The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) system acts as a sensor of cellular energy status that is conserved in all eukaryotic cells. It is activated by increases in the cellular AMP:ATP ratio caused by metabolic stresses that either interfere with ATP production (eg, deprivation for glucose or oxygen) or that accelerate ATP consumption (eg, muscle contraction). Activation in response to increases in AMP involves phosphorylation by an upstream kinase, the tumor suppressor LKB1. In certain cells (eg, neurones, endothelial cells, and lymphocytes), AMPK can also be activated by a Ca(2+)-dependent and AMP-independent process involving phosphorylation by an alternate upstream kinase, CaMKKbeta. Once activated, AMPK switches on catabolic pathways that generate ATP, while switching off ATP-consuming processes such as biosynthesis and cell growth and proliferation. The AMPK complex contains 3 subunits, with the alpha subunit being catalytic, the beta subunit containing a glycogen-sensing domain, and the gamma subunits containing 2 regulatory sites that bind the activating and inhibitory nucleotides AMP and ATP. Although it may have evolved to respond to metabolic stress at the cellular level, hormones and cytokines such as insulin, leptin, and adiponectin can interact with the system, and it now appears to play a key role in maintaining energy balance at the whole body level. The AMPK system may be partly responsible for the health benefits of exercise and is the target for the antidiabetic drug metformin. It is a key player in the development of new treatments for obesity, type 2 diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome.
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"AMPK acts as a sensor of cellular energy status and is activated by increases in the cellular AMP: ATP ratio, caused by metabolic stresses that either interfere with ATP production (e.g., deprivation for glucose or oxygen) or that accelerate ATP consumption (e.g., muscle contraction). Activation in response to increases in AMP levels involves phosphorylation by an upstream kinase, the tumor suppressor LKB1 (Towler and Hardie, 2007), since AMPK activation in response to low energy conditions is blocked in LKB1 null cells (Corradetti et al., 2004). Furthermore, LKB1 mutant cells exhibit hyperactive mTORC1 signaling (Corradetti et al., 2004; Shaw et al., 2004). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) has been described for the first time about four decades ago. Since then, numerous studies have shown that this modification occurs in response to a wide variety of stimuli on five evolutionarily conserved serine residues. However, despite a large body of information on the respective kinases and the signal transduction pathways, the physiological role of rpS6 phosphorylation remained obscure until genetic manipulations were applied in both yeast and mammals in an attempt to block this modification. Thus, studies based on both mice and cultured cells subjected to disruption of the genes encoding rpS6 and the respective kinases, as well as the substitution of the phosphorylatable serine residues in rpS6, have laid the ground for the elucidation of the multiple roles of this protein and its posttranslational modification. This review focuses primarily on newly identified kinases that phosphorylate rpS6, pathways that transduce various signals into rpS6 phosphorylation, and the recently established physiological functions of this modification. It should be noted, however, that despite the significant progress made in the last decade, the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the diverse effects of rpS6 phosphorylation on cellular and organismal physiology are still poorly understood.
"AMPK, as the name suggests is AMP activated protein kinase. Under conditions of stress that either lead to an increase in ATP consumption or a decrease in ATP production, there is an increase in the cellular AMP:ATP ratio (Towler and Hardie, 2007). Binding of AMP to the γ subunit of AMPK results in a conformational change which activate AMPK by: 1) Increasing the phosphorylation of Thr 172 by upstream kinases, 2) Decreasing the dephosphorylation by phosphotases, 3) Allosterically increasing the AMPK activity. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NFAT-133 is an aromatic compound with cinammyl alcohol moiety, isolated from streptomycetes strain PM0324667. We have earlier reported that NFAT-133 increases insulin stimulated glucose uptake in L6 myotubes using a PPARγ independent mechanism and reduces plasma or blood glucose levels in diabetic mice. Here we investigated the effects of NFAT-133 on cellular signaling pathways leading to glucose uptake in L6 myotubes. Our studies demonstrate that NFAT-133 increases glucose uptake in a dose- and time-dependent manner independent of the effects of insulin. Treatment with Akti-1/2, wortmannin and increasing concentrations of insulin had no effect on NFAT-133 mediated glucose uptake. NFAT-133 induced glucose uptake is completely mitigated by Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. Further, the kinases upstream of AMPK activation namely; LKB-1 and CAMKKβ are not involved in NFAT-133 mediated AMPK activation nor does the compound NFAT-133 have any effect on AMPK enzyme activity. Further analysis confirmed that NFAT-133 indirectly activates AMPK by reducing the mitochondrial membrane potential and increasing the ratio of AMP:ATP.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · European journal of pharmacology
"Therefore, there is an urgent need for alternative hepatoprotective agents. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine-threonine kinase heterotrimer that consists of a catalytic α subunit and regulatory β, and γ subunits (Hardie and Sakamoto, 2006; Towler and Hardie, 2007). In mammals, AMPK is activated by metabolic stress such as hypoglycemia, hypoxia, and exercise that increase intracellular AMP, as well as by other allosteric effectors (Hardie and Sakamoto, 2006). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The1hepatic cell death induced by acetaminophen (APAP) is closely related to cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion, which is mainly caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key sensor of low energy status. AMPK regulates metabolic homeostasis by stimulating catabolic metabolism and suppressing anabolic pathways to increase cellular energy levels. We found that the decrease in active phosphorylation of AMPK in response to APAP correlates with decreased ATP levels, in vivo. Therefore, we hypothesized that the enhanced production of ATP via AMPK stimulation can lead to amelioration of APAP-induced liver failure. A769662, an allosteric activator of AMPK, produced a strong synergistic effect on AMPK Thr172 phosphorylation with APAP in primary hepatocytes and liver tissue. Interestingly, activation of AMPK by A769662 ameliorated the APAPinduced hepatotoxicity in C57BL/6N mice treated with APAP at a dose of 400 mg/kg intraperitoneally. However, mice treated with APAP alone developed massive centrilobular necrosis, and APAP increased their serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels. Furthermore, A769662 administration prevented the loss of intracellular ATP without interfering with the APAPmediated reduction of mitochondrial dysfunction. In contrast, inhibition of glycolysis by 2-deoxy-glucose eliminated the beneficial effects of A769662 on APAPmediated liver injury. In conclusion, A769662 can effectively protect mice against APAP-induced liver injury through ATP synthesis by anaerobic glycolysis. Furthermore, stimulation of AMPK may have potential therapeutic application for APAP overdose.