Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence R. Bar-On – The Bar-On Model of Emotional-Social
in Organizations – Issues in Emotional Intelligence
on employing the EQ-i, MEIS
and other measures of this construct (Goleman, 1998).
These findings are interesting when one considers that cognitive intelligence increases up
until late adolescents and then begins to mildly decline in the second and third decades of
life as was originally reported by Wechsler (1958). The results suggest that as one gets
older, one becomes more emotionally and socially intelligent.
With respect to gender, no differences have been revealed between males and
females regarding overall ESI. However, statistically significant gender differences do
exist for a few of the factors measured by the EQ-i, but the effects are small for the most
part. Based on the North American normative sample (Bar-On, 1997b), females appear to
have stronger interpersonal skills than males, but the latter have a higher intrapersonal
capacity, are better at managing emotions and are more adaptable than the former. More
specifically, the Bar-On model reveals that women are more aware of emotions,
demonstrate more empathy, relate better interpersonally and are more socially
responsible than men. On the other hand, men appear to have better self-regard, are more
self-reliant, cope better with stress, are more flexible, solve problems better, and are more
optimistic than women. Similar gender patterns have been observed in almost every other
population sample that has been examined with the EQ-i. Men's deficiencies in
interpersonal skills, when compared with women, could explain why psychopathy is
diagnosed much more frequently in men than in women; and significantly lower stress
tolerance amongst women may explain why women suffer more from anxiety-related
disturbances than men (American Psychiatric Association, 1994).
An examination of the North American normative sample, upon which the EQ-i
was normed, did not reveal significant differences in ESI between the various ethnic
groups that were compared (Bar-On, 1997b, 2000, 2004; Bar-On & Parker, 2000). This is
an interesting finding when compared with some of the controversial conclusions that
have been presented over the years suggesting significant differences in cognitive
intelligence between various ethnic groups (e.g., Suzuki & Valencia, 1997).
To summarize the above findings, the Bar-On model reveals that older people are
more emotionally and socially intelligent than younger people, females are more aware of
emotions than males while the latter are more adept at managing emotions than the
former, and that there are no significant differences in emotional-social intelligence
between the various ethnic groups that have been examined in North America.
The factorial structure of the Bar-On model. Factor analysis was applied to study the 15-
factor structure of the EQ-i to empirically evaluate the extent to which it is theoretically
valid. Moreover, this statistical procedure was used to examine the factorial structure of
the Bar-On model (i.e., to examine the extent to which the factorial components of this
model structurally exist). This analysis was first performed on the normative sample,
progressing from exploratory to confirmatory factor analysis (Bar-On, 1997b).
of light on how this construct develops, what affects it and what is affected by it from birth to early
adulthood. The individuals and their parents have been providing a wide array of biomedical,
developmental, personality, cognitive, educational, social and behavioral information. Additionally, the
subjects have been tested with the youth version of the EQ-i every two years, and they will continue to be
tested with the adult version of the EQ-i from 18 years of age onward.
The MEIS (Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Test) is an earlier version of the MSCEIT (Mayer-
Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), which was designed to measure the authors’ 4-branch theory
of emotional intelligence.