Validation of a Brief Dietary Assessment to Guide Counseling for Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction in an Underserved Population
Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States Journal of the American Dietetic Association
(Impact Factor: 3.92).
02/2007; 107(2):246-55. DOI: 10.1016/j.jada.2006.11.006
Brief dietary assessment tools are needed to guide counseling in underserved populations to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The Dietary Risk Assessment is one such tool modified over time to reflect emerging evidence concerning diet and CVD risk.
To examine the capacity of the modified Dietary Risk Assessment tool to measure aspects of diet quality in a sample of underserved, midlife (aged 40 to 64 years) women, by comparing Dietary Risk Assessment results to those of a longer food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and with serum carotenoids.
This study used baseline data from women enrolled in a CVD risk reduction intervention trial. The Dietary Risk Assessment was administered to 236 women and results were compared to those from a longer FFQ administered to 104 women, and to serum carotenoids results from all participants.
Correlations between Dietary Risk Assessment indexes and corresponding measures from the FFQ were statistically significant: fruit and vegetable, r=-0.53 (P<0.0001, correlation is negative as a lower Dietary Risk Assessment score indicates greater fruit and vegetable intake); saturated fat, r=0.60 (P<0.0001). In linear regression models stratified by smoking and adjusted for body mass index, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and age, the Dietary Risk Assessment fruit and vegetable index was significantly associated with serum carotenoids (parameter estimate for nonsmokers -0.22, P=0.01; smokers -0.45, P=0.003). Correlation coefficients between Dietary Risk Assessment total score and three diet quality index scores derived from FFQ variables were statistically significant, ranging in magnitude from 0.57 to 0.60.
The modified Dietary Risk Assessment provides a reasonable assessment of dietary factors associated with CVD risk; thus, it is appropriate for use to guide dietary counseling in CVD prevention programs for underserved, midlife, women.
Available from: Behrooz Jannat
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ABSTRACT: Dietary antioxidants including phenolic compounds are believed to be effective nutrients in the prevention of oxidative stress related disease. Pomegranate has been used for centuries in ancient cultures for its medicinal purpose and is widely acknowledged for antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to assess the effect of pomegranate fresh fruit consumption on the plasma antioxidant capacity. Thirty healthy volunteers were recruited for the study. Volunteers were randomly divided into three groups (pomegranate, vitamin E and water consumption). Blood samples were collected, after at least 12 hours overnight fast, the day before beginning supplementation period and the day after supplementation had finished. Total antioxi- dant capacity measurement by FRAP method and clinical laboratory test were performed for all volunteers in two selected times. The obtained data revealed that consumption of 100 grams pomegranate and vitamin E per day for ten days resulted in a significant rise (14.05%, 8.28%) plasma antioxidant capacity respectively, but this difference was not significant for water group.
Available from: Ericka Escalante-Izeta
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ABSTRACT: Free convection cooled equipment racks used by British Telecommunications plc (BT) have an effective limit for system power dissipation density of approximately 2 W/litre. Power densities in excess of this which result from increased levels of system integration are most conveniently cooled by forced convection but the possible problems of reliability, maintenance, acoustic noise and capital cost must first be considered. Theoretical and practical work undertaken at British Telecom Research Labs (BTRL) has addressed these Â¿roblems and a prototype rack has been designed and tested which allows power densities of up to 20 W/litre. This system utilizes independent fan modules used in parallel, together with replicated monitoring and alarm circuitry. Reliability calculations suggest a cooling system MTBF of 1200 years. Fan control electronics allows acceptable performance to be maintained at minimum battery voltage or when individual elements of the cooling system have failed. Optimised airflow design minimises acoustic noise and fan power requirement.
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