus, those individuals may have stronger thoughts, attitudes, and feelings about that emotional state. Regardless of the underlying reason, the present results suggest that emotion preferences may play an important role in helping to understand the elevated levels of state anxiety, in particular, among individuals with greater trait anxiety or more severe anxiety symptoms. ...
Article
Full-text available
People vary in their emotion preferences (i.e., desired emotional states). No study, however, has examined the nature of emotion preferences in anxiety. The current study utilized a 14-day ecological momentary assessment (EMA) paradigm to investigate the daily dynamics of emotion preferences and state emotion as they relate to individual differences in trait anxiety and anxiety symptom severity. Individuals with higher levels of trait anxiety and with more severe anxiety symptoms report greater preferences for state anxiety compared to their low anxiety counterparts. Relations between anxiety preferences and subsequent anxiety vary as a function of trait anxiety and symptom severity, and different associations are observed between the two measures of anxiety. The current findings suggest that aberrant emotion preferences may contribute to emotion dysfunction in anxiety, and highlight emotion preferences as a novel treatment target for interventions that aim to improve emotion functioning among people with elevated levels of anxiety.
... Social anxiety is one exception; blunted PA may be uniquely associated with social anxiety during adolescence, aligning with adult literature (Kashdan, 2007). Studies that group all anxiety disorders together may mask specific associations between PA and social anxiety. ...
... The second most consistent finding was associations between SAD and low subjective PA, aligning with research in adults (Kashdan, 2007) and prior theory (e.g., Richey et al., 2019;Silk, Davis, McMakin, Dahl, & Forbes, 2012). Low PA may be a consequence of avoiding positive experiences in adolescents with SAD because of fear of embarrassment, or even fear of positive evaluation (Karp et al., 2018;Lipton, Augenstein, Weeks, & De Los Reyes, 2014), contributing to lower feelings of happiness. ...
... Future research should more closely consider how symptoms of anxiety and depression work independently and together in relation to PVS disruption. However, Kashdan et al. (2007) noted that controlling for depressive symptoms to try to "tease apart" social anxiety and depression may remove an important component of the social anxiety construct. For example, negative beliefs about the self are characteristic of both social anxiety and depressive disorders. ...
Article
Research on pathophysiological mechanisms supporting anxiety development in youth has traditionally focused on the role of threat systems. However, emerging research suggests that the positive valence system (PVS) may also play a strong and unique role in the development and maintenance of anxiety during childhood and adolescence. To better understand the connection between the PVS and anxiety, this scoping review describes current research spanning multiple units of analysis (i.e., self-report, behavior, neural circuits) linking child and adolescent anxiety and risk for anxiety to various PVS constructs (i.e., positive affect, reward responsiveness, reward learning and decision-making). After screening, 78 peer-reviewed articles and dissertations published between 1998 and May 2021 were included in a qualitative review. Though some consistencies in the literature were found, such as high neural reactivity to incentive anticipation in youth at temperamental risk for social anxiety and blunted positive affect in youth with social anxiety disorder, the literature is largely inconsistent. Inconsistencies could be related to the small number of similar studies, small and homogenous study samples, and variability in methodologies employed in this research. It cannot be confirmed whether findings linking PVS constructs to anxiety are unique to anxiety symptoms or better accounted for by co-occurring depressive symptoms. This review concludes with recommendations for robust future research in this area.
... The prior work outlined above has identified the potential influence of low PA in the path to inflammation and offers a theoretical framework for understanding the social anxiety-inflammation interface, as it is increasingly accepted that SAD comprises a significant PA deficit (Brown et al., 1998;Kashdan, 2007; for review see Richey et al., 2019). Deficiencies in PA associated specifically with social anxiety are manifested in a variety of ways. ...
... For example, on a daily basis, individuals with symptoms of social anxiety report fewer positive emotions and positive events, report less time feeling happy and relaxed, and report less intense positive emotional experiences (Kashdan and Collins, 2010;Kashdan and Steger, 2006). As attenuated PA in social anxiety cannot be explained by depressive symptoms (Kashdan, 2007) and is not characteristic of other anxiety disorders (Brown et al., 1998), blunted PA stands as a distinguishing feature of SAD. Therefore, given the correspondence between social anxiety diminished PA, it follows that elevated levels of circulating cytokines would be found among individuals endorsing high social anxiety symptomatology and low PA. ...
... Second, we sought to test the hypothesis that the association between childhood maltreatment and IL-6 may be mediated by social anxiety and features of anhedonia, particularly low PA. We specifically hypothesized that low PA, which has been established through prior work as a significant predictor of inflammation (e.g., Ong, et al., 2018;Stellar et al., 2015), as well as a specific consequence of social anxiety symptoms (Kashdan, 2007;Richey et al., 2019), would therefore mediate the direct effect of social anxiety on IL-6. We further anticipated that childhood maltreatment, which is among the most robust predictors of both social anxiety symptomatology (Kuo et al., 2011;Simon et al., 2009) and chronic inflammation in adulthood (Baumeister et al., 2016), would influence IL-6 levels albeit indirectly via social anxiety and low PA. ...
Article
Full-text available
Prior work has established a robust association between childhood maltreatment and systemic inflammatory activation later in life; however, the mechanisms involved in this process remain incompletely understood. The purpose of this investigation was to examine potential mechanistic roles for social anxiety (SA) symptoms and low positive affect (PA) in the path from childhood maltreatment to elevations in circulating interleukin (IL)-6, a common biomarker of inflammatory activation. In addition, building on prior work establishing linkages between mindful awareness and reductions in systemic inflammation, we examined the potential role of trait mindfulness as a moderator of the relationships among childhood maltreatment, SA, low PA, and IL-6. A serial mediation model utilizing a large epidemiologic dataset (final N = 527) supported our central hypothesis that the direct effect of childhood maltreatment on IL-6 was fully serially statistically mediated by SA symptoms and low PA (but not high negative affect). Additionally, results indicated that individuals falling in the upper versus lower quartiles of SA symptoms demonstrated significantly elevated concentrations of IL-6, a finding that has not been previously reported. Trait mindfulness moderated the association between low PA and IL-6, to the exclusion of any paths related to negative affect. Additionally, results indicated that the effect of child maltreatment on IL-6 bypasses SA to indirectly impact IL-6 via negative affect. Overall, we conclude that childhood maltreatment and SA symptoms have a significant influence on IL-6, albeit indirectly via low PA, and the influence of PA on IL-6 may be uniquely susceptible to influence by individual differences in mindfulness.
... Thus, the adults across the German states consistently indicated their negative experiences but interindividual differences existed between the German states in what is appraised as positive experiences. This finding is in-line with research carried out prior to the pandemic, in which people differed more in their positive experiences (e.g., positive affect, Kashdan, 2007) than in their negative experiences (e.g., social anxiety; Kashdan, 2007). ...
... Thus, the adults across the German states consistently indicated their negative experiences but interindividual differences existed between the German states in what is appraised as positive experiences. This finding is in-line with research carried out prior to the pandemic, in which people differed more in their positive experiences (e.g., positive affect, Kashdan, 2007) than in their negative experiences (e.g., social anxiety; Kashdan, 2007). ...
Article
Research on people's experiences during the Covid-19-pandemic provides growing evidence on subjective well-being and distress under pandemic conditions, however mainly at a country, not state level. The relationship between positive and negative experiences is described in Diener's conceptualization of subjective well-being. We assumed that people who experience well-being and positive affect through connectedness with nature, and social support during the pandemic feel relatively less alone, distressed, depressed, self-focused, and thoughtless. We further assumed changes in these constructs during the pandemic. The aim of this research was to examine the concurrent relationships between these positive and negative experiences of German adults simultaneously as well as their changes over 3 weeks in 2020. Owing to German federalism, we expected these changes to differ between German states. A sample of 1,038 adults responded to an online questionnaire twice (April and May 2020). A structural equation model including 16 factors and 12 covariates yielded the expected negative relationships and different mild change effects between the German states. For example, adults' connectedness with nature increased while loneliness and distress decreased in Saxony, whereas thoughtlessness increased in Bavaria. The results imply a new finding that different changes in adults' positive and negative experiences during the pandemic exist.
... It seems to be directly associated with both cognitive and behavioral learning outcomes (see Keefer et al. [27] for an overview) and positive affect [28], as well as with positive emotional outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic [29]. Epistemic curiosity, i.e., a drive to know, is reportedly related positively with effective learning [30][31][32], and negatively with anxiety and depression [33,34] in nonpandemic contexts, while also being related to better mental health under COVID-19 [35]. Creativity is defined in this setting as a disposition to think of new and effective ways to do things [16]. ...
... Based on previous literature related to non-pandemic and pandemic contexts, for the data collected in T1 we expected psychological distress to be associated positively with intolerance of uncertainty [43,45], and negatively with both general [4,5,25,28,33,34,37] and study-related intraindividual factors [49,[51][52][53][54]. As suggested by previous findings regarding the current pandemic situation, we also expected higher levels of distress in female students compared to males [13,70]. ...
Article
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Little is known about the intraindividual dispositional factors related to cognitive, behavioral, and emotional academic learning outcomes under COVID-19. This study investigated (i) the associations of intraindividual factors, some related to studying (motivation to learn, self-regulated learning, and study resilience), others more general (soft skills, intolerance of uncertainty) with three situational academic learning outcomes (general distress, online self-regulated learning, study-related emotions), and (ii) the effect of time, intraindividual factors, online self-regulated learning, and study-related emotions on distress and achievement over the following three exam sessions. A total of 331 university students took part in the study during the first Italian nationwide lockdown (T1; March–May 2020). Of those, 121 also completed at least one follow-up (T2: August 2020; T3: September 2020; T4: February 2021). At T1, study-related dispositions and soft skills were positively associated with online self-regulated learning and study-related emotions, while study-related dispositions were also negatively associated with general distress. Intolerance of uncertainty was associated positively with general distress and negatively with study-related emotions. Longitudinal effects of T2 and T3 for intolerance of uncertainty and study-related emotions were observed for distress, while those for T4 were study-related dispositions for achievement. Nurturing intraindividual factors can help students cope with a prolonged stressful situation such as a pandemic.
... Positive and negative affect are not on opposite ends of the same continuum and are best studied as separate (often inversely correlated) constructs (e.g., Tellegen et al., 1999;Watson & Tellegen, 1985). Positive affect is particularly important to distinguish from negative affect in research on social anxiety, as people with SAD display chronic and pervasive positivity deficits (Kashdan, 2007;Richey et al., 2019). Third, we included state measures of social anxiety. ...
... In this way, the current studies offer an empirical test of one mechanism of cognitive (Moscovitch, 2009) and evolutionary (Trower & Gilbert, 1989) theories that suggest self-perceptions underlie social anxiety. Second, unfavorable social comparisons may perpetuate low positive emotionality, a characteristic feature of SAD (Brown et al., 1998;Watson et al., 1988) even after controlling for depression (Kashdan, 2007;Kashdan et al., 2013). Positive emotions are critical for social bonding and connectedness (Ramsey & Gentzler, 2015), and deficits may perpetuate relationship difficulties for people with elevated social anxiety (Kashdan & Roberts, 2004;Taylor et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Judgments about the self compared to internalized standards are central to theoretical frameworks of social anxiety. Yet, empirical research on social comparisons-how people view themselves relative to others-and social anxiety is sparse. This research program examines the nature of everyday social comparisons in the context of social anxiety across 2 experience-sampling studies containing 8,396 unique entries from 273 adults. Hypotheses and analyses were preregistered with the Open Science Foundation (OSF) prior to data analysis. Study 1 was a 3-week daily diary study with undergraduates, and Study 2 was a 2-week ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study with a clinical sample of adults diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (SAD) and a psychologically healthy comparison group. In both studies, social anxiety was associated with less favorable, more unstable social comparisons. In both studies, favorable social comparisons were associated with higher positive affect and lower negative affect and social anxiety. In both studies, social comparisons and momentary affect/social anxiety were more strongly linked in people with elevated trait social anxiety/SAD compared to less socially anxious participants. Participants in Study 2-even those with SAD-made more favorable social comparisons when they were with other people than when alone. Taken together, results suggest that social anxiety is associated with unfavorable, unstable self-views that are linked to compromised well-being. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Anxiety can be considered a form of negative affect , so positive correlations between anxiety and negative affect are expected. On the other hand, anxiety is commonly negatively correlated with positive affect (Kashdan, 2007). ...
... Besides anxious coping, perfectionism, and separation anxiety, all the other anxiety dimensions correlated negatively and significantly with positive affect, thus partially confirming our hypothesis. This correlation is prevalent in published literature (Kashdan, 2007). ...
Article
The higher prevalence of anxiety and depression disorders in children and adolescents and the persistence of these disorders in adulthood show how important it is to investigate these concepts. Simultaneously, if we better understand the antecedents of, for example, anxiety, it will be more advantageous to define and implement some programs specifically for those ages. Like in adults, some investigations propose to study the effect of anxiety on optimism on samples of children or adolescents. In this study, we analyze the relations between anxiety, optimism, and affect in a sample of 155 students (mean age = 12 years). We took a particular interest in investigating the direction of influence between anxiety and optimism. The results showed a positive association between positive affect and anxious coping, and predictive power of these variables in explaining optimism, which seems to result from a contribution equivalent to that described on the two-factor structure of affectivity.
... A body of evidence contradicts earlier models that linked positive affect almost exclusively to depression relative to anxiety (e.g., Brown, Chorpita, & Barlow, 1998;Clark & Watson, 1991). For example, significant portions of factorial variance in symptoms of anxiety as well as depression are explained by positive affect (Kashdan, 2007;Prenoveau et al., 2010). Effect sizes for cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between positive affect and anxiety are significant and indistinguishable from corresponding effect sizes for positive affect and depression (Khazanov & Ruscio, 2016;Kotov, Gamez, Schmidt, & Watson, 2010). ...
... As our primary outcome measure, the PANAS-P directly measures expressed levels of positive affect, and specifically overt symptoms of low levels of enthusiasm, interest, determination, excitement, inspiration, alertness, activity, strength, pride, and attentiveness. Furthermore, the PANAS-P captures the low levels of positive affect that have been linked with both depression and anxiety in prior studies (Brown et al., 1998;Kashdan, 2007;Khazanov & Ruscio, 2016;Kotov et al., 2010;Prenoveau et al., 2010). 2 Suicidal ideation (BDI-Item I, Beck, Ward, Mendelson, Mock, & Erbaugh, 1961). Suicidal ideation was assessed at each assessment using the Beck Depression Inventory-Item I (0 ϭ I don't have any thoughts of killing myself; 1 ϭ I have thoughts of killing myself, but would not carry them out; 2 ϭ I would like to kill myself; 3 ϭ I would kill myself if I had the chance). ...
... Specifically, internalizing symptoms are strongly characterized by general distress and elevated negative affect (NA; e.g., Kotov et al., 2017;Mineka et al., 1998). Relevant to well-being, anhedonia (or low positive affect; PA) was initially thought to be relatively particular to depression (Clark & Watson, 1991), but recent studies have shown that it has broader relevance to internalizing disorders, such as social anxiety and generalized anxiety (Craske et al., 2019;Heller et al., 2021;Kashdan, 2007;Prenoveau et al., 2010). Craske et al. (2019) found that fostering positive affect in both depressed and anxious individuals led to a greater reduction in internalizing symptoms than traditional modalities that target the reduction of NA. ...
Article
Assessment of internalizing symptoms has generally relied on cross-sectional and retrospective self-reports, but ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is increasingly used to capture quick fluctuations in symptoms, enhance ecological validity, and improve recall accuracy. However, there are very few measures of internalizing symptoms that have been validated for use in EMA designs. In Study 1, we chose candidate items for EMA short forms of the Dysphoria and Well-Being scales from the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (IDAS), based on principal factor analyses and internal consistency analyses conducted on aggregated cross-sectional datasets (total N = 8,876). In Study 2, we tested the items using an EMA design in a sample of college students (N = 279) oversampled for elevated neuroticism. Scale structure, reliability, and convergent and discriminant validity (regarding baseline IDAS scales, baseline affect, and EMA affect) were evaluated at the within- and between-person levels using multilevel structural equation modeling. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in separate subsamples revealed the expected two-factor structure, yielding a four-item Well-Being scale and a five-item Dysphoria scale. Both scales showed acceptable to good internal consistency, strong convergent validity, and generally adequate discriminant validity. However, some associations of the new scales with EMA affect (i.e., Dysphoria with negative affect; Well-Being with positive affect) were very strong at the between-person level, such that they were not empirically distinct. Overall, this study provides an initial validation of brief EMA-IDAS Dysphoria and Well-Being scales that can be used in research or clinical settings, with particular utility for capturing within-person, dynamic effects. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... Sosyal kaygının en fazla yaşandığı dönem, ergenlik dönemi olduğu belirlenmiştir (Dursun, 2019). Yapılan araştırmalar sonucunda sosyal kaygının görülmeye başlandığı yaş ortalaması onlu yaşların ortaları olarak saptanmıştır (Kashadan, 2007). Ayrıca Patterson ve Ritts (1997)'in meta-analiz araştırmasında cinsiyetin sosyal kaygı görülmesiyle ilgili farklılaştırıcı rolünün olmadığı bulunmuştur (Sübaşı, 2007). ...
... 12 Comprehensive review studies on the subject indicate that social anxiety cause abnormal processing of social threats related information. 13,14 It is reported that socially anxious individuals exhibit biases against negative social stimuli (eg, angry faces) but they fail to display normal biases toward positive social stimuli. 15 It has been shown that the individuals in normal control group did not display any biases while the socially anxious individuals processed social threats related information primarily. ...
Article
The aim of our study was to determine deficits in cognitive areas, including social cognition such as emotion recognition capacity, theory of mind, and electrophysiological alterations in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) and to identify their effects on clinical severity of SAD. Enrolled in our study were 26 patients diagnosed with SAD and 26 healthy volunteers. They were administered the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), Reading Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET), and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. EEG monitoring was performed for electrophsiologic investigation. In the patient group, total reading the mind scores were lower (P = .027) while P300 latencies and emotion recognition latency during the Emotion Recognition Task (ERT) were longer (P = .038 and P = .012, respectively). The false alarm scores in the Rapid Visual Information Processing Task (RVP) were higher in the patient group (P = .038). In a model created using multivariate linear regression analysis, an effect of ERT and RVP scores on LSAS scores was found. Results of our study confirm that particularly impairment of cognitive functions such as sustained attention and emotion recognition may seriously affect the clinical presentation negatively. P300 latency in the parietal region may has the potential to be a biological marker that can be used in monitoring treatment.
... Sosyal kaygı; toplumsal davranışların çevre tarafından gözlendiğine, incelendiğine ve değerlendirildiğine yönelik otaya çıkan bir korkudur (Kashdan (2007). Birey bu dönemde; başkalarının onu izlediğini, bu yüzden eksik yönlerinin ortaya çıkacağını ve hata yaparsa rezil olarak dışlanacağını sıkça düşünebilir. ...
... Anhedonia, the diminished capacity to experience joy or pleasure, is a common symptom across psychiatric diagnoses including depression (Fawcett et al., 1990;Morris et al., 2009), social anxiety (Brown et al., 1998;Kashdan, 2007), schizophrenia (Watson and Naragon-Gainey, 2010), and substance use disorder (American Psychiatric Association, 2013; Thomsen et al., 2015). Moreover, anhedonia decreases treatment response and increases risk for suicide, and standard antidepressant medication treatments may even worsen anhedonic symptoms (Fawcett et al., 1990;Morris et al., 2009;McCabe et al., 2010). ...
Article
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Anhedonia is a risk factor for suicide and poor treatment response in depressed individuals. Most evidence-based psychological therapies target symptoms of heightened negative affect (e.g., negative inferential style) instead of deficits in positive affect (e.g., attenuated reward response) and typically show little benefit for anhedonia. Viewing positive scenes through virtual reality (VR) has been shown to increase positive affect and holds great promise for addressing anhedonic symptoms. In this pilot study, six participants with clinically significant depression completed 13 sessions of exposure to positive scenes in a controlled VR environment. Significant decreases were found in self-reported anhedonia, depression, anxiety, and impairments in functioning from baseline to 1-month follow-up. Negative affect decreased over all 13 sessions, and positive affect increased over sessions 8–13. Results suggest that positive experiences in VR may be a novel avenue for the treatment of anhedonia in depressed individuals.
... RDoC constructs of particular relevance to mood and anxiety disorders are the positive and negative valence systems (12). Low positive affect is linked to depression and some anxiety disorders, high negative affect is common to both anxiety and depression, and comorbid anxiety and depression are associated with more negative affect than either disorder alone (7,(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20). In addition, psychophysiological and neurobiological data indicate that the positive and negative valence systems are closely tied to reward and threat sensitivity, respectively (21), making them amenable to investigation through reinforcement-based behavioral paradigms. ...
Article
Background The heterogeneous nature of mood and anxiety disorders highlights a need for dimensionally based descriptions of psychopathology that inform better classification and treatment approaches. Following the Research Domain Criteria approach, this investigation sought to derive constructs assessing positive and negative valence domains across multiple units of analysis. Methods Adults with clinically impairing mood and anxiety symptoms (N = 225) completed comprehensive assessments across several units of analysis. Self-report assessments included nine questionnaires that assess mood and anxiety symptoms and traits reflecting the negative and positive valence systems. Behavioral assessments included emotional reactivity and distress tolerance tasks, during which skin conductance and heart rate were measured. Neuroimaging assessments included fear conditioning and a reward processing task. The latent variable structure underlying these measures was explored using sparse Bayesian group factor analysis. Results Group factor analysis identified 11 latent variables explaining 31.2% of the variance across tasks, none of which loaded across units of analysis or tasks. Instead, variance was best explained by individual latent variables for each unit of analysis within each task. Post hoc analyses 1) showed associations with small effect sizes between latent variables that were derived separately from functional magnetic resonance imaging and self-report data and 2) showed that some latent variables are not directly related to individual valence system constructs. Conclusions The lack of latent structure across units of analysis highlights challenges of the Research Domain Criteria approach and suggests that while dimensional analyses work well to reveal within-task features, more targeted approaches are needed to reveal latent cross-modal relationships that could illuminate psychopathology.
... Anxiety is accompanied by anhedonia (a reduced ability to feel pleasures) (28)(29)(30)(31)(32)(33), and perhaps the pleasures capable of reducing anxiety must be particularly intense in order to overcome the high threshold for pleasures that characterizes anhedonia. The presence of anhedonia in anxiety could depend Dynorphin as a possible cause of anxiety In addition to anhedonia, dynorphin can also cause anxiety. ...
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Various pleasant sensations that give a particularly intense pleasure are able to improve anxiety. In the present study I consider the possibility that their anti-anxiety action depends on the strong pleasure they provide, and I propose a possible mechanism of this action. According to some studies, also appetitive aggression (an aggression that provokes a strong pleasure and that is performed only for the pleasure it provides) can improve anxiety, and in this article I consider the possibility that the pleasure of appetitive aggression is able to reduce anxiety by the same mechanism I have proposed for other intense pleasurable sensations. The aggression performed by a child against the mother or against a substitute for the mother in the first period of life (a period in which this aggression is not dangerous) is a recurring theme throughout the work of of Donald Winnicott. Winnicott stresses that this aggression is necessary for the normal development of the child, and that the child must be free to practise it. According to Winnicott, this aggression is highly pleasurable and is not a response to unpleasant or hostile external situations. For these characteristics it seems to correspond to appetitive aggression in the adult that has been found to be able to reduce anxiety. Consequently, aggression performed by the child in the first period of life may also relieve anxiety, in the same way that appetitive aggression helps against anxiety in the adult. In his writings, Winnicott returns several times to an unthinkable or archaic anxiety that children experience when they feel abandoned by their mother for a period that is too long for them, and all children, according to Winnicott, live on the brink of this anxiety. In this study I propose the hypothesis that aggression in the early period of life may be necessary for children because the intense pleasure it provides may help them against this continuously impending anxiety.
... A heightened level of social anxiety is accompanied by distortions in information processing, including attention, memory, and response biases (Gu et al., 2020). These biases are reflected in the increased weight of negative information, which means that individuals with high levels of social anxiety are hypervigilant regarding negative social stimuli (Harrewijn et al., 2017) and view social situations in an excessively negative fashion (Kashdan, 2007). Therefore, they face difficulties in processing social feedback and expectations appropriately (Cao et al., 2015) out of fear of receiving negative social feedback (Van der Molen et al., 2014). ...
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We conducted an intertemporal online experiment to examine the contagion of others’ positive and negative donation behaviors. We collected two sets of data during and after the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic in China. The participants donated to the charitable fund, “Against COVID-19, The China Charity Federation Is on the Move.” We further investigated the mediating effect of social anxiety on the link between the contagion of donation behaviors and the changes in the COVID-19 situation. A total of 1022 participants (Mage = 22.68, 63.01% females) participated in the intertemporal online experiment and were considered in the statistical analyses. Our findings were as follows. First, the donation behaviors of others significantly changed these participants’ initial donation decisions, with increased or decreased donation amounts being associated with a positive or negative donation behavior, respectively. Others’ positive donation behavior was more likely to nudge these participants into changing their initial decisions (31.82%, Mean = 15.177, SD = 1.586) than negative donation behavior (18.28%, Mean = 12.122, SD = 1.908) during the peak of the pandemic. However, such difference disappeared after the peak because the contagion of positive donation behavior significantly decreased along with the abatement of the pandemic. Second, the participants’ social anxiety decreased along with the abatement of the pandemic, and social anxiety completely mediated the relationship between the pandemic abatement and the decrease in the contagion of positive donation behaviors. These findings advance our understanding of the motivations and influence mechanism of individuals’ donation decisions in the current pandemic situation and help make informed policy making decisions.
... Another possibility is that consumers do not believe that they should be rated at all by firms ("rating-system-aversion hypothesis"). After all, prior research suggests that people have an inherent aversion toward being evaluated or judged, as the experience can provoke negative consequences, such as negative affect (Kashdan, 2007), the burden of accountability (Lerner & Tetlock, 1999), and expectations to conform (Cialdini & Goldstein, 2004). Furthermore, people are less likely to accept performance appraisal systems if they do not perceive them to serve a legitimate function (e.g., Giles & Mossholder, 1990). ...
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In efforts to keep ill-behaving consumers in check, managers are increasingly implementing the practice of rating consumers. We develop and test an account of when and why the practice of rating consumers backfires. Study 1 shows that consumers are more likely to misbehave toward service providers after receiving a low rating (versus those who receive a high rating or those who are merely aware that they are being rated). These findings are robust to consumer inexperience. The negative impact of low ratings on subsequent behavior is especially likely to emerge when directed toward consumers (versus service providers; Study 2). Study 3 situates our findings in a real-world context through a survey of Uber customers. Taken together, we offer insight into how firms can realize the benefits of the practice of rating consumers while mitigating its risks.
... These findings facilitate us in better understanding the previously established negative relationship between social anxiety and positive affect (Kashdan, 2007). The discoveries suggest that people who are socially anxious are not really necessarily less optimistic than others, but they do have a particular incapacity in a space of positive affect, namely their sense of pride. ...
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The prevalence of 'Generalized Anxiety Disorder' among adults in Selangor, Malaysia is fewer. However, there are no specific data shown in Malaysia on 'Social Anxiety Disorder' among adolescents. Social anxiety is a critical factor in understanding social dysfunction, especially among adolescents in a group sample, as well as its interaction with capacitances in their emotional functioning. The overall aim of this research is to study social anxiety with respect to determining how social anxiety affects their emotions. It commences with a literature review, followed by the methodology, results, discussion, and conclusion. Methodology: In the current study, the researchers adapted the quantitative research technique. The purposive sampling method was used to obtain data from 200 youngsters within the age limit of 18 to 25 years old. A survey method is used to collect the data through the online platform. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used in analyzing the data obtained from the respondents. Result and Discussion: The results revealed that there is a significant effect between social anxiety and emotion. Moreover, the study also found there is a difference in emotion-based on gender among teenagers. While there was no difference in social anxiety based on gender among the teenagers. Conclusion and Recommendation: However, the results of this study have been helpful in illustrating to teenagers the precise effect of social anxiety on their emotions, and they can strive toward restructuring the social environment to reduce the social strains and conflicts that are placed on adolescents. The purposive sampling method was used to obtain data from 200 youngsters within the age limit of 18 to 25 years old. A survey method is used to collect the data through the online platform. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used in analysing the data obtained from the respondents. The results revealed that there is a significant effect between social anxiety and emotion. Moreover, the study also found there is a difference in emotion-based on gender among teenagers. While there was no difference in social anxiety based on gender among teenagers. However, the results of this study have been helpful in illustrating to teenagers the precise effect of social anxiety on their emotions, and they can strive toward re-structuring the social environment to reduce the social strains and conflicts that are placed on adolescents.
... Specifically, social anxiety (SA) appears to be the only type of anxiety to show strong, negative relationships with self-reported trait (Brown, Chorpita, & Barlow, 1998;Chorpita, Plummer, & Moffitt, 2000;Kashdan, 2004Kashdan, , 2007Watson, Clark, & Carey, 1988) and moment-tomoment PA (Kashdan & Collins, 2010) that comorbid depressive symptoms do not account for. ...
Article
People differ in their self-reported propensities to experience positive affect (PA). Even those prone to internalizing symptoms show varied proclivities to PA; social anxiety (SA), for instance, unlike other types of anxiety, shows a strong negative association with PA that cannot be explained by diminished reward sensitivity. Heightened reliance on suppression of emotional displays (expressive suppression; ES) may be an alternate contributor to attenuated PA among people with elevated SA, relative to people with other types of anxiety. A first step toward testing this hypothesis is clarifying the ES-PA association and examining whether it varies as a function of anxiety type (social anxiety vs. other types of anxiety). This meta-analysis (k = 41; n = 11,010) revealed a significant, negative association between ES and PA (r = −0.158); however, this relationship was not significant for individuals with social or other anxiety disorders. Moreover, two moderators (sample culture—Western: r = −0.16; Eastern: r = 0.003; type of emotion suppressed—Negative: r = 0.18; Positive: r = −0.12) accounted for significant heterogeneity in effect sizes. This review synthesizes the literature on ES and PA in healthy and anxious samples; findings suggest moderating variables merit closer attention in future studies.
... Kaygı ile ilgili bir başka yaşantıda sosyal kaygıdır. İnsan sosyal bir varlık olmakla beraber hayatın önemli bir alanını kaplayan kişilerarası ilişkiler konusunda sosyal kaygı bireylerde olumsuz ve engelleyici bir etki yaratmaktadır (Kashdan, 2007). Üniversite öğrencilerinin yakınlık, ilişki kurma ihtiyaçlarını sosyal kaygı nedeniyle karşılayamıyor olmaları yaşamlarındaki işlevselliği etkilemekte, bunun yanı sıra birçok psikolojik probleme neden olabilmektedir. ...
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Bu araştırmanın amacı, psikolojik danışma merkezine başvuran üniversite öğrencilerinin depresyon, sosyal kaygı, durumluk ve sürekli kaygı düzeylerinin, intihar düşünceleri, psikiyatrik tanı alıp alma ve sınıf düzeylerine göre farklılık gösterip göstermediğini incelemektir. Araştırma grubunu, 341’i kadın ve 98’i erkek olmak üzere üniversite psikolojik danışma ve rehberlik merkezine başvuran toplam 439 üniversite öğrencisi oluşturmaktadır. Araştırma grubunda yer alan öğrencilerin %17.1’inin minimal, %21’inin hafif, %42.4’ünün orta ve %19.6’sının şiddetli düzeyde depresyon; %1.8’inin çok düşük, %23.5’inin düşük, %40.2’sinin orta, %23.5’inin yüksek ve %10.9’unun çok yüksek düzeyde sosyal kaygı; %32’sinin düşük, %44.6’sının orta, %19.4’ünün yüksek ve %3.9’unun çok yüksek durumluk kaygı, %15.7’sinin düşük, %46.1’inin orta, %32.9’unun yüksek ve %5.3’inin çok yüksek düzeyde sürekli kaygısı bulunmaktadır. Ayrıca, katılımcıların, %19.1’inin psikiyatri servisine sevk edildiği, %21.4’ünün intihar düşünceleri taşıdığı, %36’sının psikiyatrik tanısının olduğu görülmüştür. Araştırmada veri toplama araçları olarak Başvuru Formu, Beck Depresyon Envanteri, Liebowitz Sosyal Fobi Ölçeği ve Durumluk ve Sürekli Kaygı Ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Verilerin analizinde t-testi ve Tek Yönlü Varyans Analizi (ANOVA) kullanılmıştır. Araştırma bulgularına göre, intihar düşüncesine sahip olanların depresyon, sosyal kaygı ile sürekli ve durumluk kaygı düzeylerinin intihar düşüncesi olmayanlardan daha yüksek olduğu bulunmuştur. Bir diğer bulguya göre, geçmişte psikiyatrik tanı alanların depresyon, sosyal, durumluk ve sürekli kaygı düzeylerinin psikiyatrik tanısı olmayanlara göre anlamlı olarak daha yüksek olduğu görülmüştür. Son olarak sınıf düzeylerine göre, birinci ve ikinci sınıf üniversite öğrencilerinin yüksek düzeyde depresyon, sosyal, durumluk ve sürekli kaygı deneyimlediği ortaya konmuştur. Bu araştırma Pamukkale Üniversitesi Sosyal ve Beşeri Bilimler Etik Kurulu tarafından onaylanmıştır (23.12.2020; 12-6)
... Studies have reported increased anxiety, depression, and stress-related concerns about COVID-19. [7][8][9][10][11] . Typically, these factors are associated with increased smoking. ...
Article
Introduction We used a longitudinal cohort of U.S. adults who were current or former smokers to explore how three participant-reported factors — general stress, COVID-19 distress, and perceived risk of complications from COVID-19 related to smoking — were associated with changes in smoking status. Methods Smoking status was assessed at three time points. Timepoint 1 status was assessed at a prior study completion (2018-2020). Timepoint 2 (start of the pandemic) and Timepoint 3 (early phase of the pandemic) statuses were assessed using an additional survey in 2020. After classifying participants into eight groups per these time points, we compared the means of participant-reported factors and used a linear regression model to adjust for covariates. Results Participants (n=392) were mostly female (73.9%) and non-Hispanic White (70.1%). Between Timepoints 2 and 3, abstinence rates decreased by 11%, and 40% of participants reported a smoking status change. Among those reporting a change and the highest general stress levels, newly abstinent participants had higher perceived risk of complications from COVID-19 related to smoking than those who relapsed during pandemic (mean (standard deviation): 14.2 (3.3) vs. 12.6 (3.8)). Compared to participants who sustained smoking, those who sustained abstinence, on average, scored 1.94 less on the general stress scale (βeta Coefficient (β): -1.94, p-value <0.01) and 1.37 less on the perceived risk of complications from COVID-19 related to smoking scale (β: -1.37, p-value 0.02). Conclusions Decreased abstinence rates are concerning. Patterns of reported factors were as expected for individuals who sustained their smoking behavior but not for those who changed. Implications We observed an increase in smoking rates during the COVID-19 pandemic. In exploring how combinations of general stress levels, COVID-19 distress levels, and perceived risk of complications from COVID-19 related to smoking were associated with changes in smoking, we observed expected patterns of these factors among individuals who sustained abstinence or smoking. Among individuals who changed smoking status and reported high stress levels, those who reported a higher perceived risk of complications from COVID-19 related to smoking abstained from smoking. In contrast, those who reported a lower perceived risk of complications from COVID-19 related to smoking, started smoking. An intersectional perspective may be needed to understand smokers' pandemic-related behavior changes.
... Consistent with this idea, samples of adults with SAD demonstrate a reduced ability to sustain positive emotions and experiences as compared to individuals with other anxiety disorders (Eisner, Johnson, & Carver, 2009). These associations for PA and social anxiety appear robust even when accounting for comorbid forms of psychopathology such as depression (Kashdan, 2007;Watson & Naragon-Gainey, 2010). Moreover, individuals with SAD often report decrements in the enjoyment and motivational pursuit of social interactions, and in overall expression of PA (Trew & Alden, 2012). ...
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This study investigated the extent to which specific facets of positive affectivity (PA) demonstrate differential relationships with social anxiety symptomatology as well as social functioning. Following the conceptual framework of the Broaden and Build theory, as well as prior work demonstrating reward-based linkages to specific PA subdomains, we hypothesized that motivationally-valenced PA facets would show distinct associations with social anxiety and social functioning measures. Two samples (N = 446 and N = 375) completed self-report measures of PA, social anxiety, internalizing symptoms, and social functioning. Correlational, multiple and logistic regression, and contrast analyses of correlated correlation coefficients were used to identify the presence and magnitude of relationships between PA facets and symptom measures. Relationships between social anxiety and specific subdomains of PA appeared to depend on the motivational relevance of each facet. Specifically, self-assurance was associated with social anxiety symptoms above and beyond other PA facets and negative affect. Additionally, contrast analyses indicated that motivationally-valenced (versus non-motivationally-valenced) PA facets were stronger negative predictors of social anxiety symptoms. These results demonstrate a statistically significant divergence between motivationally-valenced subdomains of PA and non-motivationally-valenced subdomains of PA, as they relate to social anxiety symptom severity.
... As in the primary analysis, the simple interaction effects revealed that SA did not moderate the effect of social pain on curiosity, nor did it moderate the effect of social pain on reward perception. Since diminished approach motivation has long been conceptualized as a critical problem for individuals with SAD that may account for deficits in positive interpersonal and emotional experiences (e.g., Kashdan, 2007;Richey et al., 2014), our second exploratory model was designed to investigate potential mediators of the relationship between SA and approach motivation. Specifically, we tested whether heightened social threat appraisals and/or diminished social reward appraisals may link higher trait SA with lower approach motivations when individuals are faced with opportunities to engage socially with others. ...
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Background Previous research has shown that high levels of trait social anxiety (SA) disrupt the social repair processes following a painful social exclusion, but the cognitive mechanisms involved in these processes and how trait SA may disrupt them remain unknown.Methods We conducted a preregistered study on Prolific participants (N = 452) who were assigned to experience either social exclusion or inclusion and were then exposed to follow-up opportunities for social reconnection.ResultsModerated mediation analyses revealed that irrespective of levels of SA, participants responded to social pain with heightened approach motivation and greater downstream positive affect. Exploratory analyses revealed that heightened desire to affiliate was driven by increased curiosity and attention to social rewards. Moreover, higher SA was associated with lower overall desire to affiliate and this relationship between SA and affiliation was mediated by diminished reward responsiveness.Conclusions Findings highlight the roles of goal pursuit and social reward responsiveness in social repair and how high levels of trait SA may disrupt these processes.
... Low positive affect during social contexts is particularly relevant to social anxiety disorder, distinguished from other anxiety disorders by low positive affect [51], particularly in adolescents [52]. The Sensitivity Shift Theory (SST) [53] suggests temperament factors, characterized by increased sensitivity to both positive and negative valence [54], evolve into social anxiety symptoms. ...
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Purpose of Review Anhedonia is a transdiagnostic symptom comprising reduced subjective reward or pleasure. Anhedonia influences subjective anticipation and in-the-moment experiences. This review draws together affective learning and engagement evidence for anhedonia affecting subjective experiences of social environments. Recent Findings While social engagement is diminished consistently, subjective appraisals of social contexts vary across different mental health disorders. Low positive affect during social experiences or stimuli is reported in PTSD, mood, schizophrenia, and anxiety disorders. Diminished neural reward networks underpin the anticipation of social experiences in ADHD, schizophrenia spectrum, and autistic spectrum disorders. Multiple theories exist to explain how anhedonia might interfere with social environments. Summary Anhedonia is a barrier to engagement, motivation, and enjoyment of social contexts. While many studies characterize experiences during social contexts, learning theories provide the most promise for developing targeted interventions.
... First, we conducted traditional between-person analyses and found in both studies that participants with SAD experienced higher NA and lower PA across social and nonsocial situations than healthy controls. These findings replicate prior work on the affective profile of people with SAD (Brown et al., 1998;Kashdan & Collins, 2010;Kashdan, 2007). Second, we conducted within-person analyses and found that in both studies, participants with SAD experienced higher PA and similar NA when with others than alone-an affect pattern largely similar to that of controls. ...
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Quality contact with other people serves as a reliable mood enhancement strategy. We wondered if the emotional benefits of socializing are present even for those with a psychological disorder defined by social distress and avoidance: social anxiety disorder (SAD). We conducted two ecological momentary assessment (EMA) studies and analyzed 7,243 total surveys. In both studies, community adults diagnosed with SAD and healthy controls received five surveys each day for two weeks. Consistent with research on positivity deficits in SAD, between-person analyses in both studies suggest that, on average, participants with SAD reported lower positive and higher negative affect in social and non-social situations than healthy controls. Within-person analyses, however, revealed that in both studies participants with SAD and healthy controls reported higher positive affect when with others than when alone; no differences were found for negative affect. The difference in positive affect between social and nonsocial situations was smaller for participants with SAD in Study 1, suggesting that people with SAD may experience diminished reward responding when socializing. Our results suggest that even those with a mental illness defined by interpersonal distress can and do derive positive emotions from social interactions.
... One partial exception, however, is that 432 WATSON et al. Emotions and the emotional disorders low positive affect shows consistent negative associations with social anxiety/social phobia (Kashdan, 2007;Naragon-Gainey, Watson, and Markon, 2009). Low positive affectivity also is consistently linked to negative symptoms of schizophrenia/schizotypy (Watson and Naragon-Gainey, 2010). ...
Article
The aim of the study is to test a model specifying the relations between personality traits, war-related traumas, PTSD and depression, as well as the measurement aspects of the model. This study was carried out in hospital on 400 male participants. Five-Factor Model of personality was complemented by a recently proposed trait Disintegration representing proneness to psychotic-like experiences/behaviors in the general population. The proposed model had excellent fit, despite its complexity. The results show that PTSD or depression symptoms after traumas are largely related to the number of traumas, Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Disintegration, and their different configurations and quantities. Disintegration turned out to be one of the most important dispositional correlates of depression and PTSD, but also of trauma exposure.
... Les TSA sont majoritairement caractérisés par des déficits dans le domaine socio-communicatif ( Les individus atteints de troubles de l'anxiété sociale ont tendance à sur-mentaliser en attribuant aux autres des croyances négatives les concernant (Hook & Valentiner, 2002 ;Moscovitch, 2009 ;Washburn et al., 2016), mais peuvent présenter, dans le même temps, un important besoin d'affiliation ou l'envie de nouer de nouvelles relations (Anderson et al., 2011 ;Kashdan et al., 2008 ;Rudrauf, Sergeant-Perthuis et al., 2020). Les individus atteints de troubles de l'anxiété sociale se trouve donc dans un conflit du type approche-évitement par rapport aux autres, craignant leur rejet, tout en se souciant également d'eux (Clark & Wells, 1995, cités dans Rudrauf, Sergeant-Perthuis et al., 2020Kashdan, 2007). Tout cela pourrait être expliqué par le fait que les individus touchés par l'anxiété sociale, présentent un biais positif envers les informations, notamment sociales, moins important, contribuant à l'anxiété ressentie, ainsi qu'au comportement d'évitement social subséquent et à leurs maintien (Tanner et al., 2006 ;Taylor et al., 2010). ...
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Cette recherche avait pour objectif de développer et valider une première version d'un « test de Turing » non verbal, en s'appuyant sur les critères et outils psychométriques de la psychologie clinique et développementale humaine : l'ASIMOV Test, afin d'évaluer le niveau perçu de développement affectif, cognitif et social d'agents artificiels autonomes du type robots Cozmo basés sur le Projective Consciousness Model (PCM ; Rudrauf et al., 2017) qui est un modèle mathématique de la conscience incarnée. Pour cela, les participant-es ont visionné, puis évalué à l'aide des 27 questions de l'ASIMOV Test et leurs échelles de Likert en 7 points, quatre situations, regroupant un total de neuf vidéos. Ces vidéos, mettant en scène deux agents en interaction et deux objets, avaient pour but de leur présenter plusieurs combinaisons de paramètres du PCM, ciblant des mécanismes psychologiques et des comportements caractéristiques pouvant être adaptatifs ou mal-adaptatifs. Les résultats de cette étude montrent que ces agents artificiels sont, en partie, évalués comme ayant un développement analogue et contigu à celui du jeune être humain et sa dynamique. Bien que comportant certaines limites, ces résultats offrent, tout de même, une assise à de futurs développements en proposant un cadre opérationnel intégrateur et unique dans le but de munir ces agents artificiels d'une conscience similaire à la nôtre.
... We also measured four common drinking consequences relevant to social anxiety, but others can offer additional insight. For example, drinking may improve mood (Lee et al., 2017), which might be especially reinforcing for people with SAD who experience positivity deficits (e.g., Kashdan, 2007). Third, research can explore temporal relationships among drinking consequences. ...
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People with social anxiety disorder (SAD) are at increased risk for alcohol-related problems. Most research exploring social anxiety and alcohol use has examined negative drinking consequences, with less consideration of positive consequences—namely positive social experiences—that may reinforce alcohol use. In this daily diary study, we examined how adults diagnosed with SAD (N = 26) and a psychologically healthy control group (N = 28) experienced positive drinking consequences in naturally occurring drinking episodes during the study period. For 14 consecutive days, participants answered questions about alcohol use, motives for drinking, and positive consequences of drinking. On days when participants drank, those with SAD were more likely than healthy controls to perceive a reduction in anxiety, but the two groups did not differ in their likelihood of experiencing positive social drinking consequences. For both groups, on days when they were more motivated to drink to enhance social experiences (affiliation motives) or cope with distress (coping motives), they were more likely to obtain positive consequences from drinking. Compared to controls, participants with SAD endorsed stronger trait and daily coping motives (anxiety-coping, social anxiety-coping, and depression-coping). Results are discussed in the context of reinforcement mechanisms that may maintain social anxiety and alcohol use.
... Anhedonia is also a transdiagnostic feature of both depression and anxiety. Whereas evidence from earlier models claim that anhedonia is exclusively linked to depression relative to anxiety (e.g., Brown et al., 1998;Clark & Watson, 1991), more recent evidence demonstrates that significant variation in both anxiety and depression symptoms are explained by features of anhedonia, including positive affect (Kashdan, 2007;Prenoveau et al., 2010). Research also demonstrates hedonic impairments in populations with anxiety (Kashdan et al., 2011;Srivastava et al., 2003) and similar effect sizes between anxiety and positive affect and depression and positive affect (Khazanov & Ruscio, 2016;Kotov et al., 2010). ...
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The Pavlovian-Instrumental Transfer (PIT) paradigm examines probabilistic and reinforcement learning. Disruptions in mechanisms that mediate PIT (i.e., cues not triggering adaptive behaviors) are thought to be contributors to psychopathology, making the study of probabilistic and reinforcement learning clinically relevant. The current study evaluated an appetitive PIT effect and its relationship with symptom dimensions spanning depression and anxiety, with a particular focus on anhedonia. Forty young adults ranging in scores across dimensions of depression and anxiety symptoms completed the PIT paradigm and self-report symptom measures. The PIT paradigm consisted of three phases. The instrumental phase consisted of a contingent association in which participants squeezed a handgrip for monetary reward. The Pavlovian phase established a purely predictive association between three visual stimuli (CS + , CS-, baseline) and presence or absence of monetary reward. In the transfer phase, participants’ responses allowed for examination of whether motivational characteristics of Pavlovian predictors influenced the vigor of their handgrip squeezes (instrumental action), which were formerly independent of Pavlovian associations. Analyses revealed a baseline-reward PIT effect, whereby a reward-associated Pavlovian cue enhanced instrumental responding in the transfer phase. However, there were no significant differences between CS + and CS- or CS- and baseline cues, suggesting a disrupted interaction of Pavlovian and instrumental learning. Further, the appetitive PIT effect captured in this paradigm was not associated with anhedonia, fears, or general distress. Future work should investigate the influence of mood states using more specific appetitive PIT paradigms to further understanding of the implications of disrupted reflexive and instrumental responding.
... Dimensional symptom measures of anxiety and depression were factor scores extracted from a dimensional model of anxiety and depression symptoms, the 'trilevel model' developed through exploratory and confirmatory factor (CFA) analyses in previous research (Kramer et al., 2019;Naragon-Gainey et al., 2016;Prenoveau et al., 2010). The trilevel model is a hierarchical dimensional model that includes one broad factor common to both anxiety and depression ('general distress'), as well as two intermediate factors: (i) 'fears', more common to anxiety disorders; and (ii) 'anhedonia-apprehension' considered more common to depressive disorders (although symptoms of anhedonia are also common in some anxiety disorders, particularly generalised and social anxiety disorders; Brown et al., 1998;Kashdan, 2007). ...
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Altered functioning of the brain’s threat and reward circuitry has been linked to early life adversity and to symptoms of anxiety and depression. To date, however, these relationships have been studied in isolation and in categorical-based approaches. It is unclear to what extent early life adversity and psychopathology have unique effects on brain functioning during threat and reward processing. We examined functional brain activity during a face processing task in threat (amygdala, ventromedial prefrontal cortex) and reward (ventral striatum, orbitofrontal cortex) regions of interest among a sample (N = 103) of young adults (aged 18-19 years) in relation to dimensional measures of early life adversity and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Results demonstrated a significant association between higher scores on the deprivation adversity dimension and greater activation of reward neural circuitry during viewing of happy faces, with the largest effect sizes observed in the orbitofrontal cortex. We found no significant associations between the threat adversity dimension, or symptom dimensions of anxiety and depression, and neural activation in threat or reward circuitries. These results lend partial support to theories of adversity-related alterations in neural activation and highlight the importance of testing dimensional models of adversity and psychopathology in large sample sizes to further our understanding of the biological processes implicated.
... The first set of predictions was guided by the hypothesis that SAD is associated with weak reward responses. Prior studies indicate that SAD is associated with diminished positive experiences (Brown et al., 2007;Kashdan, 2004Kashdan, , 2007, possibly due to abnormalities in brain reward circuity (Schneier et al., 2000; but see Schneier et al., 2009). As mentioned earlier, several prior PRT studies have found weaker response biases in adults with anhedonia relative to healthy controls (e.g., Liu et al., 2016;Pizzagalli et al., 2008). ...
Article
Choices and response times in two-alternative decision-making tasks can be modeled by assuming that individuals steadily accrue evidence in favor of each alternative until a response boundary for one of them is crossed, at which point that alternative is chosen. Prior studies have reported that evidence accumulation during decision-making tasks takes longer in adults with psychopathology than in healthy controls, indicating that slow evidence accumulation may be transdiagnostic. However, few studies have examined perceptual decision making in anxiety disorders, where hypervigilance might enhance performance. Therefore, this study used the Hierarchical Drift Diffusion model to investigate evidence accumulation in adults with social anxiety disorder (SAD) and healthy controls as they performed a probabilistic reward task (PRT), in which social rewards were delivered for correct perceptual judgments. Adults with SAD completed the PRT before and after gaze-contingent music reward therapy (GCMRT), which trains attention allocation and has shown efficacy for SAD. Healthy controls also completed the PRT twice. Results revealed excellent performance in adults with SAD, especially after GCMRT: relative to controls, they showed faster evidence accumulation, better discriminability, and earned more rewards. These data highlight a positive effect of attention training on performance in anxious adults and show how a behavioral trait that is typically problematic-hypervigilance in SAD-can nevertheless confer advantages in certain contexts. The data also indicate that, in contrast to other forms of psychopathology, SAD is not characterized by slow evidence accumulation, at least in the context of the social PRT. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Higher levels of social anxiety may lead to social anxiety disorder (SAD), which is a prevalent and serious psychiatric illness that can impair many aspects of everyday life [4][5][6]. For example, individuals with SAD show decreased work performance, diminished positive experiences, reduced quality of life, fewer social connections, higher rates of divorce, and greater unemployment [7][8][9][10][11]. In addition to the extreme distress in itself, the experience of SAD may constitute an important risk factor for other mental disorders (e.g., depressive disorders [12]) and substance dependence [13]. ...
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... Future work could also test for a causal relationship between impaired "dopaminergic" salience processing and anhedonia. Social anxiety includes components of anhedonia and anxiousness (Brown, Chorpita & Barlow, 1998;Kashdan, 2007;Kashdan, Weeks & Savostyanova, 2011). If the dopamine system was indeed involved, we predict that anhedonia in socially shy participants was the underlying cause of the relationship between salience processing and shyness observed here. ...
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Chapter
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Examined the factor structure, internal reliabilities, and concurrent validity of a revised form of the Social Anxiety Scale for Children (SASC-R) with fourth through sixth graders (N = 587). Factor analysis on a subsample (n = 459) yielded three factors: Fear of Negative Evaluation From Peers, Social Avoidance and Distress Specific to New Situations, and Generalized Social Avoidance and Distress. Confirmatory factor analysis with another subsample (n = 128)revealed a good fit for the three-factor model of social anxiety. In addition, high-socially-anxious children perceived their social acceptance and global self-worth to be low. Neglected and rejected children reported more social anxiety than accepted classmates. The data support the reliability and validity of the SASC-R.
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• A systematic method for clinical description and classification of both normal and abnormal personality variants is proposed based on a general biosocial theory of personality. Three dimensions of personality are defined in terms of the basic stimulus-response characteristics of novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and reward dependence. The possible underlying genetic and neuroanatomical bases of observed variation in these dimensions are reviewed and considered in relation to adaptive responses to environmental challenge. The functional interaction of these dimensions leads to integrated patterns of differential response to novelty, punishment, and reward. The possible tridimensional combinations of extreme (high or low) variants on these basic stimulusresponse characteristics correspond closely to traditional descriptions of personality disorders. This reconciles dimensional and categorical approaches to personality description. It also implies that the underlying structure of normal adaptive traits is the same as that of maladaptive personality traits, except for schizotypal and paranoid disorders.
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An illusory correlation paradigm was used to compare high and low socially anxious individuals’ initial, on-line and a posteriori covariation estimates between emotional faces and aversive, pleasant and neutral outcomes. Overall, participants demonstrated an initial expectancy bias for aversive outcomes following angry faces, and pleasant outcomes following happy faces. On-line expectancy biases indicated that initial biases were extinguished during the task, with the exception of low socially anxious individuals who continued to over-associate positive social cues with pleasant outcomes. In addition to lacking this protective positive on-line bias, the high social anxiety group reported retrospectively more negative social cues than the low socially anxious group. Findings are discussed in relation to similar evidence from recent interpretive and memory paradigms.
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A new interview schedule allows lay interviewers or clinicians to make psychiatric diagnoses according to DSM-III criteria, Feighner criteria, and Research Diagnostic Criteria. It is being used in a set of epidemiological studies sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health Center for Epidemiological Studies. Its accuracy has been evaluated in a test-retest design comparing independent administrations by psychiatrists and lay interviewers to 216 subjects (inpatients, outpatients, ex-patients, and nonpatients).
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Using outpatients with anxiety and mood disorders (N = 350), the authors tested several models of the structural relationships of dimensions of key features of selected emotional disorders and dimensions of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression. Results supported the discriminant validity of the 5 symptom domains examined (mood disorders; generalized anxiety disorder, GAD; panic disorder; obsessive-compulsive disorder; social phobia). Of various structural models evaluated, the best fitting involved a structure consistent with the tripartite model (e.g., the higher order factors, negative affect and positive affect, influenced emotional disorder factors in the expected manner). The latent factor, GAD, influenced the latent factor, autonomic arousal, in a direction consistent with recent laboratory findings (autonomic suppression); Findings are discussed in the context of the growing literature on higher order trait dimensions (e.g., negative affect) that may be of considerable importance to the understanding of the pathogenesis, course, and co-occurrence of emotional disorders.
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The 1956 adaptation for children of Taylor's Manifest Anxiety Scale, the Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, was revised to meet current psychometric standards. A 73-item revision draft was administered to 329 school children from grades 1 to 12. Based on item-analysis criteria for rbis greater than or equal to .4 and .30 less than or equal to p less than or equal to .70, 28 anxiety items were retained along with 9 of the original 11 Lie scale items. A cross-validation sample of 167 children from grades 2, 5, 9, 10, and 11 produced a KR20 reliability estimate of .85. Anxiety scores did not differ across grade or race. Females scored significantly higher than males. For the Lie scale, significant differences appeared by grade and race. No sex differences were obtained on the Lie scale. The resulting scale appears useful for children in grades 1 to 12 and may aid in future studies of anxiety as well as assisting the clinician in the understanding of individual children.
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Socially anxious people often report high negative affect (NA) and low positive affect (PA). This mood state may be associated with elevated or undesired social evaluation, such as interactions with unfamiliar people or poor quality communication. In this study, high and low anxious undergraduates completed structured diaries assessing interaction partner familiarity, quality of communication, PA, and NA after conversations in their natural environment. Results supported hypotheses of higher NA and lower quality of communication in the anxious group. In addition, quality of communication and familiarity were differently related to NA in the high versus low anxious groups. Results suggest that social-interaction parameters affect high anxious individuals' mood. Implications of the current social interaction based results are contrasted with time-interval diary research.
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In this theoretical paper, it is argued that social anxiety arises from the activation of an evolved mechanism for dealing with intra-species (conspecific) threat, a mechanism which has played a vital role in the evolution of social groups. A model is developed showing how this “agonic” mode of defense, working through the psychological systems of appraisal and coping, leads the socially anxious to perceive others as hostile dominants, to fear negative evaluation from them and to respond, at one level of the disorder, by appeasement and submissive behavior, and at a more severe level of the disorder, by more primitive actions such as escape or avoidance. A further theme put forward is that the socially anxious person appears unable to recruit another evolved mechanism for social relating called the “hedonic” mode, in which social groups are structured in terms of cooperation, equality, and mutual support. Some therapeutic implications of these concepts are explored.
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This book provides an updated theory of the nature of anxiety and the brain systems controlling anxiety, combined with a theory of hippocampal function, which was first proposed thirty years ago. While remaining controversial, the core of this theory, of a 'Behavioural Inhibition System', has stood the test of time, with its main predictions repeatedly confirmed. Novel anti-anxiety drugs share none of the side effects or primary pharmacological actions of the classical anti-anxiety drugs on the actions of which the theory was based; but they have both the behavioural and hippocampal actions predicted by the theory. This text is the second edition of the book and it departs significantly from the first. It provides, for the first time, a single construct - goal conflict - that underlies all the known inputs to the system; and it includes current data on the amygdala. Its reviews include the ethology of defence, learning theory, the psychopharmacology of anti-anxiety drugs, anxiety disorders, and the clinical and laboratory analysis of amnesia. The cognitive and behavioural functions in anxiety of the septo-hippocampal system and the amygdala are also analysed, as are their separate roles in memory and fear. Their functions are related to a hierarchy of additional structures - from the prefrontal cortex to the periaqueductal gray - that control the various forms of defensive behaviour and to detailed analysis of the monoamine systems that modulate this control. The resultant neurology is linked to the typology, symptoms, pre-disposing personality and therapy of anxiety and phobic disorders, and to the symptoms of amnesia. © Jeffrey A. Gray and Neil McNaughton 2000 , 2003. All rights reserved.
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A flood of new studies explores people's subjective well-being (SWB) Frequent positive affect, infrequent negative affect, and a global sense of satisfaction with life define high SWB These studies reveal that happiness and life satisfaction are similarly available to the young and the old, women and men, blacks and whites, the rich and the working-class Better clues to well-being come from knowing about a person's traits, close relationships, work experiences, culture, and religiosity We present the elements of an appraisal-based theory of happiness that recognizes the importance of adaptation, cultural world-view, and personal goals
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This article outlines some basic ideas of an evolutionary approach to psychopathology. It focuses on human competition to be seen as attractive in order to elicit the investment of resources from others (e.g., approval, support, and care). It is argued that social anxiety may be a form of competitive anxiety, triggered in contexts where individuals see themselves as relatively low in the status hierarchy of desirable attributes and/or at risk of losing status (and control over social resources such as approval, help, and support) by being seen as having undesirable attributes. To improve (or defend) their position and garner the investments of others (e.g., win approval, support, friendships or status, or defend their status) requires a competitive venture; however, in attempting to compete, social phobics automatically recruit various evolved modules and mentalities for behaving in competitive arenas when one is low in the hierarchy (e.g., social comparison, placating dominant others and various submissive defenses such as concealment, high self-monitoring, and eye-gaze avoidance). These previously adaptive subordinate defenses interfere with status acquisition based on demonstrating attractive attributes to others.
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In two experiments, the authors examined memory for facial emotional expressions in patients with generalized social phobia (GSP) and in nonanxious control (NAC) participants. Three main questions were addressed. First, do patients with GSP differ from NAC participants in their overall memory for facial expressions? Second, do patients with GSP exhibit a memory bias for negative versus nonnegative expressions? Third, if such a bias exists, is it specific to angry expressions? The results of both experiments indicated that patients with GSP have better memory for all facial expressions than do NAC participants. Results of experiment 2 suggest that patients with GSP exhibit enhanced recognition for negative compared with nonnegative expressions; in contrast, NAC participants did not exhibit such enhancement. Results concerning specificity were equivocal. The importance of examining cognitive biases in patients with GSP via the use of facial expression is discussed.
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Objective: This study compared dopamine D(2) receptor binding potential in patients with social phobia and healthy comparison subjects. Method: Dopamine D(2) receptor binding potential was assessed in 10 unmedicated subjects with generalized social phobia and no significant lifetime psychiatric comorbidity and 10 healthy comparison subjects matched for age and sex. Binding potential was measured in the striatum by using single photon emission computerized tomography and constant infusion of the D(2) receptor radiotracer [(123)I]iodobenzamide ([(123)I]IBZM). Results: Mean D(2) receptor binding potential was significantly lower in the subjects with social phobia than in the comparison subjects. Within the social phobia group, there was a nonsignificant correlation of binding potential with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale score. Conclusions: Generalized social phobia may be associated with low binding of [(123)I]IBZM to D(2) receptors in the striatum.
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