Literature Review

The Bar-On Model of Emotional-Social Intelligence

Article· Literature Review (PDF Available)inPsicothema 18 Suppl(Suplemento):13-25 · February 2006with 40,570 Reads
Source: PubMed
Cite this publication
Abstract
The present manuscript is an empirically based theoretical paper that presents, describes, and examines the Bar-On Model of Emotional-Social Intelligence (ESI) in deep. First, a description of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (the EQ-i), which has played an instrumental role in developing the model, is given. The EQ-i is a self-report measure of emotionally and socially intelligent behaviour. It has been translated into more than 30 languages, and data have been collected around the world. The impact of age, gender, and ethnicity on the Bar-On model is presented. A description of the model's construct and predictive validity is given. Finally, the author summarizes the key points, discusses the limitations of the model, and raises the ideas for developing a future model of ESI.
Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence R. Bar-On – The Bar-On Model of Emotional-Social
in Organizations – Issues in Emotional Intelligence
www.eiconsortium.org
1
The Bar-On Model of Emotional-Social Intelligence (ESI)
1
Reuven Bar-On
University of Texas Medical Branch
Original Reference
Bar-On, R. (2005). The Bar-On model of emotional-social intelligence. In P. Fernández-Berrocal and
N. Extremera (Guest Editors), Special Issue on Emotional Intelligence. Psicothema, 17.
“Emotional intelligence” has become a major topic of interest in scientific circles as well
as in the lay public since the publication of a bestseller by the same name in 1995
(Goleman). Despite this heightened level of interest in this new idea over the past decade,
scholars have been studying this construct for the greater part of the twentieth century;
and the historical roots of this wider area can actually be traced back to the nineteenth
century.
2
Publications began appearing in the twentieth century with the work of Edward
Thorndike on social intelligence in 1920. Many of these early studies focused on
describing, defining and assessing socially competent behavior (Chapin, 1942; Doll,
1935; Moss & Hunt, 1927; Moss et al., 1927; Thorndike, 1920). Edgar Doll published the
first instrument designed to measure socially intelligent behavior in young children
(1935). Possibly influenced by Thorndike and Doll, David Wechsler included two
subscales (“Comprehension” and “Picture Arrangement”) in his well-known test of
cognitive intelligence that appear to have been designed to measure aspects of social
intelligence. A year after the first publication of this test in 1939, Wechsler described the
influence of non-intellective factors on intelligent behavior which was yet another
reference to this construct (1940). In the first of a number of publications following this
early description moreover, he argued that our models of intelligence would not be
complete until we can adequately describe these factors (1943).
Scholars began to shift their attention from describing and assessing social
intelligence to understanding the purpose of interpersonal behavior and the role it plays in
effective adaptability (Zirkel, 2000). This line of research helped define human
effectiveness from the social perspective as well as strengthened one very important
aspect of Wechsler’s definition of general intelligence: “The capacity of the individual to
act purposefully” (1958, p. 7). Additionally, this helped position social intelligence as
part of general intelligence.
The early definitions of social intelligence influenced the way emotional
intelligence was later conceptualized. Contemporary theorists like Peter Salovey and
John Mayer originally viewed emotional intelligence as part of social intelligence (1990,
p. 189), which suggests that both concepts are related and may, in all likelyhood,
represent interrelated components of the same construct.
1
For a number of years, I have referred to this construct as “emotional and social intelligence” which I
have recently abbreviated to “emotional-social intelligence”.
2
It was Charles Darwin who published the first known work in the wider area of emotional-social
intelligence as early as 1872 (on the importance of emotional expression for survival and adaptation).
Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence R. Bar-On – The Bar-On Model of Emotional-Social
in Organizations – Issues in Emotional Intelligence
www.eiconsortium.org
2
At about the same time that researchers began exploring various ways to describe,
define and assess social intelligence, scientific inquiry in this area began to center around
alexithymia (MacLean, 1949; Ruesch, 1948), which is the essence of emotional-social
intelligence in that it focuses on the ability (or rather inability) to recognize, understand
and describe emotions.
Two new directions that paralleled and possibly evolved from alexithymia were
psychological mindedness (Appelbaum, 1973) and emotional awareness (Lane &
Schwartz, 1987).
Research exploring the neural circuitry that governs emotional awareness (Lane,
2000), as well as additional emotional and social aspects of this concept (Bar-On et al.,
2003; Bechara & Bar-On, in press; Bechara et al., 2000; Damasio, 1994; Lane & McRae,
2004; LeDoux, 1996), has begun to provide tangible evidence of the anatomical
foundations of this wider construct which some have questioned as an intangiable myth
(Davies et al., 1998; Matthews et al., 2003; Zeidner et al., 2001).
The literature reveals various attempts to combine the emotional and social
components of this construct. For example, Howard Gardner (1983) explains that his
conceptualization of personal intelligences is based on intrapersonal (emotional)
intelligence and interpersonal (social) intelligence. Additionally, Carolyn Saarni (1990)
describes emotional competence as including eight interrelated emotional and social
skills. Furthermore, I have shown that emotional-social intelligence is composed of a
number of intrapersonal and interpersonal competencies, skills and facilitators that
combine to determine effective human behavior (1988, 1997b, 2000).
3
Based on the
above, it is more accurate to refer to this construct as “emotional-social intelligence”
rather than “emotional intelligence” or “social intelligence” as I have suggested for some
time (2000). Throughout this article, I will refer to this wider construct as “emotional-
social intelligence” (“ESI”).
Since the time of Thorndike (1920), a number of different conceptualizations of
ESI have appeared which have creating an interesting mixture of confusion, controversy
and opportunity regarding the best approach to defining and measuring this construct. In
an effort to help clarify this situation, the Encyclopedia of Applied Psychology
(Spielberger, 2004) recently suggested that there are currently three major conceptual
models: (a) the Salovey-Mayer model (Mayer & Salovey, 1997) which defines this
construct as the ability to perceive, understand, manage and use emotions to facilitate
thinking, measured by an ability-based measure (Mayer et al., 2002); (b) the Goleman
model (1998) which views this construct as a wide array of competencies and skills that
drive managerial performance, measured by multi-rater assessment (Boyatzis et al.,
2001); and (c) the Bar-On model (1997b, 2000) which describes a cross-section of
interrelated emotional and social competencies, skills and facilitators that impact
intelligent behavior, measured by self-report (1997a, 1997b) within a potentially
expandable multi-modal approach including interview and multi-rater assessment (Bar-
On & Handley, 2003a, 2003b).
The purpose of this article is to present, describe and examine the Bar-On model of
emotional-social intelligence (ESI). This is an empirically based theoretical paper. As
3
This work began in the early 1980s as part of my doctoral research (1988).
Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence R. Bar-On – The Bar-On Model of Emotional-Social
in Organizations – Issues in Emotional Intelligence
www.eiconsortium.org
3
such, various findings are presented to describe this theory of ESI and demonstrate that it
is a comprehensive, robust and valid conceptualization of the construct.
The first part of the article describes the Bar-On model and measure of emotional-
social intelligence and how it was developed. The second part provides the reader with a
description of the model’s construct validity, and the third part describes its predictive
validity. I then show that the Bar-On model is both a teachable and learnable concept. In
the last part of the article, I summarize the key points, discuss the limitations of the model
that need to be addressed, and raise the idea for developing a more comprehensive and
robust model of ESI based on the most powerful aspects of existing conceptualizations of
this construct.
The theoretical foundation of the Bar-On model
Darwin’s early work on the importance of emotional expression for survival and
adaptation (1872/1965) has influenced the ongoing development of the Bar-On model,
which both stresses the importance of emotional expression and views the outcome of
emotionally and socially intelligent behavior in Darwinian terms of effective adaptation.
Additional influence on my thinking can be traced to Thorndike’s description of social
intelligence and its importance for human performance (1920) as well as Wechsler’s
observations related to the impact of non-cognitive and conative factors on what he
referred to as “intelligent behavior” (1940, 1943). Sifneos’ description of alexithymia
(1967) on the pathological end of the ESI continuum and Appelbaum’s conceptualization
of psychological mindedness (1973) on the eupsychic end of this continuum have also
had an impact on the ongoing development of the Bar-On model.
From Darwin to the present, most descriptions, definitions and conceptualizations
of emotional-social intelligence have included one or more of the following key
components: (a) the ability to recognize, understand and express emotions and feelings;
(b) the ability to understand how others feel and relate with them; (c) the ability to
manage and control emotions; (d) the ability to manage change, adapt and solve problems
of a personal and interpersonal nature; and (e) the ability to generate positive affect and
be self-motivated.
The Bar-On model provides the theoretical basis for the EQ-i, which was
originally developed to assess various aspects of this construct as well as to examine its
conceptualization. According to this model, emotional-social intelligence is a cross-
section of interrelated emotional and social competencies, skills and facilitators that
determine how effectively we understand and express ourselves, understand others and
relate with them, and cope with daily demands. The emotional and social competencies,
skills and facilitators referred in this conceptualization include the five key components
described above; and each of these components comprises a number of closely related
competencies, skills and facilitators which are described in the Appendix. Consistent with
this model, to be emotionally and socially intelligent is to effectively understand and
express oneself, to understand and relate well with others, and to successfully cope with
daily demands, challenges and pressures. This is based, first and foremost, on one’s
intrapersonal ability to be aware of oneself, to understand one’s strengths and
weaknesses, and to express one’s feelings and thoughts non-destructively. On the
Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence R. Bar-On – The Bar-On Model of Emotional-Social
in Organizations – Issues in Emotional Intelligence
www.eiconsortium.org
4
interpersonal level, being emotionally and socially intelligent encompasses the ability to
be aware of others’ emotions, feelings and needs, and to establish and maintain
cooperative, constructive and mutually satisfying relationships. Ultimately, being
emotionally and socially intelligent means to effectively manage personal, social and
environmental change by realistically and flexibly coping with the immediate situation,
solving problems and making decisions. To do this, we need to manage emotions so that
they work for us and not against us, and we need to be sufficiently optimistic, positive
and self-motivated.
Description of the instrument used to develop the Bar-On model (the EQ-i)
To better understand the Bar-On model of ESI and how it developed, it is important to
first describe the Emotional Quotient Inventory (the EQ-i) which has played an
instrumental role in developing this model. For the purpose of the present discussion, it is
also helpful to stress that the Bar-On model is operationalized by the EQ-i.
The EQ-i is a self-report measure of emotionally and socially intelligent behavior that
provides an estimate of emotional-social intelligence. The EQ-i was the first measure of
its kind to be published by a psychological test publisher (Bar-On, 1997a), the first such
measure to be peer-reviewed in the Buros Mental Measurement Yearbook (Plake &
Impara, 1999), and the most widely used measure of emotional-social intelligence to date
(Bar-On, 2004). A detailed description of the psychometric properties of this measure and
how it was developed is found in the Bar-On EQ-i Technical Manual (Bar-On, 1997b)
and in Glenn Geher’s recent book titled Measuring Emotional Intelligence: Common
Ground and Controversy (2004).
In brief, the EQ-i contains 133 items in the form of short sentences and employs a 5-
point response scale with a textual response format ranging from "very seldom or not true
of me" (1) to "very often true of me or true of me" (5). A list of the inventory's items is
found in the instrument’s technical manual (Bar-On, 1997b). The EQ-i is suitable for
individuals 17 years of age and older and takes approximately 40 minutes to complete.
4
The individual’s responses render a total EQ score and scores on the following 5
composite scales that comprise 15 subscale scores: Intrapersonal (comprising Self-
Regard, Emotional Self-Awareness, Assertiveness, Independence, and Self-
Actualization); Interpersonal (comprising Empathy, Social Responsibility, and
Interpersonal Relationship); Stress Management (comprising Stress Tolerance and
Impulse Control); Adaptability (comprising Reality-Testing, Flexibility, and Problem-
Solving); and General Mood (comprising Optimism and Happiness). A brief description
of these emotional-social intelligence competencies, skills and facilitators measured by
the 15 subscales is found in the Appendix as was previously mentioned.
Scores are computer-generated. Raw scores are automatically tabulated and
converted into standard scores based on a mean of 100 and standard deviation of 15. This
resembles IQ (Intelligence Quotient) scores, which was my intention when I coined the
term “EQ” (“Emotional Quotient”) during my doctoral studies (1988). Average to above
average EQ scores on the EQ-i suggest that the respondent is effective in emotional and
4
I have also developed a 60-item youth version of the EQ-i (the EQ-i:YV), which is applicable from 8 to
18 years of age and takes approximately 15 minutes to complete (Bar-On & Parker, 2000).
Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence R. Bar-On – The Bar-On Model of Emotional-Social
in Organizations – Issues in Emotional Intelligence
www.eiconsortium.org
5
social functioning. The higher the scores, the more positive the prediction for effective
functioning in meeting daily demands and challenges. On the other hand, low EQ scores
suggest an inability to be effective and the possible existence of emotional, social and/or
behavioral problems.
The EQ-i has a built-in correction factor that automatically adjusts the scale
scores based on scores obtained from two of the instrument’s validity indices (Positive
Impression and Negative Impression). This is an important feature for self-report
measures in that it reduces the potentially distorting effects of response bias thereby
increasing the accuracy of the results.
The rigorous development of the EQ-i helped create a robust model of ESI
The EQ-i was originally constructed as an experimental instrument designed to examine
the conceptual model of emotional and social functioning that I began developing in the
early 1980s (1988). At that time, I hypothesized that effective emotional and social
functioning should eventually lead to a sense of psychological well-being. It was also
reasoned that the results gained from applying such an instrument on large and diverse
population samples would reveal more about emotionally and socially intelligent
behavior and about the underlying construct of emotional-social intelligence. Based on
findings obtained from applying the EQ-i in a wide range of studies over the past two
decades, I have continuously molded my conceptualization of this construct; these
changes have been mild and are ongoing in an effort to maintain a theory that is
empirically based.
The development of the Bar-On model and measure of ESI proceeded in six
major stages over a period of 17 years: (1) identifying and logically clustering various
emotional and social competencies thought to impact effectiveness and psychological
well-being based on my experience as a clinical psychologist and review of the literature;
(2) clearly defining the individual key clusters of competencies, skills and facilitators that
surfaced; (3) initially generating approximately 1,000 items based on my professional
experience, review of the literature and input from experienced healthcare practitioners
who were asked to generate questions they would ask in an interview situation guided by
my definitions; (4) determining the inclusion of 15 primary scales and 133 items in the
published version of the instrument based on a combination of theoretical considerations
and statistical findings generated by item analysis and factor analysis; (5) initially
norming the final version of the instrument on 3,831 adults in North America in 1996;
and (6) continuing to norm and validate the instrument across cultures. The first
normative sample of the EQ-i included individuals from every Canadian province and
from nearly all the states in the US. The gender-age composition of the sample included
49% males and 51% females from 16 to 100 years of age, with an average age of 34.3
years. The sample was 79% White, 8% Asian American, 7% African American, 3%
Hispanic, and 1% Native American.
5
For more detailed demographic information,
including the educational and occupational background of the original normative sample,
the reader is referred to the instrument’s technical manual (Bar-On, 1997b).
5
Approximately 2% of the sample did not indicate their ethnicity.
Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence R. Bar-On – The Bar-On Model of Emotional-Social
in Organizations – Issues in Emotional Intelligence
www.eiconsortium.org
6
The EQ-i has been translated into more than 30 languages,
6
and data have been
collected in numerous settings around the world. Earlier versions of the inventory were
completed by a total of 3,000 individuals in six countries (Argentina, Germany, India,
Israel, Nigeria and South Africa). The first translation of the EQ-i was from English to
Spanish to allow for extensive data collection in Argentina,
7
which was followed by data
collection in a number of other countries. In addition to providing cross-cultural data, this
preliminary piloting of the EQ-i was important for item selection and alteration,
continued scale development and validation, and establishing the final nature of the
response format.
Numerous reliability and validity studies have been conducted around the world
over the past two decades, a number of which will be referred to in the following sections
to describe the reliability and validity of the EQ-i and the construct it measures.
The outcome of this rigorous development process has rendered psychometric properties
that shed light on the validity and robustness of the model. After discussing the age-
gender effect, factorial structure and reliability, I will focus primarily on the construct
validity and predictive validity of the model. This approach of examining the validity of a
concept by examining the psychometric properties of scales designed to measure that
concept is not uncommon in psychology in general as well as in the specific area of ESI
[e.g., Newsome et al., 2000; Petrides & Furnham, 2000; Salovey et al., 1995; Van Rooy
& Viswesvaran, 2004].
The impact of age, gender and ethnicity on the Bar-On model. An analysis of variance of
the North American normative sample (n=3,831) was conducted to examine the effect of
age, gender and ethnicity on EQ-i scores (Bar-On, 1997b). It was thought that the results
would also shed light on the underlying construct of ESI.
Although the results indicated a few significant differences between the age
groups that were compared, these differences are relatively small in magnitude. In brief,
the older groups scored significantly higher than the younger groups on most of the EQ-i
scales; and respondents in their late 40s obtained the highest mean scores. An increase in
emotional-social intelligence with age is also observed in children (Bar-On & Parker,
2000). The findings presented here, which are based on a cross-sectional comparison of
different age groups, will eventually be compared with findings from an ongoing
longitudinal study of the same cohort (n=23,000) over a 25-year period from birth to
young adulthood. This will provide a more accurate indication of how ESI develops and
changes over time.
8
Similar increases in ESI with age have been reported by others based
6
The translation process has created not only over 30 different translations but also more than one version
of the same language for a number of languages. For example, there are two versions of French (European
and North American), Spanish (European and Central American) and Portuguese (European and South
American). The purpose of this ongoing process of translation is to facilitate the use of the Bar-On model
and measure by practitioners and researchers. For more details, the reader is referred to the publisher’s
Foreign Language Translation Department at Multi-Health Systems in Canada (www.mhs.com).
7
The Spanish translation was carried out by Prof. Daniel Gomez Dupertuis and his colleagues at
Universidad Nacional de La Plata in Buenos Aires. This highly methodical and professional approach
became a benchmark for future translations and was replicated by other translators.
8
This study is being conducted by Human Resources Development Canada and is presently in its 10
th
year.
It represents the first longitudinal study of emotional-social intelligence and is expected to shed a great deal
Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence R. Bar-On – The Bar-On Model of Emotional-Social
in Organizations – Issues in Emotional Intelligence
www.eiconsortium.org
7
on employing the EQ-i, MEIS
9
and other measures of this construct (Goleman, 1998).
These findings are interesting when one considers that cognitive intelligence increases up
until late adolescents and then begins to mildly decline in the second and third decades of
life as was originally reported by Wechsler (1958). The results suggest that as one gets
older, one becomes more emotionally and socially intelligent.
With respect to gender, no differences have been revealed between males and
females regarding overall ESI. However, statistically significant gender differences do
exist for a few of the factors measured by the EQ-i, but the effects are small for the most
part. Based on the North American normative sample (Bar-On, 1997b), females appear to
have stronger interpersonal skills than males, but the latter have a higher intrapersonal
capacity, are better at managing emotions and are more adaptable than the former. More
specifically, the Bar-On model reveals that women are more aware of emotions,
demonstrate more empathy, relate better interpersonally and are more socially
responsible than men. On the other hand, men appear to have better self-regard, are more
self-reliant, cope better with stress, are more flexible, solve problems better, and are more
optimistic than women. Similar gender patterns have been observed in almost every other
population sample that has been examined with the EQ-i. Men's deficiencies in
interpersonal skills, when compared with women, could explain why psychopathy is
diagnosed much more frequently in men than in women; and significantly lower stress
tolerance amongst women may explain why women suffer more from anxiety-related
disturbances than men (American Psychiatric Association, 1994).
An examination of the North American normative sample, upon which the EQ-i
was normed, did not reveal significant differences in ESI between the various ethnic
groups that were compared (Bar-On, 1997b, 2000, 2004; Bar-On & Parker, 2000). This is
an interesting finding when compared with some of the controversial conclusions that
have been presented over the years suggesting significant differences in cognitive
intelligence between various ethnic groups (e.g., Suzuki & Valencia, 1997).
To summarize the above findings, the Bar-On model reveals that older people are
more emotionally and socially intelligent than younger people, females are more aware of
emotions than males while the latter are more adept at managing emotions than the
former, and that there are no significant differences in emotional-social intelligence
between the various ethnic groups that have been examined in North America.
The factorial structure of the Bar-On model. Factor analysis was applied to study the 15-
factor structure of the EQ-i to empirically evaluate the extent to which it is theoretically
valid. Moreover, this statistical procedure was used to examine the factorial structure of
the Bar-On model (i.e., to examine the extent to which the factorial components of this
model structurally exist). This analysis was first performed on the normative sample,
progressing from exploratory to confirmatory factor analysis (Bar-On, 1997b).
of light on how this construct develops, what affects it and what is affected by it from birth to early
adulthood. The individuals and their parents have been providing a wide array of biomedical,
developmental, personality, cognitive, educational, social and behavioral information. Additionally, the
subjects have been tested with the youth version of the EQ-i every two years, and they will continue to be
tested with the adult version of the EQ-i from 18 years of age onward.
9
The MEIS (Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Test) is an earlier version of the MSCEIT (Mayer-
Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), which was designed to measure the authors’ 4-branch theory
of emotional intelligence.
Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence R. Bar-On – The Bar-On Model of Emotional-Social
in Organizations – Issues in Emotional Intelligence
www.eiconsortium.org
8
Based on a varimax rotation, a 13-factor solution afforded the most theoretically
meaningful interpretation. These results provided a reasonable match with the subscale
structure of the EQ-i. Nonetheless, the 13-factor empirical structure that emerged raised
an important question that had to be addressed: Can the 15-factor model used in the Bar-
On model and measure of ESI still be justified in light of the findings which suggested a
13-factor structure? The essential differences that were identified between the theoretical
structure and the one that surfaced as a result of exploratory factor analysis were as
follows: (a) two factors emerged from the Impulse Control items; (b) although Self-
Regard, Self-Actualization, Optimism and Happiness represent four separate scales, most
of their items loaded on two factors; (c) although Assertiveness and Independence are
considered to be two separate subscales, items from both subscales loaded on one factor;
and (d) although two separate experimental factors emerged from the Empathy and Social
Responsibility items, they are the two highest correlating factors (.80).
A confirmatory factor analysis was initially applied to resolve the above-
mentioned differences between the 15-factor structure of the Bar-On model and the 13
factors that emerged from the exploratory factor analysis. Although the results supported
a 15-factor structure in the end, which fits the theoretical basis of the Bar-On model and
measure (Bar-On, 1997b), an additional confirmatory factor analysis was subsequently
applied to the same dataset (n=3,831) in an attempt to explore an alternative factorial
structure (Bar-On, 2000). The items from the above-mentioned problematic factors
(Independence, Self-Actualization, Optimism, Happiness, and Social Responsibility)
were excluded from the second analysis. Self-Actualization, Optimism and Happiness
were excluded from this analysis in that a number of their items loaded on the Self-
Regard factor while others loaded on an additional yet weaker factor; moreover, these
three factors appear in the literature primarily as facilitators of ESI rather than actual
components of the construct itself; Wechsler referred to them as "conative factors" (1940,
1943). Independence was excluded from the analysis because its items loaded heavily on
the Assertiveness factor, and because it rarely appears in the literature as an integral
component of ESI; however, assertiveness (the ability to express one's emotions and
feelings) most definitely appears in the literature, from Darwin to the present, as an
important part of this construct. For similar empirical and theoretical reasons, it was
decided to exclude Social Responsibility items; moreover, this subscale was shown to
correlate extremely high with Empathy as was previously mentioned, meaning that they
are most likely measuring the same domain.
The results of this second analysis clearly suggested a 10-factor structure, which
is both empirically feasible and theoretically acceptable as an alternative to the above-
mentioned 15-factor structure. In the order of their extraction, the ten factors that
emerged are: (1) Self-Regard, (2) Interpersonal Relationship, (3) Impulse Control, (4)
Problem-Solving, (5) Emotional Self-Awareness, (6) Flexibility, (7) Reality-Testing, (8)
Stress Tolerance, (9) Assertiveness, and (10) Empathy. These ten factors appear to be the
key components of ESI, while the five factors that were excluded from the second
confirmatory factor analysis (Optimism, Self-Actualization, Happiness, Independence,
and Social Responsibility) appear to be important correlates and facilitators of this
construct. The ten key components and the five facilitators together describe and predict
emotionally and socially intelligent behavior, as will be shown below.
Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence R. Bar-On – The Bar-On Model of Emotional-Social
in Organizations – Issues in Emotional Intelligence
www.eiconsortium.org
9
The factorial validation of the EQ-i presented here compares favorably with that
of the MSCEIT and ECI.
10
The reliability of the Bar-On model. The reliability of the EQ-i has been examined by a
number of researchers over the past 20 years. A consensus of findings reveals that the
Bar-On conceptual and assessment model is consistent, stable and reliable (Bar-On,
2004). More specifically, the overall internal consistency coefficient of the EQ-i is .97
based on the North American normative sample (Bar-On, 1997b). This well exceeds the
.90 minimum for total scores suggested by Nunnally (1978). Internal consistency was
recently reexamined on 51,623 adults in North America, revealing nearly identical results
with a slight mean increase of .025 in consistency coefficients (Bar-On, 2004). An overall
retest reliability examination of the EQ-i is .72 for males (n=73) and .80 for females
(n=279) at six months (Bar-On, 2004). Other researchers around the world have reported
similar findings regarding the reliability of the EQ-i (e.g., Matthews et al., 2002;
Newsome et al., 2000; Petrides & Furnham, 2000). These findings compare favorably
with those of other measures of this construct.
11
To summarize, the findings presented here demonstrate that there is good
consistency within the factorial components of this model as well as stability over time.
The construct validity of the EQ-i confirms that the Bar-On model is describing ESI
In order to demonstrate that a concept is robust, one must first show that it is actually
describing what it was designed to describe. This is usually done by examining its
construct validity. There are a number of basic approaches to examining the construct
validity of psychometric and conceptual models (Anastasi, 1988). The approach that I
have adopted was to simply demonstrate that the EQ-i correlates higher with other
measures of ESI than with measures of other constructs such as cognitive intelligence and
personality. As will be shown, the findings confirm that the EQ-i has the least amount of
overlap with tests of cognitive tests. This is followed by findings indicating a greater
degree of overlap with personality tests. And the greatest degree of domain overlap exists
between the EQ-i and other ESI measures.
In an effort to examine the divergent construct validity of the Bar-On model, the
EQ-i has been concomitantly administered with various measures of cognitive
intelligence (including the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Progressive Raven Matrix,
and the General Adult Mental Ability Scale) to a total of 4,218 individuals in six studies
(Bar-On, 2004). The results indicate that there is only minimal overlap between the EQ-i
and tests of cognitive (academic) intelligence, which was expected in that this instrument
was not designed or intended to assess this type of performance. This finding is also
10
While the 4-metafactor structure of the MSCEIT is evidently confirmed by factor analysis (Brackett &
Salovey, 2004), an examination of the subfactor structure of the 8 EI tasks included within the measure’s
four branches has not been found in the literature which could mean that it has not been confirmed. The 18-
factor structure of the ECI does not appear to be empirically justified based on the latest findings (Boyatzis
& Sala, 2004); a 9-factor structure has emerged in place of the measure’s present structure (Boyatzis et al.,
2001) as well as earlier conceptualizations of the Goleman model (Goleman, 1998).
11
Brackett and Salovey reported split-half reliability correlations of .93 and .91 for the MSCEIT’s total
score and a retest reliability of .86 after a relatively short period of three weeks (2004).
Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence R. Bar-On – The Bar-On Model of Emotional-Social
in Organizations – Issues in Emotional Intelligence
www.eiconsortium.org
10
confirmed by David Van Rooy and his colleagues (Van Rooy & Viswesvaran, 2004; Van
Rooy et al., 2004; D. L. Van Rooy, personal communication from April 2003), who
suggests that no more than 4% of the variance of the EQ-i can be explained by cognitive
intelligence according to a recent meta-analysis including 10 studies (n>5,000). In
addition to shedding light on the construct validity of the Bar-On model and measure of
ESI (i.e., what it is and is not describing), these findings indicate that emotional-social
intelligence and cognitive intelligence are not strongly related and are most likely
separate constructs. Not only is this assumption statistically supported by findings
presented by me and others (Bar-On, 2004; Van Rooy & Viswesvaran, 2004; Van Rooy
et al., 2004), but there is also neurological evidence suggesting that the neural centers
governing emotional-social intelligence and those governing cognitive intelligence are
located in different areas of the brain. More succinctly, the ventromedial prefrontal
cortex
12
appears to be governing basic aspects of ESI (Bar-On et al., 2003; Bechara &
Bar-On, in press; Lane & McRae, 2004), while the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is
thought to govern key aspects of cognitive functioning (Duncan, 2001).
Subsequent to submitting their pioneering meta-analysis of emotional intelligence
for publication in December 2002, Van Rooy and Viswesvaran expanded the number of
studies in their original analysis of the construct validity of emotional intelligence. Their
most recent meta-analysis suggests that the degree of overlap between the EQ-i and
personality tests is probably no more than 15% based on 8 studies in which more than
1,700 individuals participated (D. L. Van Rooy, personal communication from April
2003). This overlap is smaller than was previously thought and strongly suggests that the
EQ-i must be measuring something else other than personality traits. It also makes sense
that the EQ-i is not measuring personality traits, because the 15 emotional and social
competencies, skills and facilitators that it measures (a) increase almost continuously
from childhood to the end of the fourth decade of life as was previously mentioned, and
(b) they can also be significantly increased within a matter of a few weeks as a result of
training (Bar-On, 2003, 2004); personality traits are simply not as malleable as these
competencies, skills and facilitators appear to be. When this small degree of overlap with
personality is coupled with the even smaller degree of overlap with cognitive
intelligence, the large unexplained variance that remains logically suggests that the EQ-i
is measuring something else other than these constructs; and based on what is presented
below, I argue that a substantial amount of this unexplained variance in the Bar-On
model and measure can be explained by a larger domain overlap which is observed when
the EQ-i is correlated with other measures of ESI. More precisely, the degree of
significant overlap between the EQ-i and these other measures of ESI is nearly twice as
high as that explained by personality and cognitive intelligence combined.
In order to examine the convergent construct validity of the Bar-On model and
measure, the correlation between the EQ-i and other ESI instruments was evaluated. In
another publication (2004), I have summarized the major findings related to the
convergent construct validity of the EQ-i based on 13 studies in which a total of 2,417
individuals participated. These findings indicate that the degree of domain overlap
between the EQ-i and other measures of ESI is about 36%, which is substantial when
12
Fairly recent findings suggest that the right somatosensory and insular cortices as well as the right
amygdala are also involved, forming a neural circuitry with the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (Bar-On et
al., 2003; Bechara & Bar-On, in press).
Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence R. Bar-On – The Bar-On Model of Emotional-Social
in Organizations – Issues in Emotional Intelligence
www.eiconsortium.org
11
evaluating construct validity (Anastasi, 1988). When compared with a 4% overlap with
IQ tests and a 15% overlap with personality tests, it is obvious that the EQ-i is measuring
what these other ESI measures are measuring (i.e., emotional-social intelligence) rather
than cognitive intelligence or personality traits.
The above findings suggest that EQ-i possesses good construct validity – i.e., for
the most part, this instrument is measuring what it was designed to measure. This
suggests that the Bar-On model is a valid concept of ESI in that it is describing key
aspects of emotional-social intelligence rather than other psychological constructs such as
cognitive intelligence or personality. Empirically demonstrating this point (Bar-On,
2004) is thought to dispel what some psychologists have assumed regarding the Bar-On
conceptual and psychometric model and have prematurely concluded based on less
extensive and conclusive findings (e.g., Brackett & Mayer, 2003; Matthews et al., 2002;
Newsome et al., 2000). Other measures of ESI, such as the ECI and MSCEIT, have not
yet examined construct validity as robustly as has been done with the EQ-i on larger and
more diverse samples.
13
When the findings related to the EQ-i are compared with the actual degree of
domain overlap between ability-based measures of ESI and tests of cognitive intelligence
as well as personality (Van Rooy & Viswesvaran, 2004; Van Rooy et al., 2004), the
accuracy, meaningfulness and usefulness of dichotomously describing these measures as
either “mixed” or (non-mixed) “ability” models come into question. On the one hand, the
EQ-i overlaps with cognitive intelligence and personality tests no more than 20% while
the degree of overlap between the MSCEIT and these types of tests does not exceed 15%
(Bar-On, 2004; Van Rooy & Viswesvaran, 2004; Van Rooy et al., 2004; D. L. Van Rooy,
personal communication from April 2003). In other words, the vast majority of the
variance of both conceptual and psychometric models (80% and 85% respectively) is not
explained by personality and/or by cognitive intelligence. Therefore, the “mixed”
characteristic used by some (Mayer et al., 2000) to describe some of these models, exists
in all such models and measures in that they all overlap with personality traits and
cognitive intelligence to some extent, but the actual difference between them within this
small degree of overlap does not justify using descriptors such as “mixed” versus
“abilities” as a meaningful way of categorizing these models and measures. All models of
human behavior are influenced at least to some extent by a “mixed” cross-section of bio-
psycho-social predictors and facilitators including biomedical predispositions and
conditions, cognitive intelligence, personality, motivation and environmental
influences.
14
13
Unfortunately, very few published studies have examined the degree of correlation between the MSCEIT
and other measures of ESI; and most of the existing publications present primarily divergent evidence for
the MSCEIT’s construct validity. However, it is insufficient to assess the construct validity of a measure by
examining only its divergent construct validity (i.e., what it is not measuring); one must logically present
convergent construct validity as well (i.e., what it is measuring). In order to establish that a particular
measure of a psychological construct is psychometrically sound, it is axiomatic in test construction to
examine and compare both divergent as well as convergent evidence (Anastasi, 1988; Campbell & Fiske,
1959).
14
This argument has been made in psychology more than a quarter of century ago (Bem & Allen, 1974);
and more than half a century ago, David Wechsler specifically argued that part of this “mix” impacts
intelligent behavior (Wechsler, 1940, 1943).
Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence R. Bar-On – The Bar-On Model of Emotional-Social
in Organizations – Issues in Emotional Intelligence
www.eiconsortium.org
12
The Bar-On model of ESI predicts various aspects of human performance
In addition to demonstrating that the Bar-On model is able to describe what it is meant to
describe (ESI), it must also be shown that it is capable of predicting various aspects of
human behavior, performance and effectiveness in order to argue that it represents a
robust and viable concept. The best way of doing this is to examine its predictive validity
(i.e., the predictive validity of the psychometric instrument that measures the Bar-On
conceptual model).
In various publications, I have described 20 predictive validity studies to date that
have been conducted on a total of 22,971 individuals who completed the EQ-i in seven
countries around the world. These publications shed a great deal of light on the predictive
validity of the EQ-i by examining its ability to predict performance in social interactions,
at school and in the workplace as well as its impact on physical health, psychological
health, self-actualization and subjective well-being (Bar-On, 1997b, 2001, 2003, 2004,
2005; Bar-On, et al., 2005; Krivoy et al., 2000). Based on these findings, the average
predictive validity coefficient is .59, which suggests that the Bar-On model is indeed able
to predict various aspects of human performance. Summarized below are the major
findings related to the predictive ability of this conceptual and psychometric model.
The relationship between the Bar-On model and physical health. Three studies (Bar-On,
2004; Krivoy et al., 2000) suggest that there is a moderate yet significant relationship
between ESI and physical health.
In the first study (Krivoy at al., 2000), the EQ-i results of 35 adolescent cancer
survivors were compared with those of a control group comprising 35 randomly selected
adolescents from the local normative population sample. In addition to revealing
significant differences between the two groups with respect to overall ESI, the most
powerful EQ-i subscale that was able to distinguish between the experimental and control
groups was Optimism, which is an important facilitator of emotionally and socially
intelligent behavior as was previously mentioned.
In another study conducted by me (2004), 3,571 adults completed the EQ-i and
responded to the following question: “I feel good about my health in general.” This
question was meant to provide a self-perceived assessment of physical health so that I
could examine the degree to which it may be influenced by emotional-social
intelligence.
15
The results of a multiple regression analysis rendered an overall correlation
of .49.
In a recent study (Bar-On & Fund, 2004), a population sample of 2,514 male
recruits in the Israeli Defense Forces completed the EQ-i in the beginning of their tour of
duty. From this sample, 91 recruits were identified as having medical profiles indicating
mild or minor health problems that allowed them to continue to serve in the military with
very few limitations. An additional 42 recruits were found, who were shown to have
more severe medical problems, yet not severe enough to justify a medical discharge. I
then randomly selected an additional group of 42 recruits from the sample (n=2,514) who
15
There is a growing body of medical literature which suggests that self-perceived health is significantly
correlated with clinically assessed health and is a good predictor of one’s overall physical condition
(Shadbolt et al., 2002).
Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence R. Bar-On – The Bar-On Model of Emotional-Social
in Organizations – Issues in Emotional Intelligence
www.eiconsortium.org
13
did not receive a medical profile and were thus considered to be physically healthy. This
procedure created three groups representing three different levels of physical health. A
multiple regression analysis was applied to the data, using the three different levels of
physical health as the dependent variable and the recruits’ scores on the 15 EQ-i
subscales as the independent variables. The analysis rendered an overall correlation of .37
suggesting a low-moderate yet significant relationship between ESI and physical health
for the sample studied.
Based on the most powerful EQ-i scales that surfaced in these studies, it appears
that (a) the ability to be aware of oneself, (b) the ability to manage emotions and handle
stress, (c) the ability to solve problems of a personal and interpersonal nature, and (d) the
ability to maintain an optimistic disposition are significantly related to physical health.
The relationship between the Bar-On model and psychological health. In one of the first
studies that examined the relationship between ESI and psychological health, the EQ-i
scores of 418 psychiatric patients were compared with matched control groups in
Argentina, Israel, South Africa and the United States (Bar-On, 1997b). In addition to
significant differences in overall ESI, the EQ-i scores revealed significant differences on
most of the scales between the clinical samples and control groups.
In a more recent study, which included a sample of 2,514 males who completed
the EQ-i at the time of their induction into the Israeli Defense Forces, I identified 152
recruits who were eventually discharged for psychiatric reasons (2003). I then randomly
selected an additional group of 152 among 241 who were diagnosed with less severe
psychiatric disturbances that allowed them to continue their tour of duty with relatively
few limitations. The EQ-i scores of these two groups were compared with a randomly
selected group of 152 recruits within the same population sample (n=2,514) who did not
receive a psychiatric profile during the entire period of their military service. This created
three groups representing three different levels of psychological health: (a) individuals
who were so severely disturbed that they were incapable of serving a full tour of duty, (b)
individuals who received less severe psychiatric profiles which allowed them to continue
active military service until completion, and (c) individuals who completed their military
service without having received a psychiatric profile. A multiple regression analysis was
applied to examine the degree of impact of ESI on psychological health; the results
revealed a moderate yet significant relationship between the two (.39).
The findings from these studies suggest that the most powerful ESI competencies,
skills and facilitators that impact psychological health are (a) the ability to manage
emotions and cope with stress, (b) the drive to accomplish personal goals in order to
actualize one’s inner potential and lead a more meaningful life, and (c) the ability to
verify feelings and thinking. This particular constellation of findings makes sense,
because deficiencies in these specific competencies may lead to anxiety (an inability to
adequately manage emotions), depression (an inability to accomplish personal goals and
lead a more meaningful life) and problems related to reality testing (an inability to
adequately verify feelings and thinking) respectively. It is also compelling that such
deficiencies, in one form or another, are pathognomic for most psychiatric disturbances
(American Psychiatric Association, 1994); and if not directly pathogenic, they are most
likely significant contributors to these disturbances. Moreover, tranquilizers, anti-
depressants and neuroleptics (anti-psychotics) represent three of the four major
Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence R. Bar-On – The Bar-On Model of Emotional-Social
in Organizations – Issues in Emotional Intelligence
www.eiconsortium.org
14
classifications of psychotropic drugs that have been traditionally administered for treating
these specific disturbances (Kaplan & Sadock, 1991).
The findings presented here compare quite favorably with other ESI measures.
16
The relationship between the Bar-On model and social interaction. In addition to a
number of older studies that have indicated a significant relationship between ESI and
social interaction (Bar-On, 1988, 1997b, 2000], a recent examination of an older dataset
sheds new light on the nature of this relationship. When the EQ-i was normed in North
America (Bar-On, 1997b), 533 participants in the normative sample completed the 16PF
in addition to the EQ-i. Factor H on the 16PF assesses the extent to which one seeks out
friendly, genial and positive relationships with others (Cattell et al., 1970). This factor
was selected as the dependent variable, and the 15 EQ-i subscales were selected as the
independent variables; and the results of applying a multiple regression analysis of the
data suggested that ESI, as conceptualized by the Bar-On model, relates very
significantly with social interaction (.69). This strongly indicates that ESI has a
substantial impact on and can predict the nature of interpersonal interaction. These
findings compare quite favorable with those generated by other measures of ESI.
17
The relationship between the Bar-On model and performance at school. In contrast to a
study conducted by Newsome et al. in 2000 that did not reveal a statistically significant
relationship between EQ-i scores and performance at school, four major studies
conducted on much larger samples in South Africa, Canada and the United States (Bar-
On, 1997b, 2003; Parker et al., 2004; Swart, 1996) clearly indicate that such a
relationship exists. Moreover, these results confirm that the Bar-On model is capable of
identifying and predicting who will perform well at school and who will not.
In a path analysis conducted by James Parker and his colleagues on 667 Canadian
high school students (2004), the overall degree of correlation between ESI and scholastic
performance was found to be .41 indicating a moderate yet statistically significant
relationship between them. This means that at least 17% of scholastic performance is a
function of emotional-social intelligence in addition to cognitive intelligence. These
findings suggest that the Bar-On model is capable of identifying those students who will
perform well and those who will experience problems.
Findings from a study conducted on 448 university students in South Africa
indicated that there is a significant difference in ESI between successful and unsuccessful
students (Swart, 1996). These results were confirmed by an additional study conducted
on 1,125 university students in the United States, which was described by me in 1997. In
both studies, the more successful students were found to be the more emotionally and
socially intelligent. More specifically, the ability to manage one’s emotions, to be able to
validate one’s feelings and to solve problems of a personal and interpersonal nature are
important for being academically successful; additionally, academic performance appears
16
The MSCEIT has demonstrated correlations with measures of anxiety and depression ranging from .25 to
.33 (Brackett & Salovey, 2004). However, it is not clear if actual clinical samples have been studied with
this instrument.
17
Brackett and his colleagues have found correlations in the .28 to .45 range between the MSCEIT and the
“quality of interpersonal relationships” (2003).
Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence R. Bar-On – The Bar-On Model of Emotional-Social
in Organizations – Issues in Emotional Intelligence
www.eiconsortium.org
15
to be facilitated by being able to set personal goals as well as to be sufficiently optimistic
and self-motivated to accomplish them.
More recently, Claude Marchessault examined the impact of EQ-i scores on the
grade point average (GPA) of 106 first-year university students in an American university
(C. Marchessault, personal communication from the 7
th
of January 2005). The students
completed the EQ-i in the beginning of the academic year, and their GPA was calculated
during the middle of the year. Multiple regression analysis revealed a correlation of .45,
which once again confirms a significant relationship between ESI and performance in
school. The students’ EQ-i scores will be compared with their GPA at the end of the
academic year as well, and the findings will later be published.
The importance of developing and applying ESI performance models in the
school setting is that they will be helpful in identifying students who are in need of
guided intervention. Comparing the students’ EQ-i results with such performance models
will provide a scientific way of pinpointing their ESI strengths and weaknesses. Based on
the results to date, the enhancement of the weaker ESI competencies and skills is
expected to increase performance at school.
The findings presented here compare quite favorably with those generated by
other ESI measures.
18
The relationship between the Bar-On model and performance in the workplace. In six
studies that I and my colleagues have conducted, summarized and cited over the past few
years (Bar-On, 1997b, 2004; Bar-On et al., 2005; Handley, 1997; Ruderman & Bar-On,
2003), the EQ-i has demonstrated that there is a significant relationship between ESI and
occupational performance.
In the first known study that directly examined the relationship between ESI and
occupational performance, the EQ-i scores of 1,171 US Air Force recruiters were
compared with their ability to meet annual recruitment quotas (Handley, 1997; Bar-On et
al., 2005). Based on USAF criteria, they were divided into those who were able to meet at
least 100% of their annual quota (“high performers”) and those who met less than 80%
(“low performers”), representing a very robust method of assessing occupational
performance. A discriminant function analysis indicated that EQ-i scores were able to
fairly accurately identify high and low performers, demonstrating that the relationship
between ESI and occupational performance is high (.53) based on the sample studied.
Prior to 1996, it was costing the USAF approximately $ 3 million for an average 100
mismatches a year. After one year of combining pre-employment ESI screening with
interviewing and comparing EQ-i scores with the model for successful recruiters, they
increased their ability to predict successful recruiters by nearly threefold, dramatically
reduced first-year attrition due to mismatches and cut their financial loses by
approximately 92%. Based on these results, the US General Accounting Office submitted
a Congressional Report to the Senate Committee on Armed Services praising the USAF’s
use of ESI screening (United States General Accounting Office, 1998).
In two other studies, performance in highly stressful and potentially dangerous
occupations was studied by comparing EQ-i scores with externally rated performance for
a sample of 335 regular combat soldiers in the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) and for an
18
Brackett and Salovey describe correlations between the MSCEIT and scholastic performance in the .20 to
.25 range (2004).
Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence R. Bar-On – The Bar-On Model of Emotional-Social
in Organizations – Issues in Emotional Intelligence
www.eiconsortium.org
16
additional sample of 240 soldiers in an elite IDF unit (Bar-On et al., 2005). Both studies
clearly revealed a significant relationship between ESI and this specific type of
occupational performance; the predictive validity coefficient in the former study was .55
and .51 in the latter.
In three additional studies described by me (Bar-On, 2004; Bar-On et al., 2005),
leadership was studied by examining the relationship between EQ-i scores and peer-
nomination in one study (i.e., those considered to possess leadership capacity among new
recruits in the IDF), criterion group membership in another study (i.e., IDF recruits who
were accepted to officer training versus those who were not) and multi-rater evaluations
in the third study which was conducted at the Center for Creative Leadership in the US
(i.e., ratings on 21 different leadership criteria made by an average of seven to eight
coworkers). The results indicated, respectively, that there is a moderate to high
relationship between ESI and leadership based on the predictive validity coefficients of
.39 (n=536), .49 (n=940) and .82 (n=236) that were revealed. The third study shows that
successful leadership is based to large extent on emotional-social intelligence --
approximately two-thirds (67%) to be exact.
The average predictive validity coefficient for the six studies described above is
.54, meaning that nearly 30% of the variance of occupational performance is based on
ESI as described by the Bar-On model. When compared with Wagner’s extensive meta-
analysis that revealed that cognitive intelligence accounts for approximately 6% of
occupational performance (1997), the findings presented here suggest that EQ accounts
for about five times more variance than IQ when explaining this type of performance.
The findings indicate that high performers in the workplace have significantly higher ESI
than low performers. It is interesting to note that in one of the studies described above
(Bar-On et al., 2005), the results suggest that the EQ-i was able to predict performance
quite well (.55) even over a period of 18 months.
The findings described here suggest that the most powerful ESI contributors to
occupational performance are: (a) the ability to be aware of and accept oneself; (b) the
ability to be aware of others’ feelings, concerns and needs; (c) the ability to manage
emotions; (d) the ability to be realistic and put things in correct perspective; and (e) the
ability to have a positive disposition.
Based on the findings presented here, the EQ-i compares quite favorable with
other ESI measures in predicting occupational performance.
19
The relationship between the Bar-On model and self-actualization. Self-actualization is
the process of striving to actualize one’s potential capacity, abilities and talents. It
requires the ability and drive to set and achieve goals, and it is characterized by being
involved in and feeling committed to various interests and pursuits. Self-actualization is
thought to be a life-long effort leading to an enriched and meaningful life. It is not merely
performance but an attempt to do one’s best.
In a reexamination of an older dataset used in my doctoral research (1988), I
recently ran a multiple regression analysis to study the impact of ESI competencies, skills
and facilitators on self-actualization. A subset of 67 South African university students
were identified within the dataset who concomitantly completed an earlier version of the
19
The correlation between the MSCEIT and various aspects of occupational performance ranges between
.22 and .46 (Brackett & Salovey, 2004).
Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence R. Bar-On – The Bar-On Model of Emotional-Social
in Organizations – Issues in Emotional Intelligence
www.eiconsortium.org
17
EQ-i and the Personal Orientation Inventory (Shostrom, 1974) which is a popularly used
measure of self-actualization. The I Scale, which captures 85% of the POI’s items, was
designated the dependent variable while the EQ-i subscale scores were identified as the
independent variables. The results indicated that ESI significantly impacts self-
actualization (.64).
Three additional studies have also examined this relationship (Bar-On, 2001).
Large samples were studied in the Netherlands (n=1,639), Israel (n=2,702) and North
America (n=3,831). The results from these studies confirm the South African study
indicating that ESI strongly impacts self-actualization with multiple regression
correlations reaching .78, .75 and .80 for the Dutch, Israeli and American samples
respectively. It is equally interesting to note that the relationship between cognitive
intelligence
20
and self-actualization for the Israeli sample (.02) and the Dutch sample
(.08) was not statistically significant (Bar-On, 2001). This means that it is emotional-
social intelligence much more than cognitive intelligence that influences one’s ability to
do one’s best, to accomplish goals and to actualize one’s potential to its fullest. Evidently
a high IQ does not guarantee that one will actualize one’s potential, but a high EQ is
definitely more important in this respect.
A very similar model surfaced in each of the above-mentioned studies regarding
the ability of ESI to predict self-actualization. In addition to being sufficiently motivated
to set and accomplish personal goals, self-actualization depends, first and foremost, on a
deep sense of self-awareness and understanding of who one is, what one wants to do, can
do and enjoys doing. Self-actualization also depends upon good problem solving for
making sound independent decisions regarding what one wants to do, and then being
assertive enough to follow through with these personal decisions. Additionally, one must
be optimistic and positive to more fully actualize one’s potential and lead a more
meaningful life based on the findings of these studies.
The relationship between the Bar-On model and subjective well-being. In a recent study
(Bar-On, 2005), it has been demonstrated that ESI, as conceptualized by the Bar-On
model, also impacts subjective well-being. Well-being was defined in this study as a
subjective state that emerges from a feeling of satisfaction (a) with one’s physical health
and oneself as a person, (b) with one’s close interpersonal relationships, and (c) with
one’s occupation and financial situation. A measure of subjective well-being was
constructed from nine questions that directly tap these three areas. On a large North
American sample (n=3,571), the relationship between ESI and well-being was examined
with multiple regression analysis. The results indicate that the two constructs are highly
correlated (.76). Based on the four highest ESI predictors of well-being, it appears that
the following competencies, skills and facilitators contribute the most to this subjective
state: (a) the ability to understand and accept one’s emotions and oneself, (b) the ability
to strive to set and achieve personal goals to enhance one’s potential, and (c) the ability to
verify one’s feelings and put things in their correct perspective.
20
Cognitive intelligence was assessed with the Raven Progressive Matrix in the Israeli sample and with the
General Adult Mental Ability Scale in the Dutch sample.
Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence R. Bar-On – The Bar-On Model of Emotional-Social
in Organizations – Issues in Emotional Intelligence
www.eiconsortium.org
18
These findings are substantially higher than those generated by other ESI
measures.
21
The findings presented here suggest that the Bar-On model is a better predictor of human
performance than the other existing models, especially when compared with the “ability
model” as some have assumed was the case (Matthews et al., 2002). It also appears to
predict a wider range of performance than the other ESI models based on the current
literature (e.g., Geher, 2004).
The Bar-On model is teachable and learnable
After demonstrating that the Bar-On model of ESI significantly impacts various aspects
of human performance, it is logical to ask if emotionally and socially intelligent behavior
can be enhanced in order to improve performance as well as self-actualization and
subjective well-being. To address this question empirically, the findings from four studies
are briefly summarized below to show that emotionally and socially intelligent behavior
can be enhanced in school, the workplace and in the clinical setting.
Over the past few years, children in a growing number of schools throughout the
United States have been introduced to the “Self-Science” curriculum that was developed
by Karen Stone-McCown and her colleagues 40 years ago (1998). In light of the fact that
this project is ongoing and the results are still being analyzed, I would like to focus on
one of the most successful examples that have surfaced to date which reveals the
potential of this endeavor. The specific example is a 7
th
grade class of 26 children whose
average age was 12 years at the time of the study (Freedman, 2003). They were tested
with the youth version of the EQ-i (the EQ-i:YV) in the beginning of the school year
2002-2003 and again at the end of the school year. A comparison of the pre- and post-
intervention assessments suggests that the children’s emotional-social intelligence
increased significantly after receiving one year of this ESI-enriching curriculum. At the
end of the year, the children were better able to understand and express themselves,
understand and relate with others, manage and control their emotions, and adapt to their
immediate environment at school. These significant changes suggest that this and similar
educational programs can make a difference and that the Bar-On model can accurately
monitor and measure these changes. What needs to be done in such studies in the future
is to examine pre- and post-intervention behavioral parameters to see if positive changes
have occurred such as better school attendance, higher scholastic performance, less
violence, fewer incidents of drug abuse and teen pregnancy, and so forth.
One of the most interesting studies which demonstrates that emotionally and
socially intelligent behavior can be enhanced in adults was conducted by Sjölund and
Gustafsson in Sweden (2001). They compared the EQ-i scores of 29 individuals before
and after they participated in a workshop designed to increase managerial skills. At the
time the workshop was conducted in 2000, most of the participants were in their early 40s
and had approximately 15 years of managerial experience. Among other skills, they were
taught techniques designed to strengthen ESI competencies thought to be important for
21
The highest correlations obtained between the MSCEIT and various scales of subjective well-being range
from .27 to .36 based on study conducted by Brackett and Mayer (2003).
Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence R. Bar-On – The Bar-On Model of Emotional-Social
in Organizations – Issues in Emotional Intelligence
www.eiconsortium.org
19
their work as managers; and these specific competencies and skills were those described
in the Bar-On model. Not only did their total EQ score increase from a mean of 97 to 106
(p-level<.000), but 9 out of the 15 EQ-i subscales increased significantly as well. The two
ESI competencies which increased the most as a result their participation in the workshop
were emotional self-awareness and empathy, which many consider to be the two most
important components of emotional-social intelligence. Another interesting outcome was
that those participants who began the workshop with the lowest EQ-i scores were the
ones who made the most progress. Kate Cannon, who developed this program, confirmed
similar findings based on her experience in conducting these workshops in the United
States (Bar-On, 2003). This is particularly important and encouraging, because the people
with the lowest EQ scores are the ones who need to improve their ESI competencies the
most.
At a conference on emotional intelligence held in Nova Scotia in 2003, Geetu
Orme presented findings from the individual coaching she has been providing to
corporate executives in the UK since 1999. She assessed 47 executives with the EQ-i
before she began coaching them and then a number of months following the completion
of the weekly sessions that were provided. Her coaching was based on strengthening the
weaker ESI factors that were identified by their EQ-i scores. The five EQ-i subscale
scores that revealed the most significant changes were the following: Self-Regard (87 to
95), Self-Actualization (92 to 102), Stress Tolerance (97 to 102), Reality-Testing (97 to
109) and Happiness (93 to 100).
In addition to the classroom and workplace, there is also evidence that ESI
competencies and skills can be enhanced in the clinical setting. Using an earlier version
of the EQ-i, a graduate student at the University of Pretoria tested a group of 58 patients
who were hospitalized for myocardial infarct (Dunkley, 1996). Subsequent to being
tested, 22 of these patients were randomly selected to participate in a stress management
program. The program included instructions on how to better identify sources of stress in
their lives and to apply more effective ways to cope with these situations. The EQ-i was
administered a second time five weeks after completing this program. In addition to
significant changes in the total EQ score (92 versus 102, t-value=-5.47, p-level=.000),
nine of the subscale scores revealed statistically significant changes. Taking into
consideration the primary purpose of this stress management program, it is not surprising
that the ESI competency that changed the most as a result of this training was Stress
Tolerance (the ability to manage emotions); this is even more important when one
considers that stress is considered to be one of the major psychosocial factors that impact
cardiovascular disturbances such as myocardial infarct. Most of the EQ-i scores for the
patients who participated in the stress management program were significantly higher
than the scores obtained by those who did not participate in the program.
The results from these studies suggest that the ESI factors described by the Bar-
On model are both teachable and learnable, and that these factors can be enhanced by
relatively simple didactic methods over a relatively short period of time.
Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence R. Bar-On – The Bar-On Model of Emotional-Social
in Organizations – Issues in Emotional Intelligence
www.eiconsortium.org
20
Discussion
The findings presented in this article have shown that emotional-social intelligence, as
conceptualized by the Bar-On model, is a multi-factorial array of interrelated emotional
and social competencies, skills and facilitators that influence one’s ability to recognize,
understand and manage emotions, to relate with others, to adapt to change and solve
problems of a personal and interpersonal nature, and to efficiently cope with daily
demands, challenges and pressures. It has also been shown that the development of this
model has been rigorous, and that the outcome of this process has produced a valid
concept and measure of ESI. Not only is this model consistent and stable over time and
across cultures, but it is also capable of describing the construct it was designed to
describe (emotional-social intelligence). The importance and usefulness of Bar-On model
has also been demonstrated by examining its ability to predict various aspects of human
behavior and performance. Furthermore, showing that the concept is both teachable and
learnable and that the ESI factors involved can be enhanced underscores the importance
and usefulness of this model.
The studies presented need to be replicated in more diverse settings. It is
important to continue to study this model in order to learn how best to apply it at home,
school and work. Future studies should use a wide variety of methods to examine the
relationship between the Bar-On model and an even wider variety of human performance.
In light of the fact that all of the studies presented were cross-sectional moreover, future
research should also attempt to longitudinally examine this model and its ability to
describe ESI and predict human performance over time; and it was explained that such a
study is presently underway. It is particularly important to continue to examine ESI and
its predictive validity across cultures in an effort to better evaluate its applicability in
parenting, education, work and healthcare worldwide.
Hopefully, this model and the findings it has generated will more routinely make
their way into the home, school and workplace. Parents and educators can benefit from
this by raising and educating children to be more emotionally and socially intelligent,
effective and productive from an early age onward. Human resources personnel in
organizations could also make more widespread use of this model and measure in hiring,
training and succession planning in order to increase individual effectiveness and
organizational productivity. Furthermore, healthcare practitioners could benefit from
focusing on the above-mentioned ESI components of the Bar-On model in diagnostic,
remedial and preventive work. Such an approach could be used in mapping out those ESI
areas that need to be enhanced in order to increase individual effectiveness, self-
actualization and general well-being.
One particular ESI model, no matter how valid, robust and viable it might be,
describes only a limited view of the individual’s capacity for emotionally and socially
intelligent behavior. In order to provide a more complete and comprehensive description
of the capacity for this type of behavior, we should consider creating an expanded model
that incorporates the best conceptual and psychometric aspects of existing ESI models.
As such, a future challenge in this field is to explore how best to create a multi-
dimensional model that captures both the potential (or ability) for emotionally and
socially intelligent behavior as well as a self-report and multi-rater assessment of this
type of behavior. Our ability to more fully describe ESI will be incomplete until we
Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence R. Bar-On – The Bar-On Model of Emotional-Social
in Organizations – Issues in Emotional Intelligence
www.eiconsortium.org
21
succeed in creating such a multi-dimensional and multi-modal approach. By applying an
expanded model of ESI, we will eventually be more effective in mapping out this
construct, evaluating its importance and understanding how best to apply it. Encouraging
such an approach is also the best way to discourage the proliferation of ungrounded
theorizing that abets misconceptions and false claims of what emotional-social
intelligence is and is not and what it can and cannot predict.
APPENDIX
The EQ-i Scales and What They Assess
EQ-i SCALES The EI Competencies and Skills Assessed by Each Scale
Intrapersonal Self-awareness and self-expression:
Self-Regard To accurately perceive, understand and accept oneself.
Emotional Self-Awareness To be aware of and understand one’s emotions.
Assertiveness To effectively and constructively express one’s emotions and oneself.
Independence To be self-reliant and free of emotional dependency on others.
Self-Actualization To strive to achieve personal goals and actualize one’s potential.
Interpersonal Social awareness and interpersonal relationship:
Empathy To be aware of and understand how others feel.
Social Responsibility To identify with one’s social group and cooperate with others.
Interpersonal Relationship To establish mutually satisfying relationships and relate well with others.
Stress Management Emotional management and regulation:
Stress Tolerance To effectively and constructively manage emotions.
Impulse Control To effectively and constructively control emotions.
Adaptability Change management:
Reality-Testing To objectively validate one’s feelings and thinking with external reality.
Flexibility To adapt and adjust one’s feelings and thinking to new situations.
Problem-Solving To effectively solve problems of a personal and interpersonal nature.
General Mood Self-motivation:
Optimism To be positive and look at the brighter side of life.
Happiness To feel content with oneself, others and life in general.
Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence R. Bar-On – The Bar-On Model of Emotional-Social
in Organizations – Issues in Emotional Intelligence
www.eiconsortium.org
22
References
American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental
Disorders, 4
th
ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Anastasi, A. (1988). Psychological testing (6
th
ed.). New York: Macmillan Publishing.
Appelbaum, S. A. (1973). Psychological mindedness: Word, concept, and essence.
International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 54, 35-46.
Bar-On, R. (1988). The development of a concept of psychological well-being.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Rhodes University, South Africa.
Bar-On, R. (1997a). The Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i): A test of emotional
intelligence. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems, Inc.
Bar-On, R. (1997b). The Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i): Technical manual.
Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems, Inc.
Bar-On, R. (2000). Emotional and social intelligence: Insights from the Emotional
Quotient Inventory (EQ-i). In R. Bar-On and J. D. A. Parker (Eds.), Handbook of
emotional intelligence. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Bar-On, R. (2001). Emotional intelligence and self-actualization. In Joseph Ciarrochi, Joe
Forgas, and John D. Mayer (Eds.), Emotional intelligence in everyday life: A scientific
inquiry. New York: Psychology Press.
Bar-On, R. (2003). How important is it to educate people to be emotionally and socially
intelligent, and can it be done? Perspectives in Education, 21 (4), 3-13.
Bar-On, R. (2004). The Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i): Rationale,
description, and summary of psychometric properties. In Glenn Geher (Ed.), Measuring
emotional intelligence: Common ground and controversy. Hauppauge, NY: Nova
Science Publishers, pp. 111-142.
Bar-On, R. (2005). Emotional intelligence and subjective wellbeing. Manuscript
submitted for publication.
Bar-On, R., & Fund, S. (2004). The impact of emotional and social intelligence on self-
perceived physical health. Unpublished manuscript.
Bar-On, R., & Handley, R. (2003a). The Bar-On EQ-360. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health
Systems.
Bar-On, R., & Handley, R. (2003b). The Bar-On EQ-360: Technical manual. Toronto,
Canada: Multi-Health Systems.
Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence R. Bar-On – The Bar-On Model of Emotional-Social
in Organizations – Issues in Emotional Intelligence
www.eiconsortium.org
23
Bar-On, R., Handley, R., & Fund, S. (2005). The impact of emotional and social
intelligence on performance. In Vanessa Druskat, Fabio Sala, and Gerald Mount (Eds.),
Linking emotional intelligence and performance at work: Current research evidence.
Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Bar-On, R., & Parker, J. D. A. (2000). The Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth
Version (EQ-i:YV) Technical Manual. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems, Inc.
Bar-On, R., Tranel, D., Denburg, N. L., & Bechara, A. (2003). Exploring the neurological
substrate of emotional and social intelligence. Brain, 126, 1790-1800.
Bechara, A., & Bar-On, R. (in press). The neurological substrates of emotional and social
intelligence: Evidence from patients with focal brain lesions. In J.T. Cacioppo and G.G.
Bernston (Eds.), Essays in social neuroscience. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Bechara, A., Tranel, D., & Damasio, R. (2000). Poor judgment in spite of high intellect:
Neurological evidence for emotional intelligence. In R. Bar-On and J. D. A. Parker
(Eds.), Handbook of emotional intelligence. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Bem, D. J., & Allen, A. (1974). On predicting some of the people some of the time: The
search for cross-situational consistencies in behavior. Psychological Review, 81 (6), 506-
520.
Boyatzis, R. E., Goleman, D., & HayGroup (2001). The Emotional Competence
Inventory (ECI). Boston: HayGroup.
Boyatzis, R. E., & Sala, F. (2004). The Emotional Competency Inventory (ECI). In Glenn
Geher (Ed.), Measuring emotional intelligence: Common ground and controversy.
Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.
Brackett, M. A., & Mayer, J. D. (2003). Convergent, discriminant, and incremental
validity of competing measures of emotional intelligence. Personality and Social
Psychology Bulletin, 29 (9), 1147-1158.
Brackett, M. A., & Salovey, P. (2004). Measuring emotional intelligence with the Mayer-
Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). In Glenn Geher (Ed.),
Measuring emotional intelligence: Common ground and controversy. Hauppauge, NY:
Nova Science Publishers.
Brackett, M. A., Warner, R. M., & Bosco, J. (2003). Emotional intelligence and
relationship satisfaction among dating couples. Submitted for publication.
Campbell, D. T., & Fiske, D. W. (1959). Convergent and discriminant validation by the
multitrait-multimethod matrix. Psychological Bulletin, 56, 81-105.
Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence R. Bar-On – The Bar-On Model of Emotional-Social
in Organizations – Issues in Emotional Intelligence
www.eiconsortium.org
24
Cattell, R. B., Eber, H. W., & Tatsuoka, M. M. (1970). Handbook for the Sixteen
Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF). Champaign, Illinois: Institute for Personality
and Ability Testing.
Chapin, F. S. (1942). Preliminary standardization of a social impact scale. American
Sociological Review, 7, 214-225.
Damasio, A. R. (1994). Descartes’ error: Emotion, reason, and the human brain. New
York: Grosset/Putnam.
Darwin, C. (1872/1965). The expression of the emotions in man and animals. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press.
Davies, M., Stankov, L., & Roberts, R. D. (1998). Emotional intelligence: In search of an
elusive construct. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 989-1015.
Doll, E. A. (1935). A generic scale of social maturity. American Journal of
Orthopsychiatry, 5, 180-188.
Duncan, J. (2001). An adaptive coding model of neural function in the prefrontal cortex.
Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2, 820-829.
Dunkley, J. (1996). The psychological well-being of coronary heart disease patients
before and after an intervention program. Unpublished master’s thesis. University of
Pretoria, South Africa.
Freedman, J. (2003). Key lessons from 35 years of social-emotional education: How Self-
Science builds self-awareness, positive relationships, and healthy decision-making.
Perspectives in Education, 21 (4), 69-80.
Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind. New York: Basic Books.
Geher, G. (Ed.) (2004). Measuring emotional intelligence: Common ground and
controversy. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.
Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.
Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.
Handley. R. (1997, April). AFRS rates emotional intelligence. Air Force Recruiter News.
Kaplan, H. I., & Sadock, B. J. (1991). Synopsis of Psychiatry (6
th
Ed.). Baltimore, MD:
Williams & Wilkins.
Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence R. Bar-On – The Bar-On Model of Emotional-Social
in Organizations – Issues in Emotional Intelligence
www.eiconsortium.org
25
Krivoy, E., Weyl Ben-Arush, M., Bar-On, R. (2000). Comparing the emotional
intelligence of adolescent cancer survivors with a matched sample from the normative
population. Medical & Pediatric Oncology, 35 (3), 382.
Lane, R. D. (2000). Levels of emotional awareness: Neurological, psychological and
social perspectives. In R. Bar-On and J. D. A. Parker (Eds.), Handbook of emotional
intelligence. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Lane, R. D., & McRae, K. (2004). Neural substrates of conscious emotional experience:
A cognitive-neuroscientific perspective. In B. M. Amsterdam and J. Benjamins (Eds.),
Consciousness, emotional self-regulation and the brain, pp. 87-122.
Lane, R. D., & Schwartz, G. E. (1987). Levels of emotional awareness: A cognitive-
developmental theory and its application to psychopathology. American Journal of
Psychiatry, 144, 133-143.
LeDoux, J. (1996). The emotional brain: The mysterious underpinnings of emotional life.
New York: Simon and Schuster.
MacLean, P. D. (1949). Psychosomatic disease and the visceral brain: Recent
developments bearing on the Papez theory of emotion. Psychosomatic Medicine, II, 338-
353.
Matthews, G., Roberts, R. D., Zeidner, M. (2003). Development of emotional
intelligence: A skeptical – but not dismissive – perspective. Human Development, 46,
109-114.
Matthews, G., Zeidner, M., & Roberts, R. D. (2002). Emotional intelligence: Science and
myth. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence: In P. Salovey, & D.
Sluyter (Eds.). Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Implications for
educators (pp. 3-31). New York: Basic Books.
Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. (2000). Models of emotional intelligence. In R.J.
Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of intelligence. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2002). Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional
Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems, Inc.
Moss, F. A., & Hunt, T. (1927). Are you socially intelligent? Scientific American, 137,
108-110.
Moss, F. A., Hunt, T., Omwake, K. T., & Ronning, M. M. (1927). Social intelligence test.
Washington, DC: Center for Psychological Servie.
Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence R. Bar-On – The Bar-On Model of Emotional-Social
in Organizations – Issues in Emotional Intelligence
www.eiconsortium.org
26
Newsome, S., Day, A. L., & Cantano, V. M. (2000). Assessing the predictive validity of
emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 29, 1005-1016.
Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory (2
nd
ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Orme, G. (2003). Emotional intelligence: The cutting edge of interventions in corporate
and educational settings. Paper presented on the 29
th
of May 2003 at the Nexus EQ
Conference, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
Parker, J. D. A., Creque, R. E., Barnhart, D. L., Harris, J. I., Majeski, S. A., Wood, L. M.,
Bond, B. J., & Hogan, M. J. (2004). Academic achievement in high school: Does
emotional intelligence matter? Personality and Individual Differences, 37, 1321-1330.
Petrides, K. V., & Furnham, A. (2000). On the dimensional structure of emotional
intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 29, 313-320.
Plake, B. S., & Impara, J. C. (Eds.). (1999). Supplement to the thirteenth mental
measurement yearbook. Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute for Mental Measurement.
Ruderman, M., & Bar-On, R. (2003). The impact of emotional intelligence on leadership.
Unpublished manuscript.
Ruesch, J. (1948). The infantile personality. Psychosomatic Medicine, 10, 134-144.
Saarni, C. (1990). Emotional competence: How emotions and relationships become
integrated. In R. A. Thompson (Ed.), Socioemotional development. Nebraska symposium
on motivation (vol. 36, pp. 115-182). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition, and
Personality, 9, 185-211.
Salovey, P., Mayer, J. D., Goldman, S. L., Turvey, C., & Palfai, T. P. (1995). Emotional
attention, clarity, and repair: Exploring emotional intelligence using the Trait Meta-Mood
Scale. In J. W. Pennebaker (Ed.). Emotion, disclosure, & health (pp. 125-154).
Washington DC: American Psychological Association.
Shadbolt, B., Barresi, J., & Craft, P. (2002). Self-rated health as a predictor of survival
among patients with advanced cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 20 (10), 2514-2519.
Shostrom, E. L. (1974). Personal Orientation Inventory: An Inventory for the
Measurement of Self-Actualization. San Diego, CA: Educational Industrial Testing
Service.
Sifneos, P. E. (1967). Clinical observations on some patients suffering from a variety of
psychosomatic diseases. Acta Medicina Psychosomatica, 21, 133-136.
Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence R. Bar-On – The Bar-On Model of Emotional-Social
in Organizations – Issues in Emotional Intelligence
www.eiconsortium.org
27
Sjölund, M., & Gustafsson, H. (2001). Outcome study of a leadership development
assessment and training program based on emotional intelligence. An internal report
prepared for the Skanska Management Institute in Stockholm, Sweden.
Spielberger, C. (Ed.) (2004). Encyclopedia of Applied Psychology. Academic Press.
Stone-McCown, K., Jensen, A. L., Freedman, J. M., & Rideout, M. C. (1998). Self
science: The emotional intelligence curriculum. San Mateo, CA: Six Seconds.
Suzuki, L. A., & Valencia, R. R. (1997). Race-ethnicity and measured intelligence.
American Psychologist, 52 (10), 1103-114.
Swart, A. (1996). The relationship between well-being and academic performance.
Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Pretoria, South Aftrica.
Thorndike, E. L. (1920). Intelligence and its uses. Harper’s Magazine, 140, 227-235.
Unites States General Accounting Office (1998). Military recruiting: The Department of
Defense could improve its recruiter selection and incentive systems. A United States
Congressional Report submitted to the Committee on Armed Services in the United
States Senate on the 30
th
of January, 1998 (GAO/NSIAD - 98 - 58).
Van Rooy, D. L., Pluta, P., & Viswesvaran, C. (2004). An evaluation of construct
validity: What is this thing called emotional intelligence. Manuscript submitted for
publication.
Van Rooy, D. L., & Viswesvaran, C. (2004). Emotional intelligence: A meta-analytic
investigation of predictive validity and nomological net. Journal of Vocational Behavior,
65, 71-95.
Wagner R. K. (1997). Intelligence, training, and employment. American Psychologist, 52
(10):1059-69.
Wechsler, D. (1940). Nonintellective factors in general intelligence. Psychological
Bulletin, 37, 444-445.
Wechsler, D. (1943). Nonintellective factors in general intelligence. Journal of Abnormal
Social Psychology, 38, 100-104.
Wechsler, D. (1958). The measurement and appraisal of adult intelligence (4th ed.).
Baltimore, MD: The Williams & Wilkins Company.
Zeidner, M., Matthews, G., & Roberts, R. D. (2001). Slow down, you move too fast:
Emotional intelligence remains an “elusive” intelligence. Emotion, Vol. 1 (No. 3), 265-
275.
Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence R. Bar-On – The Bar-On Model of Emotional-Social
in Organizations – Issues in Emotional Intelligence
www.eiconsortium.org
28
Zirkel, S. (2000). Social intelligence: The development and maintenance of purposive
behavior. In R. Bar-On and J. D. A. Parker (Eds.), Handbook of emotional intelligence.
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Book
    Full-text available
    Jelenlegi kutatásunk fókuszában az a kérdés áll, hogy általános iskola felső-tagozatos és középiskolai tanulók populációját vizsgálva, az iskolai gyakorlatban előforduló erőszakos magatartás- és viselkedésminták különböző típusainak (áldozat, csatlakozó beavatkozó, segítő beavatkozó, szemlélő és támadó) a hátterében milyen tényezők tételezhetőek fel. Kutatásunk során szeretnénk feltérképezni azoknak a háttértényezőket, amelyek segítenek megérteni az agresszorrá, áldozattá és szemlélővé válás folyamatát, valamint lehetővé teszik a hatékony a mentálhigiénés segítés lehetőségeinek a kidolgozását. Ebben a könyvben azoknak a kutatásoknak az eredményeit mutatjuk be, amelyeknek az volt a célja, hogy az iskolai erőszak során előforduló magatartásmintáknak a pozitív pszichológiai megközelítés szempontjából jelentősnek ítélt egyes személyiségváltozókkal való kapcsolatát vizsgáljuk meg.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Emotional intelligence is intrinsically associated with the ability to understand, manage, and express feelings and deal with other people’s emotions. This competence is essential for the formation, development, and maintenance of personal and professional relationships. Furthermore, emotional intelligence can be extensively worked out and developed over time, which allows each individual to become a better professional. Nevertheless, the perception that higher education students have about the importance of emotional intelligence remains residual and there are few contexts that allow them to develop emotional intelligence skills. In this sense, this study proposes the use of a serious game to assess and develop emotional intelligence skills in the context of an entrepreneurship discipline attended by multidisciplinary students from the courses of management and computer engineering. The performance of students is measured and discussed considering a mixed methods approach. The findings indicate the existence of a correlation between the player’s emotional intelligence skills and his performance in the game, and this occurrence is common to students regardless of their course, gender, age, and number of years of professional experience. The study also explores the importance of emotional intelligence considering the distinct profile of students.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Included among the basic objectives of Physical Education (PE) classes is the consolidation of habits of a healthy lifestyle among adolescents. However, the main studies in this field have focused on cognitive aspects related to students during these classes, yet they ignore the role that emotions can play in the adoption of future habits. Objectives: To analyze how emotions (emotional intelligence and emotional state) can influence the resilience and motivation of adolescents, as well as academic performance and adoption of healthy lifestyle habits. Methodology: 615 secondary school students between the ages of 14 and 19 participated (M = 16.02; SD = 1.57) in the study. A structural equations model was developed using the main variables and by applying some of the principles of Self-Determination Theory. The results show that emotional intelligence is positively related to positive emotions and negatively related to negative emotions. Positive emotions positively predict both self-motivation towards physical education classes and resilience. Resilience positively predicts self-motivation. Finally, self-motivation acts as a predictor of both academic performance and regular participation in physical activity. Conclusions: This study successfully shows the importance of focusing on emotions in PE classes inasmuch as emotion increases the tendency to get good grades and maintain active lifestyle habits. In this sense, focusing on the emotions of students in PE could prove quite beneficial.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    This article arose from the desire to connect the concept of emotional intelligence with the business environment to identify the level of knowledge in the field and the effects it produces in this area. Because the concept is very complex, which includes many components focused on several approaches, such as: awareness of emotions, awareness of other people’s emotions, understanding emotions and the ability to manage both their own emotions and others, the article focuses on just two components. Thus, the research is aimed at identifying among managers the importance that they attach to the awareness of emotions, as well as how they manage their emotions. Success in professional life depends not only on technical, economic knowledge, but to a great extent on the management of tense situations, and how it reacts in these cases.
  • Article
    Objective The most common reason for foster care placement is child maltreatment. Sadly, once in the foster care system over 17% of children in the United States continue to experience multiple forms of maltreatment. After they “age out”, these alumni are particularly vulnerable to a host of adverse situations, such as low educational success and homelessness. The primary aim of this study was to explore individual characteristics that could predict the quality of life and level of distress of foster care alumni. Specifically, we were interested in the predictive ability of emotional intelligence (EI) and general intelligence (IQ) on quality of life and distress. Method Two multiple regression models were evaluated for the primary analyses. Both models included general intelligence and emotional intelligence as predictors, with one model containing quality of life and the other model level of distress as the criterion variables. Results The analyses demonstrated that general intelligence was not a significant predictor of quality of life or level of distress when controlling for emotional intelligence. In contrast, emotional intelligence was a significant predictor of improved quality of life and decreased level of distress when controlling for general intelligence. Conclusions Emotional intelligence appears to be a characteristic that is amenable to change and a predictor of positive outcome among foster care alumni. Moreover, emotional intelligence may bolster resiliency against the higher levels of instability and stress experienced by foster care children.
  • Article
    Research on the emotional intelligence of United Methodist clergy in the Kentucky Annual Conference is being conducted utilizing the Emotional Quotient 2.0 (EQ-i 2.0) assessment. Over 20% of active clergy have been assessed thus far and several trends are becoming evident. Specifically, of interest are those clergy persons who have engaged in graduate-level theological education and those who have not. This research seeks to add to the scholarly dialogue on understanding the impact of theological education in the formation of clergy leadership.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Conventionally, some typical emotional states are attached with gender i.e. females are considered to be emotionally more expressive whereas males to be emotionally cool and stable. The present study seeks if this difference exists even when they are at their workplace. Therefore, this study is aimed to explore the university teachers' emotional intelligence level with regard to their gender. BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory Short Version (EQ-i:S) (Bar-On, 2002)was administered to conveniently selected university teachers (female= 399, male= 480)in Punjab, Pakistan to assess their emotional quotient (EQ). It comprises five sub-scales: interpersonal, intrapersonal, stress management, adaptability, and general mood. Findings of the study revealed that female teachers' mean score (M= 39.47, SD= 6.75) was significantly higher than that of male (M= 38.36, SD=6.38) only on interpersonal skills t (879) = 2.518, p= .012, with small effect size (Cohen's d = 0.017). Both gender groups were similar as far as remaining sub-factors and overall Emotional Intelligence (EI) are concerned. The results clearly indicate that both male as well as female teachers are equal on EQi scores and may handle all the difficulties in a similar way.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Knowing the determinants of couple adjustment is a challenge, both for predicting this adjustment and for helping couples in therapy in the best possible way. We based this study on the Person’s Social Value Theory (Beauvois, J.-L. [1976]. The topic of social conduct evaluation. Connexions , 19 , 7-30) which postulates that two dimensions – social utility and social desirability – support self- and other- descriptions. This study aimed to evaluate the way the evaluation of own social value within couple and the evaluation of social value within couple of the partner influence the dyadic adjustment of the spouses. In addition, we took into account the duration of the couples and the emotional competences of the spouses (using the PEC). Participants were the spouses of 152 voluntary heterosexual couples who completed a booklet of questionnaires. The results showed that the two dimensions of person’s social value within couple influence partners' dyadic adjustment but in a different way for men and women and according to the duration of the couples’ relationship. Furthermore, the effect of social value within couple seems to cover partially the classic effect of emotional competences on couple experience and satisfaction. The discussion underlines the relevance and interest of using the social value within the couple in the study of conjugal relationships as well as in counselling couples.
Literature Review