Linezolid Alone and in Combination with Rifampicin Prevents Experimental Vascular Graft Infection Due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis
Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, School of Medicine, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey. Journal of Surgical Research
(Impact Factor: 1.94).
06/2007; 139(2):170-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.jss.2006.10.003
In this report we describe the in vivo antibacterial activity of linezolid in an experimental graft infection model in rats and compare it with teicoplanin. The objective of this study was also to determine the effects of the interaction of linezolid when it was combined with rifampicin and test this effect against strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.
Graft infections were established in the subcutaneous tissue of 130 Wistar rats by implantation of Dacron grafts followed by a topical inoculation with 2 x 10(7) CFU of clinical isolates of MRSA and MRSE. The study included a control group and six groups for each of the staphylococcal strains: an inoculated group that did not receive any antibiotic prophylaxis, two inoculated groups that received intraperitoneal prophylaxis with teicoplanin or linezolid alone, an inoculated group that received rifampicin-soaked grafts, and two inoculated groups that received a combination prophylaxis consisting of intraperitoneal teicoplanin or linezolid and rifampicin-soaked grafts.
There was a reduction in the quantitative bacterial graft cultures in all prophylaxis groups when compared with inoculated control groups. There was not a statistically significant difference between linezolid and teicoplanin prophylaxis groups. The best results were obtained by a combination of rifampicin-soaked grafts with linezolid or teicoplanin.
We found no evidence to suggest that linezolid differs from teicoplanin regarding effectiveness in the prevention of prosthetic vascular graft infection. Linezolid plus rifampicin and teicoplanin plus rifampicin are demonstrated to be valuable prophylactic regimens.
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- "Although linezolid-nonsusceptible strains are unusual , long courses of oxazolidinone therapy could select resistant mutants [18, 32]; hence, the use of a combined strategy might be considered in clinical practice. To date, the efficacy of linezolid as part of a combination has been studied against MRSA strains, but very few data has been reported against hGISA or GISA strains [19, 20]. Linezolid plus β-lactams exhibited bactericidal and synergistic activity against MRSA and hGISA strains in experimental models of endocarditis and meningitis . "
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo efficacies of linezolid (35 mg/kg/5 h), vancomycin (60 mg/kg/5 h), imipenem (30 mg/kg/5 h), linezolid+imipenem, linezolid+vancomycin and vancomycin+imipenem against two clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates with reduced susceptibility to glycopeptides using time-kill curves and the murine peritonitis model. Time-kill curves were performed over 24 h. For the murine peritonitis model, peritonitis was induced by the intraperitoneal inoculation of 10(8) CFU/ml of each bacterial strain. Four hours later (0 h), the mice were randomly assigned to a control group or to therapeutic groups receiving subcutaneous treatment for 25 h. Bacterial counts in peritoneal fluid, bacteraemia and mortality rates were determined. The time-kill curves showed that the addition of linezolid to imipenem yielded synergistic results after 24 h. The addition of linezolid decreased vancomycin activity. In the animal model, vancomycin and linezolid monotherapies produced comparable bacterial decreases in mice infected with each strain but linezolid achieved higher rates of blood sterilisation. Linezolid tested either in monotherapy or in combination showed similar efficacy against both strains in terms of bacterial killing, number of negative blood cultures and survival. Linezolid and vancomycin were moderately bactericidal and similar in efficacy against glycopeptide-intermediate or -resistant S. aureus. Linezolid combinations, as effective as linezolid tested alone, could be considered as alternative options for the treatment of glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus (GISA) infections.
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ABSTRACT: Since their introduction about 60 years ago, vascular grafts have been constantly improved to better simulate a native vessel.
Their long-term performance is now quite satisfactory for replacement of large arteries, but research is still looking for
the ideal substitute to replace small vessels. The chapter aims to present the currently available materials, with a focus
on new concepts, in particular the use of sealants to bind substances that can improve the biocompatibility of grafts and
their resistance to thrombosis or infection.
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ABSTRACT: Infektionen von Gefäßprothesen sind schwerwiegende Komplikationen von rekonstruktiven gefäßchirurgischen Eingriffen mit hoher konsekutiver Amputationsrate und Letalität. Ihre Pathogenese ist multifaktoriell, und dementsprechend existieren verschiedenste prophylaktische Ansätze. Neben den Grundsätzen der chirurgischen Asepsis werden zusätzliche Maßnahmen zur Verbesserung der hygienischen Bedingungen in der perioperativen Phase angewandt. Die perioperative Antibiotikaprophylaxe ist in diesem Zusammenhang das einzige Mittel, das einen gewissen Evidenzgrad in Bezug auf die Senkung der Rate von Protheseninfekten erreicht hat. Modifikationen von Prothesen zur Steigerung ihrer Infektresistenz z. B. durch Rifampicin- oder Silberbindung sind seit Langem in Gebrauch, die Datenlage hierfür ist allerdings nicht eindeutig und Gegenstand weiterer Untersuchungen. Ähnliches gilt für die lokale Antibiotikaapplikation z. B. in Form von Gentamicin-Kollagen-Schwämmen. Neue Technologien und antimikrobielle Substanzen werden hier in Zukunft möglicherweise einmal die komplett infektresistente Prothese schaffen.
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