Article

Amnion-Derived Pluripotent/Multipotent Stem Cells

Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh, 200 Lothrop, St. Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.
Stem Cell Reviews and Reports (Impact Factor: 2.77). 02/2006; 2(2):133-42. DOI: 10.1007/s12015-006-0020-0
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Amniotic epithelium is derived from the epiblast by approx 8 d after fertilization. Other parts of the placenta are derived from extraembryonic tissue. In addition to this developmental difference, amniotic epithelial (AE) cells are known to have unique characteristics, such as low level expression of major histocompatibility complex antigens, and a less restricted differentiation potential. The differentiation of the AE cells to the neural lineage is well documented. Recently, we reported that AE cells from term placenta express several stem cell surface markers that are commonly found on pluripotent stem cells such as embryonic stem cells, and that in culture, AE cells differentiate into cell types from all three germ layers. In this review, we describe the unique characteristics of the AE stem cells and summarize previous work concerning the stem cell nature of cells from amnion.

    • "During the embryo development, the inner cell mass differentiates into two layers of cells, the hypoblast and epiblast (Miki and Strom 2006). Epiblast-derived cells, located adjacent to the cytotrophoblast, that is amnioblasts , differentiate into epithelial amniotic cells, which surround the primitive amniotic cavity. "
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    ABSTRACT: Foetal membranes are essential tissues for embryonic development, playing important roles related to protection, breathing, nutrition and excretion. The amnion is the innermost extraembryonic membrane, which surrounds the foetus, forming an amniotic sac that contains the amniotic fluid (AF). In recent years, the amniotic membrane has emerged as a potential tool for clinical applications and has been primarily used in medicine in order to stimulate the healing of skin and corneal diseases. It has also been used in vaginal reconstructive surgery, repair of abdominal hernia, prevention of surgical adhesions and pericardium closure. More recently, it has been used in regenerative medicine because the amniotic-derived stem cells as well as AF-derived cells exhibit cellular plasticity, angiogenic, cytoprotective, immunosuppressive properties, antitumoural potential and the ability to generate induced pluripotent stem cells. These features make them a promising source of stem cells for cell therapy and tissue engineering. In this review, we discussed the development of the amnion, AF and amniotic cavity in different species, as well as the applicability of stem cells from the amnion and AF in cellular therapy.
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    • "Devitalized, it has already been applied in clinics for decades for wound dressing or cornea replacement. The hAM contains epithelial and mesenchymal cells with proven stem cell properties[1,2], and vital hAM can differentiate into lineages such as osteogenic[3], chondrogenic[4], and Schwann cell-like[5]. Moreover, hAM is immunomodulatory[2], anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic , anti-microbial and non-tumorigenic[6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cells of the human amniotic membrane (hAM) have stem cell characteristics with low immunogenicity and anti-inflammatory properties. While hAM is an excellent source for tissue engineering, so far, its sub-regions have not been taken into account. We show that placental and reflected hAM differ distinctly in morphology and functional activity, as the placental region has significantly higher mitochondrial activity, however significantly less reactive oxygen species. Since mitochondria may participate in processes such as cell rescue, we speculate that amniotic sub-regions may have different potential for tissue regeneration, which may be crucial for clinical applications.
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    • "These FSCs are characterized by having expansion potential and a lack of tumorigenicity (Marcus and Woodbury, 2008). Because placenta can be noninvasively harvested, used with few ethical reservations, and is a voluminous organ with average weights of more than 590 g, it is considered an attractive source of stem cells that can be used for cell therapy in the field of regenerative medicine (Bolisetty et al., 2002; Miki and Strom, 2006; Matikainen and Laine, 2005; Abdulrazzak et al., 2010). "

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