National Estimates and Factors Associated With Medication Treatment for Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, Mailstop E-88, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.
PEDIATRICS (Impact Factor: 5.47). 03/2007; 119 Suppl 1(Supplement):S99-106. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2006-2089O
Source: PubMed


In this study we identified child and family-level characteristics that were associated with medication treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder using nationally representative survey data.
National Survey of Children's Health data from 79264 youth 4 to 17 years of age were used. Data were weighted to adjust for the complex survey design of the National Survey of Children's Health. Gender-specific logistic regression models were generated to identify child and family-level characteristics that were collectively associated with current medication status among youth with a reported diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Nationally, 7.8% of youth aged 4 to 17 years had a reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis, and 4.3% had both a disorder diagnosis and were currently taking medication for the disorder. Current medication treatment among youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was associated with white race, younger age, English spoken in the home, health care coverage, a health care contact within the last year, and reported psychological difficulties. Gender-specific logistic regression models revealed that, together, younger age, higher income, health care coverage, having psychological difficulties, and a health care contact in the past year were associated with medication use among boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Among girls with the disorder, younger age, psychological difficulties, fair-to-poor paternal mental health status, and a health care contact within the last year were collectively associated with current medication use. CONCLUSIONS. Regardless of gender, younger age, the presence of psychological difficulties, and a recent health care contact were significantly associated with medication treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. However, additional health care access and income variables among boys and paternal mental health status among girls represented gender-specific factors that were also associated with medication treatment for the disorder. Future studies should characterize how and when the burden associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder leads to treatment, support, or services for this prevalent and impairing neurobehavioral disorder.


Available from: Ruth Perou, Jan 15, 2016
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    • "Furthermore, children with ADHD are prone to addiction and anti-social behaviour [2]. ADHD is diagnosed in approximately 5% of children in Europe and 8% of children in the United States [3, 4]. A recent meta-analysis estimated that approximately 8% of children with ADHD may have symptoms caused by artificial food colourings [5]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: There is ongoing controversy as to whether food colourings can cause symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. The aim of our study was to assess which artificial food colourings children in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, consume, and in what quantities. Methods: A variety of products available in supermarkets and grocery shops in Amsterdam were surveyed for the presence of artificial food colourings (2012–2013). Subsequently, daily intake of artificial food colourings were assessed in a convenience sample of children (n=121, median age 7.0, range 5–12 years, 50% boys) using a three-day prospective food diary (two weekdays and one day at the weekend), and compared to the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Results: Seventy-three of 550 (13%) products from supermarkets, groceries, and Turkish and Moroccan shops contained artificial food colourings, predominantly in sweets (33%) and (carbonated) beverages (31%). Brilliant Blue (E133), Patent Blue (E131) and Indigotine (E132) were most often encountered. Of the 121 children surveyed, 18 (15%) consumed artificial food colourings, though only Brilliant Blue (E133), Patent Blue (E131), Indigotine (E132) and Green S (E142) were encountered. The mean intake varied from 0.02–0.96 mg/kg/day, which is below the ADI (5–15 mg/kg/day). None of the children consumed yellow, orange or red artificial food colours. Conclusions: Intake of artificial food colourings in children in Amsterdam is well below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) and is limited to Brilliant Blue (E133), Patent Blue (E131), Indigotine (E132) and Green S (E142). Citation: Kist-van Holthe J, Altenburg TM, Bolakhrif S, el Hamdi L, Man MW, Tu J, Chin A Paw MJ (2015) Consumption of artificial food colourings by school children in the Netherlands. Adv Pediatr Res 2:5.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015
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    • "Youth with ADHD are at an increased risk for academic failure because of learning or language problems. Other consequences associated with ADHD include dangerous driving, impaired peer relationships, delinquent behavior, and impulsive sexuality (Putukian et al. 2011; Visser et al. 2012). Moreover, when ADHD is untreated, there is increased prevalence of certain psychological disorders (e.g., major depression, bipolar disorder, conduct disorder, oppositional-defiant disorder, antisocial personality , substance use, and anxiety) (Faraone et al. 1997; Rasmussen and Gillberg 2000; Kollins et al. 2005; Biederman et al. 2006). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prescription stimulants are often used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Drugs like methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta), dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine), and dextroamphetamine-amphetamine (Adderall) help people with ADHD feel more focused. However, misuse of stimulants by ADHD and nonaffected individuals has dramatically increased over recent years based on students' misconceptions or simple lack of knowledge of associated risks. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the use and increasing misuse of prescription stimulants among high school and college students and athletes. Given the widespread belief that stimulants enhance performance, there are in fact only a few studies reporting the cognitive enhancing effects of stimulants in ADHD and nonaffected individuals. Student athletes should be apprised of the very serious consequences that can emerge when stimulants are used to improve sports performance. Moreover, misuse of stimulants is associated with dangers including psychosis, myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, and even sudden death. As ADHD medications are prescribed for long-term treatment, there is a need for long-term safety studies and education on the health risks associated with misuse is imperative.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Brain and Behavior
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    • "Our comprehensive study found several factors associated with ADHD including some that have not been examined together in conjunction with other variables, especially at the national level. The significant association found between ADHD and DEP, ANX, sex, race, FAMILY, POVERTY, and EDUC is consistent with previous studies on ADHD22232425 . However, after accounting for the ADHD related factors, obesity was not found to be significant, contrary to some previous studies [25]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and various factors using a representative sample of US children in a comprehensive manner. This includes variables that have not been previously studied such as watching TV/playing video games, computer usage, family member’s smoking, and participation in sports. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 68,634 children, 5–17 years old, from the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH, 2007–2008). We performed bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses with ADHD classification as the response variable and the following explanatory variables: sex, race, depression, anxiety, body mass index, healthcare coverage, family structure, socio-economic status, family members’ smoking status, education, computer usage, watching television (TV)/playing video games, participation in sports, and participation in clubs/organizations. Results Approximately 10% of the sample was classified as having ADHD. We found depression, anxiety, healthcare coverage, and male sex of child to have increased odds of being diagnosed with ADHD. One of the salient features of this study was observing a significant association between ADHD and variables such as TV usage, participation in sports, two-parent family structure, and family members’ smoking status. Obesity was not found to be significantly associated with ADHD, contrary to some previous studies. Conclusions The current study uncovered several factors associated with ADHD at the national level, including some that have not been studied earlier in such a setting. However, we caution that due to the cross-sectional and observational nature of the data, a cause and effect relationship between ADHD and the associated factors can not be deduced from this study. Future research on ADHD should take into consideration these factors, preferably through a longitudinal study design.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · BMC Pediatrics
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