Patterns in sedentary and exercise behaviors and associations with overweight in 9–14-year-old boys and girls—A cross-sectional study

Department of Nutrition, University of Oslo, Kristiania (historical), Oslo, Norway
BMC Public Health (Impact Factor: 2.26). 02/2007; 7(1):16. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-7-16
Source: PubMed


Before starting interventions addressing energy-balance related behaviors, knowledge is needed about the prevalence of sedentary behaviors and low physical exercise, their interrelationships, possible gender differences. Therefore this study aimed to describe gender differences in sedentary and physical exercise behaviors and their association with overweight status in children from nine European countries. Additionally, to identify clusters of children sharing the same pattern regarding sedentary and physical exercise behavior and compare these groups regarding overweight status.
Cross-sectional study among 11-year-old children in nine countries (n = 12538). Self-administered questionnaires assessed the time spent on TV viewing during dinner and during the day, PC use and on physical exercise. The parents reported children's weight and height. Descriptive statistics, cluster analyses, and logistic regression analyses were used for data analyses.
Boys spent more time on sedentary behaviors but also more on physical exercise than girls. High TV viewing and low exercise behavior independently increased the risk of being overweight. Based on the behaviors, five clusters were identified. Among boys, clear associations with being overweight were found, with the most unhealthy behavior pattern having the highest risks of being overweight. Among girls, high TV viewers and high PC users had increased risk of being overweight. In girls sedentary behaviors seemed more important than physical exercise with regard to overweight status.
Despite selective non-response on BMI and reliance on self-reports, the associations between clusters and overweight in boys were clear, and differences between boys and girls regarding the behaviors and risks for overweight are noteworthy. These differences need to be considered when developing tailored intervention strategies for prevention of overweight.

Download full-text


Available from: Johannes Brug, Nov 10, 2015
  • Source
    • "Based on the recently collected data from four elementary schools and food outlets in a rural county of Alabama, this study analyses the patterns of childhood obesity, assesses community food environments, and examines the interactions between socioeconomic disparities, childhood obesity and food environments . In this research, the prevalence of overweight or obese was higher among boys as compared with girls, consistent with the previous studies (Field et al. 1999; Velde et al. 2007). Overweight or obesity rate among children aged 7–13 was 10% higher than those aged 4–6. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Childhood obesity has been rising rapidly in the USA. The rate is higher among those at a lower socioeconomic status and racial/ethnic minority groups. In Alabama, nearly half of the children from rural African American families are overweight or obese. Studies suggest that children's eating behaviours and weight could be influenced by surrounding food environments. The purpose of this paper is to assess the community food environment and examine the associations with childhood obesity in Alabama's Black Belt region. Methods: This research uses both qualitative and quantitative methods. Weight status of 613 African American students in four elementary schools in a rural county of Alabama was assessed. We examined community food environments around children's home through GIS (Geographic Information System) and statistical methods. The interrelations between children's weight and community food environments are explored with multi-level models. Results: Approximately 42.1% of surveyed children were overweight or obese, much higher than the national average, 30.6%. In Model 1, convenience stores (3.44; P < 0.01), full service restaurants (8.99; P < 0.01) and supermarkets (-37.69; P < 0.01) were significantly associated with the percentile of body mass index. Fast food stores (-0.93; P = 0.88) were not related to children's weight. In Model 2, the additions of sociodemographic factors and school effects cause significant changes of the relationships between children's weight and four types of food outlets. The percentage of African American population (90.23, P < 0.01) and school (6.68, P < 0.01) were positively associated with children's weight; while median household income (-39.6; P < 0.01) was negatively related to it. Conclusion: Children's weight is influenced by community food environments, sociodemographic factors and school context. Findings suggest that policymakers and planners need to improve community food environments of low-income minority communities. Parents and schools should pay more attention to reduce the negative impacts of food environments on children.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Child Care Health and Development
  • Source
    • "Early puberty and the years immediately prior to puberty may be particularly opportune to harness the osteogenic potential of exercise in the presence of increasing levels of circulating growth factors [8]. Women are more likely to suffer from osteoporosis than men [9] and less likely to exercise, including during childhood [10] [11]. In addition, sexual dimorphism of bone development during growth results in greater bone strength in boys than girls following puberty [12] [13] [14]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: The CAPO Kids trial was a 9-mo, controlled, school-based intervention to examine the effects of a novel, brief, high intensity exercise regime on indices of musculoskeletal and metabolic health in pre- and early-pubertal girls. Methods: A total of 151 pre- and early-pubertal girls (10.6±0.6years), recruited from two different schools consented to participate; 76 in the exercise group (EX) and 75 in the control group (CON). EX performed 10min bouts of thrice-weekly jumping plus capoeira (a Brazilian sport that combines martial art with dance), along with usual physical education (PE) activities. CON continued usual PE alone. Maturity, weight, height, waist circumference, resting heart rate and blood pressure, maximal vertical jump, and aerobic capacity were determined using standard clinical and field measures. Calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and stiffness index (SI) were determined from quantitative ultrasonometry. A subsample of children also underwent DXA and pQCT measures. Prior physical activity participation and daily calcium consumption were determined from validated instruments. Results: EX girls improved BUA more than CON (+4.5% vs. +1.4%, p=0.019). Resting heart rate (-7.2% vs. -1.8%, p<0.01), maximal vertical jump (+13.4% vs. -1.2%, p<0.001), estimated maximal oxygen consumption (+10.6% vs. +1.0%, p<0.001), and waist circumference (+2.7% vs. +5.6%, p<0.001) also improved more for EX than CON. Conclusion: Ten minutes of high intensity exercise (capoeira and jumping) three times a week in the primary school setting enhances musculoskeletal and metabolic outcomes in pre- and early-pubertal girls without disrupting the academic schedule. The programme, amenable to broad-scale school implementation, would confer meaningful public health benefits.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Bone
  • Source
    • "Self-reported data on height and weight are compromised by a number of methodological issues. Study populations of adolescents are often characterised by a substantial proportion of missing values on height and weight [2-4]. Further, weight is often under-reported [5-13] while height tends to be over-reported [5,6,8,10,12,13]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study proposes a new approach for investigating bias in self-reported data on height and weight among adolescents by studying the relevance of participants' self-reported response capability. The objectives were 1) to estimate the prevalence of students with high and low self-reported response capability for weight and height in a self-administrated questionnaire survey among 11--15 year old Danish adolescents, 2) to estimate the proportion of missing values on self-reported height and weight in relation to capability for reporting height and weight, and 3) to investigate the extent to which adolescents' response capability is of importance for the accuracy and precision of self-reported height and weight. Also, the study investigated the impact of students' response capability on estimating prevalence rates of overweight. Data was collected by a school-based cross-sectional questionnaire survey among students aged 11--15 years in 13 schools in Aarhus, Denmark, response rate =89%, n = 2100. Response capability was based on students' reports of perceived ability to report weight/height and weighing/height measuring history. Direct measures of height and weight were collected by school health nurses. One third of the students had low response capability for weight and height, respectively, and every second student had low response capability for BMI. The proportion of missing values on self-reported weight and height was significantly higher among students who were not weighed and height measured recently and among students who reported low recall ability. Among both boys and girls the precision of self-reported height and weight tended to be lower than among students with low response capability. Low response capability was related to BMI (z-score) and overweight prevalence among girls. These findings were due to a larger systematic underestimation of weight among girls who were not weighed recently (-1.02 kg, p < 0.0001) and among girls with low recall ability for weight (-0.99 kg, p = 0.0024). This study indicates that response capability may be relevant for the accuracy of girls' self-reported measurements of weight and height. Consequently, by integrating items on response capability in survey instruments, participants with low capability can be identified. Similar analyses based on other and less selected populations are recommended.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · BMC Medical Research Methodology
Show more