How to Compute Isomerization Energies of Organic Molecules with Quantum Chemical Methods
Theoretische Organische Chemie, Organisch-Chemisches Institut der Universität Münster, Corrensstrasse 40, D-48149 Münster, Germany. The Journal of Organic Chemistry
(Impact Factor: 4.72).
03/2007; 72(6):2118-26. DOI: 10.1021/jo062446p
The reaction energies for 34 typical organic isomerizations including oxygen and nitrogen heteroatoms are investigated with modern quantum chemical methods that have the perspective of also being applicable to large systems. The experimental reaction enthalpies are corrected for vibrational and thermal effects, and the thus derived "experimental" reaction energies are compared to corresponding theoretical data. A series of standard AO basis sets in combination with second-order perturbation theory (MP2, SCS-MP2), conventional density functionals (e.g., PBE, TPSS, B3-LYP, MPW1K, BMK), and new perturbative functionals (B2-PLYP, mPW2-PLYP) are tested. In three cases, obvious errors of the experimental values could be detected, and accurate coupled-cluster [CCSD(T)] reference values have been used instead. It is found that only triple-zeta quality AO basis sets provide results close enough to the basis set limit and that sets like the popular 6-31G(d) should be avoided in accurate work. Augmentation of small basis sets with diffuse functions has a notable effect in B3-LYP calculations that is attributed to intramolecular basis set superposition error and covers basic deficiencies of the functional. The new methods based on perturbation theory (SCS-MP2, X2-PLYP) are found to be clearly superior to many other approaches; that is, they provide mean absolute deviations of less than 1.2 kcal mol-1 and only a few (<10%) outliers. The best performance in the group of conventional functionals is found for the highly parametrized BMK hybrid meta-GGA. Contrary to accepted opinion, hybrid density functionals offer no real advantage over simple GGAs. For reasonably large AO basis sets, results of poor quality are obtained with the popular B3-LYP functional that cannot be recommended for thermochemical applications in organic chemistry. The results of this study are complementary to often used benchmarks based on atomization energies and should guide chemists in their search for accurate and efficient computational thermochemistry methods.
Available from: Marc Steinmetz
- "Evaluation of the performance of density functionals (DFs) by benchmarking for different realistic chemical tasks is a crucial step prior to the investigation of new problems. Several sets were developed in recent years to test DFs, such as atomization energies,6–8 noncovalent interactions,9–12 and thermochemistry and kinetics.13–15 Many of these were collected in the GMTKN3016 test set by our group to build a large benchmark, which includes a thorough treatment of the chemically important main-group chemistry. "
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ABSTRACT: The performance of 23 density functionals, including one LDA, four GGAs, three meta-GGAs, three hybrid GGAs, eight hybrid meta-GGAs, and ten double-hybrid functionals, was investigated for the computation of activation energies of various covalent main-group single bonds by four catalysts: Pd, PdCl(-), PdCl2, and Ni (all in the singlet state). A reactant complex, the barrier, and reaction energy were considered, leading to 164 energy data points for statistical analysis. Extended Gaussian AO basis sets were used in all calculations. The best functional for the complete benchmark set relative to estimated CCSD(T)/CBS reference data is PBE0-D3, with an MAD value of 1.1 kcal mol(-1) followed by PW6B95-D3, the double hybrid PWPB95-D3, and B3LYP-D3 (1.9 kcal mol(-1) each). The other tested hybrid meta-GGAs perform less well (M06-HF: 7.0 kcal mol(-1); M06-2X: 6.3 kcal mol(-1); M06: 4.9 kcal mol(-1)) for the investigated reactions. In the Ni case, some double hybrids show larger errors due to partial breakdown of the perturbative treatment for the correlation energy in cases with difficult electronic structures (partial multi-reference character). Only double hybrids either with very low amounts of perturbative correlation (e.g., PBE0-DH) or that use the opposite-spin correlation component only (e.g., PWPB95) seem to be more robust. We also investigated the effect of the D3 dispersion correction. While the barriers are not affected by this correction, significant and mostly positive results were observed for reaction energies. Furthermore, six very recently proposed double-hybrid functionals were analyzed regarding the influence of the amount of Fock exchange as well as the type of perturbative correlation treatment. According to these results, double hybrids with <50-60 % of exact exchange and ∼30 % perturbative correlation perform best.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "The relative free energy of this TS represents the proton migration activation energy, and was found to have an energy of +41.6 kJ/mol relative to 2-aminoethanolate (confirmed by intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) calculations). DFT occasionally performs poorly for barrier heights , so coupled cluster calculations with perturbative triples corrections and an augmented correlation-consistent triple-ζ basis set [CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ//M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p)] were used to determine the single point energies for the three participating structures, i.e., the two minima and the connecting TS. The relative free energies at the two levels of theory are presented in Table 2 for comparison. "
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ABSTRACT: The reaction between CO2 and aqueous amines to produce a charged carbamate product plays a crucial role in post-combustion capture chemistry when primary and secondary amines are used. In this paper, we report the low energy negative-ion CID results for several anionic carbamates derived from primary and secondary amines commonly used as post-combustion capture solvents. The study was performed using the modern equivalent of a triple quadrupole instrument equipped with a T-wave collision cell. Deuterium labeling of 2-aminoethanol (1,1,2,2,-d4-2-aminoethanol) and computations at the M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level were used to confirm the identity of the fragmentation products for 2-hydroxyethylcarbamate (derived from 2-aminoethanol), in particular the ions CN−, NCO− and facile neutral losses of CO2 and water; there is precedent for the latter in condensed phase isocyanate chemistry. The fragmentations of 2-hydroxyethylcarbamate were generalized for carbamate anions derived from other capture amines, including ethylenediamine, diethanolamine, and piperazine. We also report unequivocal evidence for the existence of carbamate anions derived from sterically hindered amines (Tris(2-hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and 2-methyl-2-aminopropanol). For the suite of carbamates investigated, diagnostic losses include the decarboxylation product (−CO2, 44 mass units), loss of 46 mass units and the fragments NCO− (m/z 42) and CN− (m/z 26). We also report low energy CID results for the dicarbamate dianion (−O2CNHC2H4NHCO2−) commonly encountered in CO2 capture solution utilizing ethylenediamine. Finally, we demonstrate a promising ion chromatography-MS based procedure for the separation and quantitation of aqueous anionic carbamates, which is based on the reported CID findings. The availability of accurate quantitation methods for ionic CO2 capture products could lead to dynamic operational tuning of CO2 capture-plants and, thus, cost-savings via real-time manipulation of solvent regeneration energies.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13361-011-0161-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Available from: Sierra Rayne
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ABSTRACT: The gas and solution phase relative thermodynamic stabilities of the 89 perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) congeners play an important role in assessing whether synthetic conditions for commercial mixtures are under thermodynamic or kinetic control, and in calculating various physico-chemical properties for these important industrial compounds and environmental contaminants. In the present study, 4,272 gas and solvent phase (water and n-octanol) calculations were conducted at various levels of semiempirical (PM6), density functional (B3LYP, B97D, PBE1PBE [PBE0], and M062X functionals with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set), and second order Moller-Plesset perturbation (MP2/6-311++G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)) theory and the SMD, IEFPCM-UFF, and CPCM implicit solvation models on the 89 PFOS congeners in both their acid and anionic forms. The B3LYP functional consistently and incorrectly predicts substantially increasing thermodynamic stability of PFOS isomers with increasing linearity of the perfluoroalkyl chains. By comparison, PM6, M062X, and MP2 calculations more closely reflect the expected patterns of thermodynamic stability for branched versus linear PFOS congeners.
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