An evaluation of the vitamin D3 content in fish: Is the vitamin D content adequate to satisfy the dietary requirement for vitamin D?
Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, United StatesThe Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (Impact Factor: 3.63). 04/2007; 103(3-5):642-4. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2006.12.010
It has been suggested that the major source of vitamin D should come from dietary sources and not sun exposure. However, the major fortified dietary source of vitamin D is milk which often does not contain at least 80% of what is stated on the label. Fish has been touted as an excellent source of vitamin D especially oily fish including salmon and mackerel. Little is known about the effect of various cooking conditions on the vitamin D content in fish. We initiated a study and evaluated the vitamin D content in several species of fish and also evaluated the effect of baking and frying on the vitamin D content. Surprisingly, farmed salmon had approximately 25% of the vitamin D content as wild salmon had. The vitamin D content in fish varied widely even within species. These data suggest that the tables that list the vitamin D content are out-of-date and need to be re-evaluated.
Get notified about updates to this publicationFollow publication
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "Cooking oils are not fortified in the USA and Canada (Calvo et al., 2004). However frying consumables in vitamin D fortified fats may result in loss of about 50% of vitamin D (Lu et al., 2007) so cooking with very little oil is advisable, i.e., baking or broiling (oil-free) instead of frying (shallow or deep). However, overconsumption of these products may exacerbate other health issues related to metabolic syndrome. "
ABSTRACT: Cancers have been the leading cause of death worldwide and poor diet and physical inactivity are major risk factors in cancer-related deaths. Micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals appear to have preventive properties against cancer. One important mechanism by which dietary changes can exert preventive effects on cancer is via modulation of micronutrient concentrations in target tissues. Many of these micronutrients are available in the form of dietary supplements, and the intake of these supplements is prevalent in various parts of the world. However in most cases it is not known which micronutrient (or combination of micronutrients) is best when it comes to lowering the risk of cancer. The present review illustrates the effect of vitamin D and ascorbic acid intake on preventing cancer.
- "The vitamin D fraction was chromatographed on a straight phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Collected fractions were chromatographed on a reverse phase HPLC to quantify the vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 content based on the UV absorption according to the study performed by Lu et al. (2007). "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "Whereas approximately half of participants were meeting vitamin B-12 and folate requirements at 6 months, very few participants were meeting vitamin D requirements at any time point. Vegan diets are typically low in vitamin D , and pesco-veg participants may have had higher vitamin D intakes at 2 months because of the recommendation to include fish in the diet . However, all groups would benefit from the inclusion of vitamin D–rich foods or supplements. "
ABSTRACT: Studies have examined nutrient differences among people following different plant-based diets. However, all of these studies have been observational. The aim of the present study was to examine differences in nutrient intake and Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) scores among overweight and obese (body mass index 25.0-49.9 kg/m(2)) adults randomized to receive dietary instruction on a vegan (n = 12), vegetarian (n = 13), pescovegetarian (n = 13), semivegetarian (n = 13), or omnivorous (n = 12) diet during a 6-month randomized controlled trial. Nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and DII score were assessed via two 24-hour dietary recalls (Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall) at baseline and at 2 and 6 months. Differences in nutrient intake and the DII were examined using general linear models with follow-up tests at each time point. We hypothesized that individuals randomized to the vegan diet would have lower DII scores and greater improvements in fiber, carbohydrate, fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol at both 2 and 6 months as compared with the other 4 diets. Participants randomized to the vegan diet had significantly greater changes in most macronutrients at both time points, including fat and saturated fat, as well as cholesterol and, at 2 months, fiber, as compared with most of the other diet groups (Ps < .05). Vegan, vegetarian, and pescovegetarian participants all saw significant improvements in the DII score as compared with semivegetarian participants at 2 months (Ps < .05) with no differences at 6 months. Given the greater impact on macronutrients and the DII during the short term, finding ways to provide support for adoption and maintenance of plant-based dietary approaches, such as vegan and vegetarian diets, should be given consideration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.