Prasad, KM, Xu, Y, Yang, Z, Toufektsian, MC, Berr, SS and French, BA. Topoisomerase inhibition accelerates gene expression after adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer to the mammalian heart. Mol Ther 15: 764-771

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22903, USA.
Molecular Therapy (Impact Factor: 6.23). 05/2007; 15(4):764-71. DOI: 10.1038/
Source: PubMed


Utility of adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) vectors for cardiac gene therapy is limited by the prolonged lag phase before maximal gene expression. Topoisomerase inhibition can induce AAV2-mediated gene expression in vivo, but with variable success in different tissues. In this study, we demonstrate that topoisomerase inhibition can accelerate AAV2-mediated gene expression in the mouse heart. We used an AAV2 vector expressing firefly luciferase and monitored expression kinetics using non-invasive bioluminescence imaging. In the group receiving vector alone, cardiac luciferase activity was evident from week 2 onward and increased progressively to reach a steady plateau by 9 weeks postinjection. In the group receiving vector and camptothecine (CPT), luciferase expression was evident from days 2 to 4 onward and increased rapidly to reach a steady plateau by 3-4 weeks postinjection, nearly three times faster than in the absence of CPT (P<0.05). Southern blot analysis of AAV2 genomes in cardiac tissue showed rapid conversion of the AAV2 genome from its single-stranded to double-stranded form in CPT-treated mice. Non-invasive determinations of luciferase expression correlated well with in vitro luciferase assays. Direct injection of the AAV2 vector and long-term luciferase gene expression had no detectable effects on normal cardiac function as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging.

Download full-text


Available from: Stuart Berr, Aug 12, 2014
  • Source
    • "Luciferase expression was assessed in live mice using an in vivo bioluminescence imaging system (IVIS 100, Caliper Life Sciences, Hopkinton, MA) as described previously [2,13,14]. Briefly, mice were anesthetized with isoflurane and injected with 150 µL of 30 mg/mL D-luciferin (Gold Biotechnologies, Inc., St. Louis, MO) intraperitoneally. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: AAV9 is a powerful gene delivery vehicle capable of providing long-term gene expression in a variety of cell types, particularly cardiomyocytes. The use of AAV-delivery for RNA interference is an intense area of research, but a comprehensive analysis of knockdown in cardiac and liver tissues after systemic delivery of AAV9 has yet to be reported. We sought to address this question by using AAV9 to deliver a short-hairpin RNA targeting the enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) in transgenic mice that constitutively overexpress GFP in all tissues. The expression cassette was initially tested in vitro and we demonstrated a 61% reduction in mRNA and a 90% reduction in GFP protein in dual-transfected 293 cells. Next, the expression cassette was packaged as single-stranded genomes in AAV9 capsids to test cardiac GFP knockdown with several doses ranging from 1.8×10(10) to 1.8×10(11) viral genomes per mouse and a dose-dependent response was obtained. We then analyzed GFP expression in both heart and liver after delivery of 4.4×10(11) viral genomes per mouse. We found that while cardiac knockdown was highly efficient, with a 77% reduction in GFP mRNA and a 71% reduction in protein versus control-treated mice, there was no change in liver expression. This was despite a 4.5-fold greater number of viral genomes in the liver than in the heart. This study demonstrates that single-stranded AAV9 vectors expressing shRNA can be used to achieve highly efficient cardiac-selective knockdown of GFP expression that is sustained for at least 7 weeks after the systemic injection of 8 day old mice, with no change in liver expression and no evidence of liver damage despite high viral genome presence in the liver.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2013 · PLoS ONE
  • Source
    • "Luciferase expression in live mice was non-invasively assessed by in vivo bioluminescence imaging using previously reported methods (Wu et al., 2002; Prasad et al., 2007). Animals were anesthetized and maintained on 1–1.2% isoflurane in oxygen. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is highly malignant disease that is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the US. Gene therapy using AAV vectors to selectively deliver genes to PDAC cells is an attractive treatment option for pancreatic cancer. However, most AAV serotypes display a broad spectrum of tissue tropism and none of the existing serotypes specifically target PDAC cells. This study tests the hypothesis that AAV2 can be genetically re-engineered to specifically target PDAC cells by modifying the capsid surface to display a peptide that has previously been shown to bind plectin-1. Toward this end, a Plectin-1 Targeting Peptide (PTP) was inserted into the loop IV region of the AAV2 capsid, and the resulting capsid (AAV-PTP) was used in a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments. In vitro, AAV-PTP was found to target all five human PDAC cell lines tested (PANC-1, MIA PaCa-2, HPAC, MPanc-96, and BxPC-3) preferentially over two non-neoplastic human pancreatic cell lines (human pancreatic ductal epithelial and human pancreatic stellate cells). In vivo, mice bearing subcutaneous tumor xenografts were generated using the PANC-1 cell line. Once tumors reached a size of ∼1-2 mm in diameter, the mice were injected intravenously with luciferase reporter vectors packaged in the either AAV-PTP or wild type AAV2 capsids. Luciferase expression was then monitored by bioluminescence imaging on days 3, 7, and 14 after vector injection. The results indicate that the AAV-PTP capsid displays a 37-fold preference for PANC-1 tumor xenographs over liver and other tissues; whereas the wild type AAV2 capsid displays a complementary preference for liver over tumors and other tissues. Together, these results establish proof-of-principle for the ability of PTP-modified AAV capsids to selectively target gene delivery to PDAC cells in vivo, which opens promising new avenues for the early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of pancreatic cancer.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Frontiers in Oncology
  • Source
    • "AAV vectors were packaged in AAV-293 cells by the triple transfection method, then purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation and iodixanol gradient centrifugation as described previously33, 34. Titers of the AAV vectors (vector genomes/ml) were determined by real-time PCR as described previously33, 35. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Targeting therapeutic gene expression to the skeletal muscle following intravenous (IV) administration is an attractive strategy for treating peripheral arterial disease (PAD), except that vector access to the ischemic limb could be a limiting factor. As adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV-9) transduces skeletal muscle at high efficiency following systemic delivery, we employed AAV-9 vectors bearing luciferase or enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) reporter genes to test the hypothesis that increased desialylation of cell-surface glycans secondary to hindlimb ischemia (HLI) might help offset the reduction in tissue perfusion that occurs in mouse models of PAD. The utility of the creatine kinase-based (CK6) promoter for restricting gene expression to the skeletal muscle was also examined by comparing it with the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter after systemic administration following surgically induced HLI. Despite reduced blood flow to the ischemic limbs, CK6 promoter-driven luciferase activities in the ischemic gastrocnemius (GA) muscles were ∼34-, ∼28- and ∼150-fold higher than in the fully perfused contralateral GA, heart and liver, respectively, 10 days after IV administration. Furthermore, luciferase activity from the CK6 promoter in the ischemic GA muscles was ∼twofold higher than with CMV, while in the liver CK6-driven activity was ∼42-fold lower than with CMV, demonstrating that the specificity of ischemic skeletal muscle transduction can be further improved with the muscle-specific promoters. Studies with Evans blue dye and fluorescently labeled lectins revealed that vascular permeability and desialylation of the cell-surface glycans were increased in the ischemic hindlimbs. Furthermore, AAV9/CK6/Luc vector genome copy numbers were ∼sixfold higher in the ischemic muscle compared with the non-ischemic muscle in the HLI model, whereas this trend was reversed when the same genome was packaged in the AAV-1 capsid (which binds sialylated, as opposed to desialylated glycans), further underscoring the importance of desialylation in the ischemic enhancement of transduction displayed by AAV-9. Taken together, these findings suggest two complementary mechanisms contributing to the preferential transduction of ischemic muscle by AAV-9: increased vascular permeability and desialylation. In conclusion, ischemic muscle is preferentially targeted following systemic administration of AAV-9 in a mouse model of HLI. Unmasking of the primary AAV-9 receptor as a result of ischemia may contribute importantly to this effect.Gene Therapy advance online publication, 28 March 2013; doi:10.1038/gt.2013.16.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Gene therapy
Show more