Li Z, Dong T, Proschel C, Noble M.. Chemically diverse toxicants converge on Fyn and c-Cbl to disrupt precursor cell function. PLoS Biol 5: e35
Identification of common mechanistic principles that shed light on the action of the many chemically diverse toxicants to which we are exposed is of central importance in understanding how toxicants disrupt normal cellular function and in developing more effective means of protecting against such effects. Of particular importance is identifying mechanisms operative at environmentally relevant toxicant exposure levels. Chemically diverse toxicants exhibit striking convergence, at environmentally relevant exposure levels, on pathway-specific disruption of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling required for cell division in central nervous system (CNS) progenitor cells. Relatively small toxicant-induced increases in oxidative status are associated with Fyn kinase activation, leading to secondary activation of the c-Cbl ubiquitin ligase. Fyn/c-Cbl pathway activation by these pro-oxidative changes causes specific reductions, in vitro and in vivo, in levels of the c-Cbl target platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha and other c-Cbl targets, but not of the TrkC RTK (which is not a c-Cbl target). Sequential Fyn and c-Cbl activation, with consequent pathway-specific suppression of RTK signaling, is induced by levels of methylmercury and lead that affect large segments of the population, as well as by paraquat, an organic herbicide. Our results identify a novel regulatory pathway of oxidant-mediated Fyn/c-Cbl activation as a shared mechanism of action of chemically diverse toxicants at environmentally relevant levels, and as a means by which increased oxidative status may disrupt mitogenic signaling. These results provide one of a small number of general mechanistic principles in toxicology, and the only such principle integrating toxicology, precursor cell biology, redox biology, and signaling pathway analysis in a predictive framework of broad potential relevance to the understanding of pro-oxidant-mediated disruption of normal development.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a Fusarium toxin that causes a variety of toxic effects with symptoms such as diarrhoea and low weight gain. To date, no review has addressed the toxicity of DON in relation to oxidative stress. The focus of this article is primarily intended to summarize the information associated with oxidative stress as a plausible mechanism for DON-induced toxicity. The present review shows that over the past two decades, several investigators have documented the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in oxidative stress as a result of DON treatment and have correlated them with various types of toxicity. The evidence for induction of an oxidative stress response resulting from DON exposure has been more focused on in vitro models and is relatively lacking in in vivo studies. Hence, more emphasis should be laid on in vivo investigations with doses that are commonly encountered in food products. Since DON is commonly found in food and feed, the cellular effects of this toxin in relation to oxidative stress, as well as effective measures to combat its toxicity, are important aspects to be considered for future studies.
- "Exposure to environmental toxicants has been implicated in a wide variety of disorders. Toxicants, such as heavy metals, pesticides and chemicals, can damage cells by converging on similar biochemical pathways to produce adverse effects, via oxidative stress, depleting glutathione and impairing cellular signaling (Li et al., 2007). During a systemic inflammatory response, it is feasible that ROS act as signaling molecules leading to modulation of crucial events including phagocytosis, gene expression, and apoptosis, resulting in dysregulation of the immune system (Fialkow et al., 2007). "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence points to altered GABAergic parvalbumin-expressing interneurons and impaired myelin/axonal integrity in schizophrenia. Both findings could be due to abnormal neurodevelopmental trajectories, affecting local neuronal networks and long-range synchrony and leading to cognitive deficits. In this review, we present data from animal models demonstrating that redox dysregulation, neuroinflammation and/or NMDAR hypofunction (as observed in patients) impairs the normal development of both parvalbumin interneurons and oligodendrocytes. These observations suggest that a dysregulation of the redox, neuroimmune, and glutamatergic systems due to genetic and early-life environmental risk factors could contribute to the anomalies of parvalbumin interneurons and white matter in schizophrenia, ultimately impacting cognition, social competence, and affective behavior via abnormal function of micro- and macrocircuits. Moreover, we propose that the redox, neuroimmune, and glutamatergic systems form a "central hub" where an imbalance within any of these "hub" systems leads to similar anomalies of parvalbumin interneurons and oligodendrocytes due to the tight and reciprocal interactions that exist among these systems. A combination of vulnerabilities for a dysregulation within more than one of these systems may be particularly deleterious. For these reasons, molecules, such as N-acetylcysteine, that possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and can also regulate glutamatergic transmission are promising tools for prevention in ultra-high risk patients or for early intervention therapy during the first stages of the disease.
- "In vitro studies show that oligodendrocytes are susceptible to oxidative stress due to their high metabolic activity and iron content combined with low antioxidant levels (Back et al., 1998; Baud et al., 2004; Fragoso et al., 2004). Furthermore, the intracellular redox state controls the proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocytes (Smith et al., 2000; Li et al., 2007; Do et al., 2012 ), and low GSH levels affect oligodendrocyte maturation (French et al., 2009). Peripubertal Gclm KO mice (which have low brain GSH content) present a deficit in myelinassociated proteins and mature oligodendrocytes in the ACC (Monin et al., 2014). "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In addition to dopaminergic neuron loss, it is clear that Parkinson disease includes other pathological changes, including loss of additional neuronal populations. As a means of addressing multiple pathological changes with a single therapeutically-relevant approach, we employed delayed transplantation of a unique class of astrocytes, GDAs(BMP), that are generated in vitro by directed differentiation of glial precursors. GDAs(BMP) produce multiple agents of interest as treatments for PD and other neurodegenerative disorders, including BDNF, GDNF, neurturin and IGF1. GDAs(BMP) also exhibit increased levels of antioxidant pathway components, including levels of NADPH and glutathione. Delayed GDA(BMP) transplantation into the 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rat striatum restored tyrosine hydroxylase expression and promoted behavioral recovery. GDA(BMP) transplantation also rescued pathological changes not prevented in other studies, such as the rescue of parvalbumin(+) GABAergic interneurons. Consistent with expression of the synaptic modulatory proteins thrombospondin-1 and 2 by GDAs(BMP), increased expression of the synaptic protein synaptophysin was also observed. Thus, GDAs(BMP) offer a multimodal support cell therapy that provides multiple benefits without requiring prior genetic manipulation.
- "P < 0.05 for pairwise comparisons except: GRP versus GDA CNTF for GDNF, BDNF, IGF1 and GRP versus GDA BMP for Neurturin ). Expression of GCLC (Lab Vision, Fremont, CA) and GPx (Abcam , Cambridge, UK) were measured by Western blot analysis (Li et al, 2007). "