Protective effect of verapamil on multiple hepatotoxic factors-induced liver fibrosis in rats
Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, Hubei Province, China. Pharmacological Research
(Impact Factor: 4.41).
05/2007; 55(4):280-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.phrs.2006.12.003
The purpose of the present work was to investigate the effect of verapamil on liver fibrosis induced by multiple hepatotoxic factors in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into a normal control group, a liver fibrosis model control group, and verapamil groups with different dosages. Multiple hepatotoxic factors including carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), ethanol and high cholesterol were used to make the animal model of liver fibrosis. The parameters of serum l-alanine aminotransferase (ALT), liver malondialdehyde and hydroxyproline contents were measured. Samples of the liver obtained by biopsy were subjected to histological and immunohistochemical studies for the expressions of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)). Results showed that verapamil induced a dose-dependent decrease of serum ALT, liver malondialdehyde and hydroxyproline compared with liver fibrosis model control. Verapamil reduced hepatocyte degeneration and necrosis, and delayed the formation of liver fibrosis. The levels of expression of alpha-SMA and TGF-beta(1) in the hepatic tissue of three of the verapamil-treated groups were significantly less than those of the liver fibrosis model control group. The results showed that verapamil acts against the formation of liver fibrosis, the mechanism might be due to a protective effect for hepatocytes and through decreasing TGF-beta(1) to block the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and collagen gene expression.
Available from: Norio Horiguchi
- "Thus, the exact role of L-type voltageoperated calcium channels in HSCs stimulated by TGF-b1 remains to be elucidated. Verapamil was reported to suppress liver fibrosis induced by multiple hepatotoxic factors, including CCl 4, ethanol and high cholesterol, in rats (Xu et al., 2007). However, doses of 20, 40 and 80 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 were suggested to be inappropriately high doses for the following reasons. "
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ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress plays a critical role in liver fibrogenesis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) stimulate hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), and ROS-mediated increases in calcium influx further increase ROS production. Azelnidipine is a calcium blocker that has been shown to have antioxidant effects in endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes. Therefore, we evaluated the anti-fibrotic and antioxidative effects of azelnidipine on liver fibrosis.
We used TGF-β1-activated LX-2 cells (a human HSC line) and mouse models of fibrosis induced by treatment with either carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4) ) or thioacetamide (TAA).
Azelnidipine inhibited TGF-β1 and angiotensin II (Ang II)-activated α1(I) collagen mRNA expression in HSCs. Furthermore, TGF-β1- and Ang II-induced oxidative stress and TGF-β1-induced p38 and JNK phosphorylation were reduced in HSCs treated with azelnidipine. Azelnidipine significantly decreased inflammatory cell infiltration, pro-fibrotic gene expressions, HSC activation, lipid peroxidation, oxidative DNA damage and fibrosis in the livers of CCl(4) - or TAA-treated mice. Finally, azelnidipine prevented a decrease in the expression of some antioxidant enzymes and accelerated regression of liver fibrosis in CCl(4) -treated mice.
Azelnidipine inhibited TGF-β1- and Ang II-induced HSC activation in vitro and attenuated CCl(4) - and TAA-induced liver fibrosis, and it accelerated regression of CCl(4) -induced liver fibrosis in mice. The anti-fibrotic mechanism of azelnidipine against CCl(4) -induced liver fibrosis in mice may have been due an increased level of antioxidant defence. As azelnidipine is widely used in clinical practice without serious adverse effects, it may provide an effective new strategy for anti-fibrotic therapy.
Available from: Michael Pekeler
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ABSTRACT: Over the last one and a half years, ACCEL has been working on two large scale cavity series production - the normal conducting CCL type copper cavities and all superconducting 6-cell cavities for the linac of the Spallation Neutron Source SNS. For both projects, the prototype phase is finished and we are in the middle of the series production. Tuning results on the normal conducting cavities will be presented as well as the cold RF test results of the superconducting medium beta cavity production. Experiences gained for future large scale cavity production will be presented.
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ABSTRACT: 1. Liver fibrosis is the compensatory state of cirrhosis. In the long asymptomatic period, it is imperative to select a proper dosing regimen for drugs that are applicable to hepatic fibrosis owing to altered pharmacokinetics and bioavailability. The present study was designed to observe the changes in verapamil pharmacokinetics in rats with early liver fibrosis with respect to alterations in cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). 2. A rat liver fibrosis model was successfully established using several inducers, including a high-fat diet, alcohol and carbon tetrachloride. After rats received a single intravenous or oral dose of verapamil (5 mg/kg), the plasma concentrations of verapamil were determined at scheduled time-points using HPLC. The activity of hepatic and small intestinal microsomal erythromycin N-demethylase (a marker for CYP3A) and the expression of small intestinal cyp3a and multidrug resistance (mdr) mRNA were compared between normal rats and rats with liver fibrosis. 3. The results showed that when verapamil was administered intravenously, the area under the curve (AUC), elimination half-life (T((1/2)(K10))) and mean residence time (MRT) increased significantly, whereas clearance (Cl) decreased, in rats with liver fibrosis compared with normal rats. After oral administration of verapamil, the AUC, (T((1/2)(K10))) and maximum concentration (C(max)) increased, Cl decreased and the absorption half-life (T((1/2)(K01))) and time to peak concentration (T(max)) were unchanged compared with normal rats. The oral bioavailability of verapamil was 32.9% in normal rats and 34.4% in rats with liver fibrosis. Furthermore, decreased CYP3A activity in the liver was accompanied by upregulated cyp3a9/18 and unchanged mdr mRNA in the small intestine compared with normal rats. Expression of cyp3a9/18 and mdr mRNA in the intestine was significantly inhibited by verapamil. 4. The results suggest that the lowered Cl and increased AUC of verapamil after intravenous and oral administration in rats with liver fibrosis were due to downregulation of CYP3A in the liver. The absorption rate of verapamil in rats with liver fibrosis was unchanged because mdr was unchanged and cyp3a was inhibited in the intestine by verapamil itself. There was no notable difference in oral bioavailability between normal rats and rats with liver fibrosis.
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