Article

Poly-victimization: A neglected component in child victimization. Child Abuse and Neglect, 31(1), 7-26

Crimes against Children Research Center, University of New Hampshire, 126 Horton Social Science Center, Durham, NH 03824, USA.
Child Abuse & Neglect (Impact Factor: 2.47). 02/2007; 31(1):7-26. DOI: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2006.06.008
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

To assess the role of multiple victimization, or what is termed in this article "poly-victimization," in explaining trauma symptomatology.
In a nationally representative sample of 2,030 children ages 2-17, assessment was made of the past year's victimization experiences and recent trauma symptoms.
Children experiencing four or more different kinds of victimization in a single year (poly-victims) comprised 22% of the sample. Poly-victimization was highly predictive of trauma symptoms, and when taken into account, greatly reduced or eliminated the association between individual victimizations (e.g., sexual abuse) and symptomatology. Poly-victims were also more symptomatic than children with only repeated episodes of the same kind of victimization.
Researchers and practitioners need to assess for a broader range of victimizations, and avoid studies and assessments organized around a single form of victimization.

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Available from: Richard Ormrod, Mar 05, 2014
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    • "Multiple online victimization was defined by the most parsimonious and simple operational definition of it, i.e., the occurrence of more than one form of online victimization during the last year in a range from two to eight, as other authors have done regarding polyvictimization (Pereda & GallardoPujol, 2014;Sabina & Straus, 2008). In addition, following the recommendations ofFinkelhor et al. (2007a), we divided online multiple victims into low and high groups. The ten percent most victimized of the adolescents was identified as high multiple online victimization group, i.e., youth who reported a number of forms of online victimization above the Percentile 90, which was four. "

    Full-text · Dataset · Jan 2016
    • "Accordingly, multiple victimization, defined as the experience of different types of victimization across a specified period of time (e.g., over the past year) or lifetime, has begun to receive greater empirical attention, primarily through the work of Finkelhor, Ormrod, Turner, and Hamby (2005) and Finkelhor, Ormrod, andTurner (2007aTurner ( , 2007b). The results have consistently suggested that Downloaded by[Anita Santos]at 08:54 13 January 2016 exposure to multiple categories of victimization is common and more strongly associated with psychological difficulties compared with the exposure to a single category of violence or no violence (e.g.,Finkelhor et al., 2007aFinkelhor et al., , 2007b). It is clearly necessary to consider the multiple forms of women victimization to understand the ways that victimized women cope with this stressful life condition. "
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have demonstrated that women are frequently victims of several types of violent actions via different agents throughout their life spans. Furthermore, multiple victimizations have been associated with psychological difficulties. The present study aimed to understand the change processes, in a self-directed way, of 19 female victims of multiple violent actions during their lifetimes. The women were evaluated for one year using a depression scale and a qualitative interview. The interviews were analyzed using the innovative moments (IMs) model. The results evidenced three groups, according to the evolution of their depressive symptoms during the one-year evaluation period. There were two unchanged groups, one being the symptomatic group (N = 6), which continuously presented symptoms at a clinical level, and the other the asymptomatic group (N = 7), which did not report depressive symptoms at any assessment moment. The change group (N = 6) exhibited a reliable decrease in clinically significant symptoms. Regarding IMs, the majority of the women were able to develop innovative moments regarding the dominant problem over a one-year evaluation period. Those women mobilized alternative ways to address multiple victimization experiences primarily through reflection IMs. Although there were several exceptions to the problematic narratives during the one- year assessment, the change group had a higher proportion and diversity of IM types—namely, a higher reconceptualization and reflection subtype II—compared with the unchanged groups. Moreover, reconceptualization differentiated the change group from the other two groups. These latter IMs may reflect the concept of “postvictimization growth” and the positive changes that arise from experiences of victimization.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Constructivist Psychology
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    • "In Spain, the majority of studies about online victimization have focused on describe the prevalence rates of particular types of victimization such as cyberbullying (Buelga, Cava, & Musitu, 2010), online harassment and unwanted sexual solicitations (Pereda et al., 2014b). This narrow perspective underestimates the burden of victimization that young people experience through information and communication technologies and fails to show the interrelationships among different kinds of online victimization and thus to understand fully the problem of victimization vulnerability or the impact of one kind of victimization alone, as has been concluded in previous studies about polyvictimization (Cyr, Clément, & Chamberland, 2014; Finkelhor, Ormrod, & Turner, 2007b; Finkelhor et al., 2005a; Mitchell, Ybarra, & Finkelhor, 2007). Nevertheless, there are a few international studies that provide data about the co-occurrence of different forms of online victimization in adolescents. "
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about online victimization of Spanish adolescents. The present study aims to determine the past-year prevalence of online victimization in a community sample of Spanish adolescents. The final sample consisted of 3,897 adolescents between 12 and 17 years old (M=14.45, SD=1.59), 1,836 males and 2,049 females, recruited from 39 secondary schools in the east of Spain. The Cuestionario de victimización juvenil mediante internet y/o teléfono móvil (hereinafter, Juvenile Online Victimization Questionnaire, JOV-Q, Montiel & Carbonell, 2012) was applied for the assessment of eight types of online victimization grouped in two major domains: sexual (sexual coercion, sexual pressure, online grooming by an adult, unwanted exposure to sexual content and violation of privacy); and nonsexual victimization (online harassment, happy slapping, pressure to obtain personal information). Sixty-one percent of adolescents reported online victimization during the last year. Online sexual victimization was reported by 39.5% of adolescents and nonsexual victimization by 53.4% of them, whereas 31% of youth reported having experienced online victimization in both domains. The highest prevalence rates were recorded for online harassment (50%), unwanted exposure to sexual content (24.4%), pressure to obtain personal information (18.4%) and online grooming by an adult (17.2%), and the lowest for sexual coercion (6.7%) and happy slapping (2.2%). Thirty-five percent of the adolescents were considered online polyvictims and most of them experienced victimization in both sexual and nonsexual domains (88%). This study illustrates that Spanish adolescents experience high levels of online victimization and that multiple online victimization appears to be the norm among cybervictims.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Child abuse & neglect
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