Iontophoresis-An Approach for Controlled Drug Delivery: A Review

Department of Pharmaceutics, Jamia Hamdard, (Hamdard University), New Delhi-110062, India.
Current Drug Delivery (Impact Factor: 1.48). 02/2007; 4(1):1-10. DOI: 10.2174/156720107779314802
Source: PubMed


The recent approval of lidocaine hydrochloride and epinephrine combined iontophoretic patch (Lidosite Vysteris Inc.) for localized pain treatment by FDA has invigorated the gaining interest in iontophoretic drug delivery systems for the transdermal delivery of drugs. This technique of facilitated movement of ions across a membrane under the influence of an externally applied electric potential difference, is one of the most promising physical skin penetration enhancing method. The rationale behind using this technique is the capability of this method to increase the systemic delivery of high molecular weight compounds with controlled input kinetics and minimum inter-subject variability, which is otherwise achieved only when parentral route of administration is used. Recently, good permeation of larger peptides like insulin has been achieved through this technique in combination with chemical enhancers. This review briefly describes the factors which affect iontophoretic drug delivery and summarizes the studies conducted recently using this technique in order to achieve higher systemic absorption of the drugs having low passive diffusion otherwise. The effect of permeation enhancers (chemical enhancers) on iontophoretic flux of drugs has also been described. Present review also provides an insight into reverse iontophoresis. Various parameters which affect the transdermal absorption of drugs through iontophoresis like drug concentration, polarity of drugs, pH of donor solution, presence of co-ions, ionic strength, electrode polarity etc. have also been reviewed in detail.

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    • "There are numerous therapies tested in clinical and experimental studies in order to improve wound healing in normal and diabetic hosts. Among them, we highlight the oral, parenteral, or topical substances derived from herbal extracts administration, insulin, zinc, chromium, laser irradiation, extracorporeal shock wave pathway, growth factors, artificial skin, culture of epithelium, with or without dermal components, and electrical stimulation of tissues, isolated or associated with administration of soluble ions by transdermal iontophoresis (TDI) [8–14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Evaluated the effects of continuous electrical current (CEC) or zinc administrated by transdermal iontophoresis (Zn+TDI). Methods: 120 male Wistar rats were submitted to an incision surgery at the anterior region of abdomen and distributed into 6 experimental groups with 40 animals: 3 diabetic groups and 3 normal groups, untreated and treated with CEC alone or with Zn + TDI. Each group was further divided into 4 subgroups with 10 rats each to be evaluated on the 4th, 7th, 14th, and 21st day after surgery. In each period, clinical and laboratory parameters from the animals were analyzed. Results: The analysis by optical and scanning electron microscopy showed a delay in the phases of wound healing in diabetic rats without treatment in all periods of the experiment; breaking strength (BS) was significantly reduced in skin scars of untreated diabetic rats when compared to other groups. In contrast, BS in skin scars of nondiabetic groups and diabetic rats treated with Zn + TDI showed significant increase in those, besides not presenting delayed healing. Conclusion: Electrical stimulation of surgical wounds used alone or in association with zinc by TDI is able to consistently improve the morphological and ultrastructural changes observed in the healing of diabetic animals.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of Diabetes Research
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    • "It also offers a great potential for the delivery of charged peptides used as drugs. Although iontophoresis has been able to achieve significant increase in the transdermal absorption of many drugs, it has not been able to show significant permeation of larger peptides like insulin [52]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The delivery of drugs into systemic circulation via skin has generated much attention during the last decade. Transdermal therapeutic systems propound controlled release of active ingredients through the skin and into the systemic circulation in a predictive manner. Drugs administered through these systems escape first-pass metabolism and maintain a steady state scenario similar to a continuous intravenous infusion for up to several days. However, the excellent impervious nature of the skin offers the greatest challenge for successful delivery of drug molecules by utilizing the concepts of iontophoresis. The present review deals with the principles and the recent innovations in the field of iontophoretic drug delivery system together with factors affecting the system. This delivery system utilizes electric current as a driving force for permeation of ionic and non-ionic medications. The rationale behind using this technique is to reversibly alter the barrier properties of skin, which could possibly improve the penetration of drugs such as proteins, peptides and other macromolecules to increase the systemic delivery of high molecular weight compounds with controlled input kinetics and minimum inter-subject variability. Although iontophoresis seems to be an ideal candidate to overcome the limitations associated with the delivery of ionic drugs, further extrapolation of this technique is imperative for translational utility and mass human application.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Scientia Pharmaceutica
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    • "These chemical enhancers increase structures and are skin permeability mainly by disorganization of lipid insufficient to enhance transcutaneous delivery at a safe concentration because the majority of the SC layer remains intact after the treatment [3]. Iontophoresis and electroporation use electrical charges to force ionized drugs or vaccines across the SC layer [1] [5] [6], while ultrasound and shock waves temporarily reduce skin barrier property by generating cavitation or pressure waves to increase drug penetration [1] [4] [7]. Although these chemical and physical methods have been under investigation for many years, their clinical application is hampered due to their ineffectiveness or invasiveness. "
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    ABSTRACT: Full-surface laser ablation has been shown to efficiently disrupt stratum corneum and facilitate transcutaneous drug delivery, but it is frequently associated with skin damage that hampers its clinic use. We show here that a safer ablative fractional laser (AFL) can sufficiently facilitate delivery of not only patch-coated hydrophilic drugs but also protein vaccines. AFL treatment generated an array of self renewable microchannels (MCs) in the skin, providing free paths for drug and vaccine delivery into the dermis while maintaining integrity of the skin by quick healing of the MCs. AFL was superior to tape stripping in transcutaneous drug and vaccine delivery as a much higher amount of sulforhodamine B (SRB), methylene blue (MB) or a model vaccine ovalbumin (OVA) was recovered from AFL-treated skin than tape-stripped skin or control skin after patch application. Following entry into the MCs, the drugs or OVA diffused quickly to the entire dermal tissue via the lateral surface of conical-shaped MCs. In contrast, a majority of the drugs and OVA remained on the skin surface, unable to penetrate into the dermal tissue in untreated control skin or tape stripping-treated skin. Strikingly, OVA delivered through the MCs was efficiently taken up by epidermal Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells in the vicinity of the MCs or transported to the draining lymph nodes, leading to a robust immune response, in sharp contrast to a weak, though significant, immune response elicited in tape stripping group or a basal immune response in control groups. These data support strongly that AFL is safe and sufficient for transcutaneous delivery of drugs and vaccines.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Journal of Controlled Release
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