The risk of salmonellae shedding by dogs fed Salmonella-contaminated commercial raw food diets

Foodborne, Waterborne and Zoonotic Infections Division, Public Health Agency of Canada, 160 Research Lane Unit 206, Guelph, Ontario N1G 5B2.
The Canadian veterinary journal. La revue veterinaire canadienne (Impact Factor: 0.52). 02/2007; 48(1):69-75.
Source: PubMed


Twenty-eight research dogs were enrolled to determine the prevalence of salmonellae shedding after consumption of 1 Salmonella-contaminated commercial raw food diet meal. Sixteen dogs were exposed to Salmonella-contaminated commercial raw food diets and 12 to Salmonella-free commercial raw food diets. Seven of the exposed dogs shed salmonellae 1-7 days after consumption of Salmonella-contaminated raw food diets. None of the dogs fed Salmonella-free diets shed salmonellae. No clinical signs were observed in either group. Five of the 7 dogs shed the same serotypes as those recovered from food samples used for feeding. Results showed the same serotypes and antimicrobial resistance pattern in 2 of the 7 shedders. Dogs fed Salmonella-contaminated raw food diets can shed salmonellae and may, therefore, be a source of environmental contamination potentially leading to human or animal illness.

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Available from: Rita Finley
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    • "Our study shows that stray dogs had higher Salmonella positive rate than household dogs. The diversity of diet source, free movement and environment of stray dogs apparently determine the number and occurrence of Salmonella serovars (Finley et al., 2007). All the serovars identified in this study have previously been found in humans, animals and food products (Ammari et al., 2009; Le Bouquin et al., 2010; Thong and Moderrasi, 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: Salmonellosis continues to be a major public health concerned globally. The objective of the study was to determine the occurrence and antimicrobial resistance pattern in Salmonella isolated from non-diarrheic stray and pet dogs in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Methodology and results: A total of 162 dogs were sampled, 15 (9.3%) were positive for Salmonella (stray dogs, n=12; pet dogs, n=3). All the isolates were identified as Salmonella using conventional culture methods and confirmed by PCR-targeting the invA gene. Four different Salmonella serovars were identified upon serotyping including Salmonella Corvallis (53.3%), S. Typhimurium (13.3%), S. Mbandaka (20%), and S. Agona (6.7%). Salmonella isolates were resistant to tetracycline (86.7%), sulphamethazole-trimethoprim (40%), ampicillin (40%), chloramphenicol (33.3%), streptomycin (33.3%), and enrofloxacin (26.7%). None of the isolates was resistant to gentamycin, cephalexin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Eight isolates (53.3%) were multiple drugs resistant. Conclusion, significance and impact study: High number of canine Salmonella isolates developed resistance and this may likely be public health concern.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014
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    • "Behravesh et al. demonstrated that feeding a dog in the household with dry food was a risk factor for Salmonella Schwarzengrund infections [23]. Several studies showed that feeding raw foods to dogs increased their likelihood of Salmonella shedding and consequently the risk of infecting the environment and possibly humans [24-28]. Findings from our study are consistent with the studies above. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Identifying risk factors for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections in Ontario will assist public health authorities to design effective control and prevention programs to reduce the burden of SE infections. Our research objective was to identify risk factors for acquiring SE infections with various phage types (PT) in Ontario, Canada. We hypothesized that certain PTs (e.g., PT8 and PT13a) have specific risk factors for infection. Methods Our study included endemic SE cases with various PTs whose isolates were submitted to the Public Health Laboratory-Toronto from January 20th to August 12th, 2011. Cases were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire that included questions pertaining to demographics, travel history, clinical symptoms, contact with animals, and food exposures. A multinomial logistic regression method using the Generalized Linear Latent and Mixed Model procedure and a case-case study design were used to identify risk factors for acquiring SE infections with various PTs in Ontario, Canada. In the multinomial logistic regression model, the outcome variable had three categories representing human infections caused by SE PT8, PT13a, and all other SE PTs (i.e., non-PT8/non-PT13a) as a referent category to which the other two categories were compared. Results In the multivariable model, SE PT8 was positively associated with contact with dogs (OR=2.17, 95% CI 1.01-4.68) and negatively associated with pepper consumption (OR=0.35, 95% CI 0.13-0.94), after adjusting for age categories and gender, and using exposure periods and health regions as random effects to account for clustering. Conclusions Our study findings offer interesting hypotheses about the role of phage type-specific risk factors. Multinomial logistic regression analysis and the case-case study approach are novel methodologies to evaluate associations among SE infections with different PTs and various risk factors.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · BMC Public Health
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    • "Dogs fed a raw food diet appeared to be over-represented in the study population, and anecdotal evidence from veterinary practitioners suggests that the prevalence of raw feeding is <5%, as it is believed that only 8% of owners feed human food, whether cooked or raw, to their dog (APPMA, 2004). Dogs fed raw food diets have been shown to shed Salmonella (Joffe and Schlesinger, 2002; Finley et al., 2007), and the ingredients used in their diets are commonly contaminated with this bacterium (Chengappa et al., 1993; LeJeune and Hancock, 2001; Weese et al., 2005; Strohmeyer et al., 2006; Finley et al., 2008). Also, unlike other studies, we sampled dogs for five consecutive days, and used whole fecal specimens instead of fecal or rectal swabs. "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine pet-related management factors that may be associated with the presence of Salmonella spp. in feces of pet dogs from volunteer households. From October 2005 until May 2006, 138 dogs from 84 households in Ontario were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Five consecutive daily fecal samples were collected from each dog and enrichment culture for Salmonella spp. was performed. A higher than expected number of the dogs (23.2%; 32/138) had at least one fecal sample positive for Salmonella, and 25% (21/84) of the households had at least one dog shedding Salmonella. Twelve serotypes of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica were identified, with the predominant serotypes being Typhimurium (33.3%; 13/39), Kentucky (15.4%; 6/39), Brandenburg (15.4%; 6/39) and Heidelberg (12.8%; 5/39). Univariable logistic regression models were created with a random effect for household to account for clustering. Statistically significant risk factors for a dog testing positive included having contact with livestock, receiving a probiotic in the previous 30 days, feeding a commercial or homemade raw food diet, feeding raw meat and eggs, feeding a homemade cooked diet, and having more than one dog in the household. In two-variable models that controlled for feeding raw food, the non-dietary variables were no longer statistically significant. These results highlight the potential public health risk of including raw animal products in canine diets.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2010 · Zoonoses and Public Health
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