Development and characteristics of a human cell assay for screening agents for melanoma prevention
This paper describes the development and initial evaluation of a human cell assay to identify potentially efficacious agents for preventing melanoma. Four human cell lines were used: normal melanocytes, a radial growth-phase-like melanoma cell line (WM3211), a vertical growth-phase-like melanoma cell line (Lu1205), and 83-2c, a cell strain cloned from metastatic melanoma. Four endpoints were evaluated in ultraviolet B-treated cells: annexin V, human leukocyte antigen-DR; E-cadherin, and N-cadherin. Annexin V was induced by nimesulide, 4-hydroxyphenylretinamide, and difluoromethylornithine in ultraviolet-B-treated radial growth-phase-like melanoma cells. None of the agents inhibited human leukocyte antigen-DR expression in ultraviolet-B-treated radial growth-phase-like melanoma cells, the only cells that strongly expressed human leukocyte antigen-DR. E-cadherin was overexpressed only in radial growth-phase-like melanoma cells relative to melanocytes, and ultraviolet B exposure dramatically reduced this expression. E-cadherin was only induced by difluoromethylornithine in ultraviolet-B-treated radial growth-phase-like melanoma cells. N-cadherin was over- expressed in all melanoma cell lines relative to melanocytes. In this study, all candidate preventive agents inhibited N-cadherin in ultraviolet B-treated radial growth-phase-like melanoma cells. Four agents inhibited N-cadherin in ultraviolet B-treated vertical growth-phase-like melanoma cells. The mean ratios of N-cadherin to E-cadherin levels and specific endpoint responses for both the radial growth-phase-like melanoma and vertical growth-phase-like melanoma cells were used to rank the agents. Agents were evaluated at clinically relevant concentrations. The rankings were difluoromethylornithine>4-hydroxyphenylretinamide>nimesulide>9-cis-retinoic acid>polyphenon E. Diphenylhydramine, D-mannitol, and nordihydroguaiaretic acid were inactive. The results of these initial studies suggest that ultraviolet-B-treated radial growth-phase-like melanoma cells are the most responsive to chemopreventive agents, and may be the cell line of choice for screening melanoma prevention agents.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.