Diagnostic evaluation of the temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis using cone beam computed tomography compared with conventional radiographic technology
Osteoarthritic lesions of Temporomandibular joint(TMJ) were assessed by dental cone beam computed tomography(CBCT), and compared with conventional radiographic technology.
The study was conducted retrospectively on 511 joints of 350 patients, who had undergone dental CBCT, panoramic radiography, transcranial projection and transpharygeal projection of TMJ. The results were compared and the accuracy with CBCT was assessed. The types of osseous condylar abnormalities were observed.
(1) The occurrence of osteoarthritis in male and female were 59.04% and 69.66%, respectively, with no significant difference. (2) Compared with CBCT, panoramic radiography, transpharygeal projection examination showed no significant difference, with the accuracy being 90.64% and 94.10%, respectively; However, transcranial projection indicated a significant difference in comparison with CBCT and the accuracy was 86.97%. (3) A higher occurrence of osteoarthritic lesions of the condyle was sclerosis (39.86%). Bony proliferation or osteophyte (28.18%) and ill-defined cortical bone (18.90%) were followed.
Cone beam CT, which reproduces multiple images including axial, coronal and sagittal planes of the joint, provides a complete radiographic investigation of the bony components of the TMJ. It is one of the best choices of imaging diagnosis of TMJ osteoarthritis. Panoramic radiography and transpharygeal projection examination are also good choices for showing osseous condylar abnormalities in the clinic, but transcranial projection examination is inferior.
Available from: Riccardo Nucera
- "Three-dimensional (3-D) Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) systems  produce images with high resolution (100-300 micron) and minimal distortion, that allows evaluating osteoarthrosis in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). It also allows for correlating the diagnosis to the age of the patient, [2,3] individuation of remodeling areas,  erosions, osteophytes, lines of fracture, bone resorption,  condylar displacement after orthognatic surgery,  or particular clinical evidences, such as the trifid condyle . "
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ABSTRACT: There have been no quantitative standards for volumetric and surface measurements of the mandibular condyle in Caucasian population. However, the recently developed cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) system allows measurement of these parameters with high accuracy.
CBCT was used to measure the condylar volume, surface and the volume to surface ratio, called the Morphometric Index (MI), of 300 temporo-mandibular joints (TMJ) in 150 Caucasian young adult subjects, with varied malocclusions, without pain or dysfunction of TMJs.
The condylar volume was 691.26 ± 54.52 mm3 in males and 669.65 ± 58.80 mm3 in, and was significantly higher (p< 0.001) in the males. The same was observed for the condylar surface, although without statistical significance (406.02 ± 55.22 mm2 in males and 394.77 ± 60.73 mm2 in females).Furthermore, the condylar volume (693.61 ± 62.82 mm3 ) in the right TMJ was significantly higher than in the left (666.99 ± 48.67 mm3, p < 0.001) as was the condylar surface (411.24 ± 57.99 mm2 in the right TMJ and 389.41 ± 56.63 mm2 in the left TMJ; t = 3.29; p < 0.01). The MI is 1.72 ± 0.17 for the whole sample, with no significant difference between males and females or the right and left sides.
These data from temporomandibular joints of patients without pain or clinical dysfunction might serve as examples of normal TMJ's in the general population not seeking orthodontic care.
Available from: Sunil Kapila
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ABSTRACT: Because their etiologies and pathogenesis are poorly understood, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) diseases are difficult to diagnose and manage. All current approaches to treatments of TMJ diseases are largely palliative. Definitive and rational diagnoses or treatments can only be achieved through a comprehensive understanding of the etiologies, predisposing factors, and pathogenesis of TMJ diseases. While much work remains to be done in this field, novel findings in biomedicine and developments in imaging and computer technologies are beginning to provide us with a vision of future innovations in the diagnostics and therapeutics of TMJ disorders. These advances include the identification and use of local or systemic biomarkers to diagnose disease or monitor improvements in therapy; the use of imaging technologies for earlier and more sensitive diagnostics; and the use of biomedicine, biomimetics, and imaging to design and manufacture bioengineered joints. Such advances are likely to help to customize and enhance the quality of care we provide to patients with TMJ disorders.
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ABSTRACT: To determine whether there is an association between temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis/osteoarthrosis (OA) and immune system factors in a Japanese sample.
The records of 41 subjects (7 men, aged 22.0 +/- 3.8 years; 34 women, aged 24.8 +/- 6.3 years) and 41 pair-matched controls (7 men, aged 22.1 +/- 2.3 years; 34 women, aged 24.8 +/- 6.4 years) based on age and gender were reviewed. Information on medical history included local or systemic diseases, details on medication type and use, and the presence of allergies and asthma. Dental history questions referred to details regarding past oral injuries. The validity of the hypothesis, defining allergies and asthma as risk factors in OA, was tested by using a logistic regression analysis.
The incidence of allergy was significantly higher in the TMJ OA (P = .008), with a mean odds ratio of 4.125 and a 95% confidence interval of 1.446-11.769.
These results suggest that allergy may be a risk factor in association with TMJ OA in this Japanese sample.
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