Coupling of Rotavirus Genome Replication and Capsid Assembly
Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. Advances in Virus Research
(Impact Factor: 4.57).
02/2007; 69:167-201. DOI: 10.1016/S0065-3527(06)69004-0
The Reoviridae family represents a diverse collection of viruses with segmented double-stranded (ds)RNA genomes, including some that are significant causes of disease in humans, livestock, and plants. The genome segments of these viruses are never detected free in the infected cell but are transcribed and replicated within viral cores by RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP). Insight into the replication mechanism has been provided from studies on Rotavirus, a member of the Reoviridae whose RdRP can specifically recognize viral plus (+) strand RNAs and catalyze their replication to dsRNAs in vitro. These analyses have revealed that although the rotavirus RdRP can interact with recognition signals in (+) strand RNAs in the absence of other proteins, the conversion of this complex to one that can support initiation of dsRNA synthesis requires the presence and partial assembly of the core capsid protein. By this mechanism, the viral polymerase can carry out dsRNA synthesis only when capsid protein is available to package its newly made product. By preventing the accumulation of naked dsRNA within the cell, the virus avoids triggering dsRNA-dependent interferon signaling pathways that can induce expression and activation of antiviral host proteins.
Available from: Harry B Greenberg
- "48. Barro M, Patton JT (2007) Rotavirus NSP1 inhibits expression of type I interferon by antagonizing the function of interferon regulatory factors IRF3, IRF5, and IRF7. J Virol 81: 4473–4481. "
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ABSTRACT: Viral pathogens must overcome innate antiviral responses to replicate successfully in the host organism. Some of the mechanisms viruses use to interfere with antiviral responses in the infected cell include preventing detection of viral components, perturbing the function of transcription factors that initiate antiviral responses, and inhibiting downstream signal transduction. RNA viruses with small genomes and limited coding space often express multifunctional proteins that modulate several aspects of the normal host response to infection. One such virus, rotavirus, is an important pediatric pathogen that causes severe gastroenteritis, leading to ∼450,000 deaths globally each year. In this review, we discuss the nature of the innate antiviral responses triggered by rotavirus infection and the viral mechanisms for inhibiting these responses.
Available from: Idoia Busnadiego
- "reoviruses, possess two concentric capsids, and their dsRNA genomes remain permanently enclosed within the innermost capsid, known as T = 2 core . This structure provides the enzymatic machinery for the synthesis and extrusion of virus mRNAs, and shelters the dsRNA genome from cellular dsRNA sensors . In contrast, birnaviruses posses a single capsid that encloses RNP complexes formed by the dsRNA segments covalently linked to the VPg form of the RdRp and wrapped up by VP3. "
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ABSTRACT: Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is an avian pathogen responsible for an acute immunosuppressive disease that causes major losses to the poultry industry. Despite having a bipartite dsRNA genome, IBDV, as well as other members of the Birnaviridae family, possesses a single capsid layer formed by trimers of the VP2 capsid protein. The capsid encloses a ribonucleoprotein complex formed by the genome associated to the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the RNA-binding polypeptide VP3. A previous report evidenced that expression of the mature VP2 IBDV capsid polypeptide triggers a swift programmed cell death response in a wide variety of cell lines. The mechanism(s) underlying this effect remained unknown. Here, we show that VP2 expression in HeLa cells activates the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase (PKR), which in turn triggers the phosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α). This results in a strong blockade of protein synthesis and the activation of an apoptotic response which is efficiently blocked by coexpression of a dominant negative PKR polypeptide. Our results demonstrate that coexpression of the VP3 polypeptide precludes phosphorylation of both PKR and eIF2α and the onset of programmed cell death induced by VP2 expression. A mutation blocking the capacity of VP3 to bind dsRNA also abolishes its capacity to prevent PKR activation and apoptosis. Further experiments showed that VP3 functionally replaces the host-range vaccinia virus (VACV) E3 protein, thus allowing the E3 deficient VACV deletion mutant WRΔE3L to grow in non-permissive cell lines. According to results presented here, VP3 can be categorized along with other well characterized proteins such us VACV E3, avian reovirus sigmaA, and influenza virus NS1 as a virus-encoded dsRNA-binding polypeptide with antiapoptotic properties. Our results suggest that VP3 plays a central role in ensuring the viability of the IBDV replication cycle by preventing programmed cell death.
Available from: Susana López
- "It is in these structures where the synthesis of dsRNA and its packaging into pre-virion core particles take place . Besides NSP2 and NSP5, other viral proteins accumulate in viroplasms - namely VP1, VP2, VP3, VP6, and NSP6 [7,9-11]. The key role of NSP2 and NSP5 proteins in the formation of viroplasms has been demonstrated by knocking-down their expression by RNA interference, which results in the inhibition of viroplasm formation, genome replication, virion assembly, and a general decrease of viral protein synthesis [7,8,12]. "
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ABSTRACT: During rotavirus replication cycle, electron-dense cytoplasmic inclusions named viroplasms are formed, and two non-structural proteins, NSP2 and NSP5, have been shown to localize in these membrane-free structures. In these inclusions, replication of dsRNA and packaging of pre-virion particles occur. Despite the importance of viroplasms in the replication cycle of rotavirus, the information regarding their formation, and the possible sites of their nucleation during the early stages of infection is scarce. Here, we analyzed the formation of viroplasms after infection of MA104 cells with the rotavirus strain RRV, using different multiplicities of infection (MOI), and different times post-infection. The possibility that viroplasms formation is nucleated by the entering viral particles was investigated using fluorescently labeled purified rotavirus particles.
The immunofluorescent detection of viroplasms, using antibodies specific to NSP2 showed that both the number and size of viroplasms increased during infection, and depend on the MOI used. Small-size viroplasms predominated independently of the MOI or time post-infection, although at MOI's of 2.5 and 10 the proportion of larger viroplasms increased. Purified RRV particles were successfully labeled with the Cy5 mono reactive dye, without decrease in virus infectivity, and the labeled viruses were clearly observed by confocal microscope. PAGE gel analysis showed that most viral proteins were labeled; including the intermediate capsid protein VP6. Only 2 out of 117 Cy5-labeled virus particles colocalized with newly formed viroplasms at 4 hours post-infection.
The results presented in this work suggest that during rotavirus infection the number and size of viroplasm increases in an MOI-dependent manner. The Cy5 in vitro labeled virus particles were not found to colocalize with newly formed viroplasms, suggesting that they are not involved in viroplasm nucleation.
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