Occupational asthma due to spores of Pleurotus ostreatus
Servicio de Alergología, Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Avda Reyes Catolicos, 2 28040 Madrid, Spain.Allergy (Impact Factor: 6.03). 03/2007; 62(2):211-2. DOI: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2006.01286.x
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ABSTRACT: The usual way of locating logical errors is to use a break-and-inspect-style debugging tool. The programmer uses the debugger to search for a small part of the program's execution that does not proceed as expected. Existing debuggers enable the programmer to make this search, but do not assist in the search. Techniques are presented for assisting the programmer in the error diagnosis process. A debugging tool incorporating these techniques assists the programmer in directing the course of the diagnosis, in determining which variables need to be examined at any breakpoint, in deciding whether the variables examined have the correct values, and in detecting the use of pointers to storage locations which have been previously released
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ABSTRACT: The present document is a consensus statement reached by a panel of experts on noninvasive methods for assessment of airway inflammation in the investigation of occupational respiratory diseases, such as occupational rhinitis, occupational asthma, and nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis. Both the upper and the lower airway inflammation have been reviewed and appraised reinforcing the concept of 'united airway disease' in the occupational settings. The most widely used noninvasive methods to assess bronchial inflammation are covered: induced sputum, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) concentration, and exhaled breath condensate. Nasal inflammation may be assessed by noninvasive approaches such as nasal cytology and nasal lavage, which provide information on different aspects of inflammatory processes (cellular vs mediators). Key messages and suggestions on the use of noninvasive methods for assessment of airway inflammation in the investigation and diagnosis of occupational airway diseases are issued.
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ABSTRACT: Occupational exposure to oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) has been associated with obstructive lung disease. Previously, we studied an extract of oyster mushroom (OME) and determined that it causes dose-dependent contractions of nonsensitized guinea pig trachea (GPT). We extend these studies to the investigation of sensitized tissue. In the present study 24 animals were sensitized using ovalbumin (OA) and subsequently challenged with an aerosol of 2.5% OA. A control group of 12 nonsensitized GPs was also studied. Tracheas were removed and were divided into rings in which the epithelium was retained (EP+) or removed (EP-). Dose-related contractions of sensitized and nonsensitized GPTs were elicited with OME. In nonsensitized animals the EP+ GPTs demonstrated a significantly greater response to OME (100-1000 μl) than did the EP- GPTs (p < 0.01). By contrast, in sensitized GPTs with and without epithelium there was no difference to challenge with OME. Finally, sensitized GPTs with and without epithelium and nonsensitized GPTs with epithelium responded similarly to challenge with OME. These findings suggest that in nonsensitized animals there is an enhancement of contractile response to OME which is in part mediated by the GPT epithelium. In sensitized animals with or without epithelium, the level of bronchoconstrictor response is similar to that of the nonsensitized animals with epithelium, suggesting an enhanced constrictor response independent of epithelium in the sensitized animals.