Risperidone for autism spectrum disorder

School for Policy Studies, University of Bristol, No 8 Priory Road, Bristol, UK, BS8 1TZ.
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) (Impact Factor: 6.03). 02/2007; 1(1):CD005040. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005040.pub2
Source: PubMed


Risperidone is an antipsychotic medication that has been used for symptom relief and behavioural improvement in autism. This review encompasses three randomised controlled trials and concludes that risperidone may be beneficial for various aspects of autism including irritability, repetition and hyperactivity. However, all studies were relatively small and used different ways to assess effectiveness, making comparisons difficult. In addition, side effects were identified, notably weight gain. Further studies are therefore necessary to determine the long term benefits, if any, compared with the potential risks.

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    • "Risperidone is a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved antipsychotic for the treatment of symptoms in children and adolescents with ASD.7,17 Risperidone is useful in the management of behavioral problems, such as irritability, aggression, self-injurious behavior, hyperactivity, and repetitive behavior.18–21 "
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    ABSTRACT: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with both core symptoms and associated symptoms (eg, irritability, aggression, and comorbidities) that affect both the individual and the family/systems around them. There have been recent advances in the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of ASD pertaining to genetics, epigenetics, neurological, hormonal, and environmental factors that contribute to the difficulties found in individuals with ASD. With this improved understanding, there has been a shift in the application of psychopharmacology in ASD and its related disorders. A literature review was conducted to examine research published in the last 5 years between different classes of psychotropic medications and ASD. The broad scope of the existing literature for the use of conventional medications is summarized and novel medications are discussed.
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    • "Current research suggests atypical antipsychotics (especially risperidone) and some antidepressants are commonly used to treat aggressive and other maladaptive behaviors of individuals with intellectual disabilities (Singh et al. 2011a;Deb 2008, 2011). However, in addition to specific adverse effects such as weight gain (Jesner et al. 2007;Singh et al. 2011a) and somnolence (Grey and Hastings 2005;Jesner et al. 2007), general concerns have been raised in terms of the quality of life of individuals with intellectual disabilities on psychotropic medication (Aman and Gharabawi 2004). Anger can be conceptualized within a cognitive behavioral framework (Deffenbacher 2011), and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been used to teach self-control strategies for anger management with individuals with intellectual disabilities (Taylor 2002;Taylor and Novaco 2013;Whittaker 2001). "
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    ABSTRACT: Physical and verbal aggression is a significant problem for some individuals with mild intellectual disabilities who reside in the community. We assessed the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based procedure, Meditation on the Soles of the Feet, to control both physical and verbal aggression. The design was a two-group (experimental and waiting list control) randomized controlled trial with four 12-week phases. A total of 57 individuals were referred to the trial, with 34 eligible for random assignment to the experimental and control conditions. Results showed a significant reduction in physical and verbal aggression commensurate with mindfulness-based training, when compared to the waiting list control condition. Similar reductions in physical and verbal aggression were evident when the same training was introduced in the control condition. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the mindfulness-based procedure for assisting individuals with mild intellectual disabilities to control their physical and verbal aggression.
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    • "Currently, behavioral modification techniques have been the most powerful positive interventions for autism spectrum disorders (Lovaas, 1987; Lovaas and Simmons, 1969). The antipsychotic risperidone is the only FDA approved medication for autism, and has been reported to (i) significantly decrease hyperactivity and irritability symptoms, (ii) have little to no effect on inappropriate speech or social withdrawal, and (iii) show significant weight gain and sedative side effects (Jesner et al., 2007). Perhaps the next most effective treatment in facilitating prosocial responsivity in a subset of autistic children is the off-label use of the opiate receptor antagonist naltrexone (Elchaar et al., 2006; Panksepp et al., 1991; Rossignol, 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Early childhood autism is characterized by deficits in social approach and play behaviors, socio-emotional relatedness, and communication/speech abnormalities, as well as repetitive behaviors. These core neuropsychological features of autism can be modeled in laboratory rats, and the results may be useful for drug discovery and therapeutic development. We review data that show that rats selectively bred for low rates of play-related pro-social ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) can be used to model social deficit symptoms of autism. Low-line animals engage in less social contact time with conspecifics, show lower rates of play induced pro-social USVs, and show an increased proportion of non-frequency modulated (i.e. monotonous) ultrasonic vocalizations compared to non-selectively bred random-line animals. Gene expression patterns in the low-line animals show significant enrichment in autism-associated genes, and the NMDA receptor family was identified as a significant hub. Treatment of low-line animals with the NMDAR functional glycine site partial agonist, GLYX-13, rescued the deficits in play-induced pro-social 50-kHz USVs and reduced monotonous USVs. Since the NMDA receptor has been implicated in the genesis of autistic symptoms, it is possible that GLYX-13 may be of therapeutic value in the treatment of autism.
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