Assessing the efficacy of gene therapy in Rpe65-/- mice using photoentrainment of circadian rhythm
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in humans are associated with several forms of inherited retinal dystrophies, such as Retinitis Pigmentosa which lead to retinal cell death and irreversible loss of vision. Genes involved in affected patients mainly encode proteins related to vision physiology including visual cycle and light-dependent phototransduction cascade. As reported in spontaneous and genetically engineered mouse models, apoptosis is a common fate in retinal degeneration, although the triggered signals to retinal apoptosis remain largely unraveled. Several studies highlighted that many of the molecular pathways involved in ocular diseases rely on caspase-dependent or -independent apoptotic mitochondrial pathway involving the Bcl-2 family of proteins. Anti- and pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 members are present in retinal tissues and are thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of several retinal disorders. Since almost no efficient treatments are available so far, it remains a great challenge to decipher the molecular pathways involved in retinal dystrophies and to develop alternative therapies to prevent or inhibit eye defect. Toward this goal, mutation-independent strategies such as molecular therapy provides promising and exciting approaches to deliver anti-apoptotic molecules targeting the Bcl-2 pathway through the use of cell permeable transport peptides. Modulation of common apoptotic signaling pathways may be of outstanding potential to target multiple retinal dystrophies regardless of the primary genetic defect.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Circadian rhythm has been the object of much attention. This review addresses the aspects of cell signaling, receptors, therapy and electrical effects in a multifaceted fashion. The pineal gland, which produces the important hormones melatonin and serotonin, exerts a prominent influence, in addition to the supraschiasmatic nucleus. Many aspects involve free radicals which have played a widespread role in biochemistry.
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