DNA and RNA autoantigens as autoadjuvants
Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, United StatesJournal of Endotoxin Research (Impact Factor: 3.06). 02/2006; 12(6):379-84. DOI: 10.1179/096805106X118816
AM14 B cells are a prototype for those low affinity autoreactive B cells that routinely mature as naïve cells in peripheral lymphoid tissues. These cells express a transgene-encoded receptor specific for IgG2a and can be effectively activated by immune complexes that incorporate either mammalian DNA or mammalian RNA that has been released from dead or dying cells. Activation depends on the ability of the B-cell receptor to deliver antigen to an internal vesicular compartment containing either Toll-like receptor-9 (TLR9) or TLR7. Since TLR9 and TLR7 are thought to recognize microbial DNA and RNA preferentially, it is important to determine under what conditions mammalian DNA and RNA become effective TLR ligands, and whether the determining factor is delivery or structure. This issue has been addressed by using IgG2a mAbs to deliver immune complexes preloaded with defined fragments of DNA or RNA, or by using modified ODNs/ORNs. The data demonstrate that only certain nucleic acid sequences or structures can induce autoreactive B-cell proliferation, even when delivery to the appropriate TLR compartment is facilitated by uptake through the B-cell receptor (BCR).
Conference Paper: Partially coherent detection of continuous phase chirp (CPCM)signals[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This paper treats the partially coherent detection of continuous phase chirp modulation (CPCM) signals. The optimum partially coherent receiver structures are described. Suboptimum receivers are also described and the corresponding bounds on error rate are calculated for optimum signal parameters. The optimum signal parameters are obtained for each degree of channel coherency by using a search program for the error probability versus the signal parameters
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have a crucial role in the early detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns and the subsequent activation of the adaptive immune response. Whether TLRs also have an important role in the recognition of endogenous ligands has been more controversial. Numerous in vitro studies have documented activation of both autoreactive B cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells by mammalian TLR ligands. The issue of whether these in vitro observations translate to an in vivo role for TLRs in either the initiation or the progression of systemic autoimmune disease is a subject of intense research; data are beginning to emerge showing that this is the case.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), expressed on cells of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, serve as sentinels, waiting to alert the host to the first signs of microbial infection and to activate the initial line of immune defense. Research has increasingly demonstrated that many of the same PRRs also recognize self-epitopes that either are released from dying or damaged cells or are present at the surface of apoptotic cells or apoptotic bodies. In this context, PRRs play a critical role in tissue repair and the clearance of cellular debris. However, failure to appropriately regulate self-responses triggered by certain PRRs can have serious pathological consequences. The Toll-like receptor (TLR) gene family represents a case in point. TLR7, 8, and 9 were originally identified as receptors specific for bacterial and viral RNA and DNA, but more recent in vitro and in vivo studies have now linked these receptors to the detection of host RNA, DNA, and RNA- or DNA-associated proteins. In this context, they likely play a key role in the development of systemic autoimmune diseases.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.