there is evidence that children were not affected
equally by the institutional experience. Further
exploration of individual differences is one important
direction for future research. Analyses of longitud-
inal data will allow us to explore risk and protective
factors that may inﬂuence children’s reactions to the
institutional environment as well as their ability to
recover from the effects of institutional care via the
intervention of foster care. Another important direc-
tion for research concerns the timing of remediation
efforts. Though some preliminary efforts have been
made in this direction in studies of children adopted
out of institutions (Chisholm, 1998; Chisholm, Car-
ter, Ames, & Morison, 1995; O’Connor et al., 2000;
Rutter et al., 1998), contributions from these studies
on this question are limited by lack of baseline
measures and non-randomized samples of children.
Follow-up of the current sample may enable us to
examine hypotheses about critical and sensitive
periods within speciﬁc developmental domains. Re-
sults from such analyses may clarify important
questions regarding both the effects of deprivation
and the degree of recovery that is possible.
Additional members of the BEIP Core Group: Susan
W. Parker (Randolph Macon College, USA) and Her-
mi R. Woodward (University of Pittsburgh/MacArt-
hur Research Networks, USA).
The Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP) was
funded by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur
Foundation Research Network on Early Experience
and Brain Development (Charles A. Nelson, Network
Chair). The authors wish to acknowledge the many
invaluable contributions of their Romanian partner
institutions, the SERA Romania Foundation, the
Institute for Maternal and Child Health (IOMC), and
the Department for Social Welfare (DGAS), Sector 1,
Bucharest. They are also deeply grateful to their Ro-
manian team whose hard work and dedication have
made this study possible. Thanks to Donald Guthrie
and Scott Keith for assistance with data analysis.
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