Article

Sleepless in America: Inadequate Sleep and Relationships to Health and Well-being of Our Nation's Children

Columbia University School of Nursing, New York, New York 10032, USA.
PEDIATRICS (Impact Factor: 5.47). 02/2007; 119 Suppl 1(Supplement 1):S29-37. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2006-2089F
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Our goal was to identify characteristics associated with inadequate sleep for a national random sample of elementary school-aged children (6-11 years) and adolescents (12-17 years).
Data from 68418 participants in the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health were analyzed by using weighted bivariate and multivariate regression models. The dependent variable was report of not getting enough sleep for a child of his or her age >or=1 night of the past week. Independent variables included demographic characteristics, child health, school and other activities, and family life.
Parents of elementary school-aged children with inadequate sleep were more likely to report that their child was having problems at school or had a father with fair or poor health. Parents of adolescents with inadequate sleep were more likely to report that their child had an atopic condition, frequent or severe headaches, a parent with less-than-excellent emotional health, or experienced frequent parental anger. Inadequate sleep in both age groups was associated with parental report that their child usually or always displayed depressive symptomatology, family disagreements involved heated arguing, or parental concern that the child was not always safe at home, at school, or in their neighborhood.
Approximately 15 million American children are affected by inadequate sleep. Primary care providers should routinely identify and address inadequate sleep and its associated health, school, and family factors.

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    • "Also, parental support and family connectedness have been shown to be protective factors against health-risk behaviors (Carter et al. 2007; Simantov et al. 2000). In turn, healthrelated behaviors such as poor nutrition habits, lack of physical activity, and inadequate sleep in children and adolescents are associated with negative health outcomes, such as chronic diseases (Smaldone et al. 2007; World Health Organization 2003). Two recent reviews (Umberson et al. 2010; Umberson and Montez 2010) highlight the importance of social relationships in influencing physical and mental health, health behavior, and mortality risk, and summarize evidence of how social experiences in early life shape long lasting social and health trajectories. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated how various risk and protective factors interface with child health and well-being at the population level. Specifically, we examined the association of income, social-contextual variables, and indicators of health-related habits and activities to children’s life satisfaction and perceived overall health. Child data were collected via a self-report survey, the Middle Years Development Instrument, which was administered in three demographically diverse Canadian school districts to 5026 grade 4 students (83 % of the students had complete data and were included in the analyses). Multiple regression and mediation analyses were conducted to examine the joint associations of social relationships with adults and peers, nutrition and sleep habits, and after school sports activities with children’s satisfaction with life and perceived health. Results indicate that peer belonging and relationships with adults at home and school were the strongest predictors of life satisfaction. Furthermore, the (small) association between income and life satisfaction was mediated by social relationship variables. Child reports of perceived health were predicted by peer belonging, adult relationships (home, school, neighborhood), after-school team sports, and nutrition habits. The (small) association between income and health was mediated by social relationships and team sports participation. Findings are discussed in light of previous research on social determinants and socio-economic gradients of children’s health and life satisfaction.
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    • "Con toda la información recopilada, las variables estudiadas fueron: Patrones de descanso. Entendiendo como tales, –el mantenimiento de unos horarios regulares a la hora de acostarse y levantarse–, así como un número suficiente de horas de sueño (Smaldone, Honig y Byrne, 2007). Se distribuyeron los participantes en dos grupos. "
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