ADHD and Achievement Meta-Analysis of the Child, Adolescent, and Adult Literatures and a Concomitant Study With College Students

University of Delaware, Ньюарк, Delaware, United States
Journal of Learning Disabilities (Impact Factor: 1.9). 02/2007; 40(1):49-65. DOI: 10.1177/00222194070400010401
Source: PubMed


This article presents results from two interrelated studies. The first study conducted a meta-analysis of the published literature since 1990 to determine the magnitude of achievement problems associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Effect sizes were significantly different between participants with and without ADHD (sample weighted r = .32, sample weighted d = . 71; p = .001). Effects were also examined according to the moderators of age, gender, achievement domain (reading, math, spelling), measurement method (standardized tests vs. grades, parent/teacher ratings, etc.), sample type (clinical vs. nonclinical), and system used to identify ADHD (DSM-III-R vs. DSM-IV). Significant differences emerged from the moderator comparisons. The second study, using averaged effect sizes from the first study as a baseline for comparison, investigated achievement levels for an understudied age group with ADHD, namely, college students. Unlike previous studies at the college level, the sample incorporated both student and parent ratings (N = 380 dyads). The results were comparable to outcomes from the meta-analysis for college students and adults. Analyses demonstrated modest (R = .21) but meaningful predictive validity across 1 year to end-of-first-year grades. However, unlike earlier studies with children and adolescents, student ratings were as predictive as parent ratings. Findings are discussed in terms of the impact of moderator variables on ADHD and achievement.

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    • "Assessment of impairment is known to have direct impact on disorder identification rate in that ADHD prevalence estimates are more conservative when symptoms must be associated with significant impairment (McKeown et al. 2015). In addition, intervening to remediate children's lower academic and social functioning may help address ADHD's well-documented sequelae of grade retention , academic underachievement, identification for special education services, and school drop-out (Barkley et al. 2006;Frazier et al. 2007;Kent et al. 2011). Understanding to what extent children with ADHD display variability in their impairments in social as well as academic functioning is important to Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10802-016-0126-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. "
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    ABSTRACT: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are known to exhibit significantly lower academic and social functioning than other children. Yet the field currently lacks knowledge about specific impairment trajectories experienced by children with ADHD, which may constrain early screening and intervention effectiveness. Data were analyzed from a nationally representative U.S. cohort in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K) for 590 children (72.7 % male) whose parents reported a formal diagnosis of ADHD. Children's math, reading, and interpersonal skills were assessed at 5 time points between kindergarten and fifth grade. Growth mixture model analyses indicated 4 latent trajectory classes for reading, 8 classes for math, and 4 classes for interpersonal skills. Membership in reading and math trajectory classes was strongly related; overlaps with interpersonal skills classes were weaker. Trajectory class membership was correlated with demographic characteristics and behavioral functioning. Children with ADHD display substantial heterogeneity in their reading, math, and interpersonal growth trajectories, with some groups of children especially likely to display relatively severe levels of academic and social impairment over time. Early screening and intervention to address impairment, particularly reading difficulties, among kindergarten students with ADHD is warranted.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
    • "Functional impairments at school are particularly prevalent in youth with ADHD (DuPaul and Stoner 2003). Relative to peers in the general population, children with ADHD are more likely to have school problems and to repeat a grade (Larson et al. 2011), earn lower grades while in school (Frazier et al. 2007), and have difficulties with reading and mathematics (Czamara et al. 2013). Youth with ADHD are also more likely to have longterm academic difficulties, such as higher rates of school dropout and lower college enrollment (DuPaul and Stoner 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: Students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often do not actively engage in academic instruction because they have difficulty in attending to task demands in the classroom. Without adequate intervention, this may result in poor academic outcomes for these students. In a multiple baseline design study, we taught four 5th-grade students Samatha meditation and assessed active engagement in math instruction and the percentage of math problems correctly solved during baseline, meditation training, and meditation practice phases. Results showed the students had varying but low percentages of intervals of active engagement in math instruction during baseline, but evidenced statistically significant increases from baseline to the meditation practice phase. Similarly, their low but varying percentages of math problems solved correctly during baseline showed statistically significant increases from baseline to the meditation practice phase. These results suggest that Samatha meditation may enhance cognitive processes in students with ADHD at a level to benefit them academically.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Mindfulness
    • "In einer Längsschnittstudie von Massetti et al. (2008) zeigten Kinder, die im Alter von vier bis sechs Jahren eine ADHS aufwiesen, über sieben Schuljahre hinweg deutlich schwächere Schulleistungen im Vergleich zu Kindern ohne ADHS. Die Gesamtleistung der betroffenen Kinder über alle Schulbereiche hinweg liegt nach den Ergebnissen einer Metaanalyse durchschnittlich d = 0.71 Standardabweichungen unter der von Kindern ohne ADHS, wobei die Unterschiede zwischen den Gruppen mit d = 0.73 in den Leseleistungen, mit d = 0.67 in den Mathematikleistungen und mit d = 0.55 in den Rechtschreibleistungen in allen drei Schulleistungsbereichen deutlich ausfielen (Frazier, Youngstrom, Glutting & Watkins, 2007). Ein jüngst erschienenes Review, in dem 17 Studien aus den Jahren 2001 bis 2011 zusammengefasst wurden, macht deutlich, dass bei 8 bis 76 % der Kinder mit ADHS komorbide Lernschwierigkeiten vorliegen, "

    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Zeitschrift für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie
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